File system hiearchy


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Explains the file system hierarchy in linux system.

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File system hiearchy

  1. 1. File System Hierachy Srikant Ritolia Linux User Group Date
  2. 2. What is file system ? <ul><li>Method of storing and organizing computer files and their data.
  3. 3. Essentially, it organizes these files into a database for the storage, organization, manipulation, and retrieval by the computer's operating system.
  4. 4. Eg:- fat, ntfs, ext4, ext3....... </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is file system hierachy ? <ul><li>To put it simply, it can be visualized as a tree with its roots and all.
  6. 6. At the top of the hierarchy is invariably the root path which is represented by '/'.
  7. 7. All other directories are created beneath this root path in linux. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Difference between windows and linux file system hiearchy <ul><li>Under Windows, the various partitions are detected at boot and assigned a drive letter. Under Linux, unless you mount a partition or a device, the system does not know of the existence of that partition or device.
  9. 9. Another point likely to confuse newbies is the use of the frontslash '/' instead of the backslash '' as in DOS/Windows. So c:windowssystem would be /c/windows/system. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Flow Chart
  11. 11. /bin <ul><li>Bin stands for binary.
  12. 12. Contains the useful command which are used by everyone in terminal.
  13. 13. Contains shells like bash, csh etc as well as much used commands like cp, mv, rm, cat, ls. </li></ul>/boot <ul><li>Contains the boot loader files.
  14. 14. Grub and linux kernel. </li></ul>
  15. 15. /dev <ul><li>Stands for devices.
  16. 16. Highlights one important characteristic of the Linux filesystem - everything is a file or a directory.
  17. 17. No real subfolder.
  18. 18. When you first boot up ur computer it detects your hardware and place folder and files representing your hardware in the dev directory. </li></ul>
  19. 19. /etc <ul><li>Configuration files get stored.
  20. 20. More importantly, the /etc/rc.d directory contains the system startup scripts.
  21. 21. This is a good directory to backup often. Saves lot of re-configuration later if you re-install or lose your current installation </li></ul>
  22. 22. /home <ul><li>Linux is a multi-user environment so each user is also assigned a specific directory which is accessible only to them and the system administrator.
  23. 23. containing saved files, personal settings, etc. </li></ul>
  24. 24. /lib <ul><li>contains all the shared libraries that are required by system programs. Windows equivalent to a shared library would be a DLL file
  25. 25. Libraries essential for the binaries in /bin/ and /sbin/.
  26. 26. Kernal modules </li></ul>
  27. 27. /media <ul><li>Mount point for removable disk like CDROM, pendrive </li></ul>/mnt <ul><li>Mount point for temporary mounted file system.
  28. 28. Mounting is the process by which you make a filesystem available to the system. </li></ul>
  29. 29. /opt <ul><li>This directory contains all the software and add-on packages that are not part of the default installation.
  30. 30. Again, this directory is not used very often as it's mostly a standard in Unix installations. </li></ul>/root <ul><li>We talked about user home directories earlier and well this one is the home directory of the user root.
  31. 31. Not to be confused with the system root </li></ul>
  32. 32. /proc <ul><li>pseudo file system residing in the virtual memory
  33. 33. maintains highly dynamic data on the state of your operating system
  34. 34. a new /proc file system is created every time your Linux machine reboots.
  35. 35. Everything regarding your harware like bluetooth, different slots, bus etc. is stored in it. </li></ul>
  36. 36. /sbin <ul><li>Contains binary (executable) files, usually for system administration.
  37. 37. This directory contains all the binaries that are essential to the working of the system. </li></ul>/tmp <ul><li>This directory contains mostly files that are required temporarily.
  38. 38. This directory is cleared out at boot or at shutdown. </li></ul>
  39. 39. /usr <ul><li>Unix System Resources
  40. 40. Lot of subdirectories.
  41. 41. Shared data, library, binary, application will be located.
  42. 42. Secondary hierarchy for read-only user data; contains the majority of (multi-)user utilities and applications. </li></ul>
  43. 43. /var <ul><li>Variable files—files whose content is expected to continually change during normal operation of the system—such as logs, spool files, and temporary e-mail files. Sometimes a separate partition </li></ul>
  44. 44. Thank you