APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

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APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

  1. 1. 4/24/2014
  2. 2. 4/24/2014 REMOTE SENSING & GIS APPLICATIONS IN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BY SRIRAM C II sem M.Tech Geoinformatics 5WD13CGI18 VTU RC KSRSAC
  3. 3. WATERSHED - is a natural hydrological unit - Topographically delineated area drained by a stream system, from which runoff resulting from precipitation flow past from a point into single stream. - Development is not confined just to agriculture lands but covers entire catchment's area. - Watershed approach is holistic, linking upstream and downstream areas. -Practical approach in planning, directed at preservation, conservation, development, management and exploitation of natural resources for the benefit of people. 4/24/2014
  4. 4. A TYPICAL WATERSHED4/24/2014
  5. 5. Watershed Management 􀀹This is the PROCESS of GUIDING & ORGANISING, Land and Other Resource Usage in a Watershed Ensuring the Sustenance of the Environment (Mainly the Soil and Water Resources) i.e., need to recognize the interrelationships between, LAND USE, SOIL-WATER, and SLOPE OF TERAIN 􀀹Unifying Focus in watershed management is in how various human activities affect the relationship between water and other natural resources 􀀹Provides a basis for actions concerning the development and Conservation 4/24/2014
  6. 6. Watershed Management Concerns 􀀹PREVENTING deterioration of existing relationships between the use of natural resources within a watershed 􀀹RESTORING sustainable relationships which had been destroyed due to actions in the past THERE BY ENSURE THE BEST USE OF RESOURCES IN A WATERSHED Watershed Management Strategies 􀀹PREVENTION STRATERGIES - Those Aimed at Preserving Suitable Existing Land Use Practices 􀀹RESTORATIVE STRATEGIES - Those Targeting to Overcome Identified Problems or to restore conditions to a Desirable level both Environmentally and Politically 4/24/2014
  7. 7. Watershed Development Approach - Integrated and multi-disciplinary approach. - To suggest possible exploitation of resources within the limits of tolerance. -Approach is Preventive, Progressive, Corrective & Curative. Objectives - • Conservation of Soil and Water • Improved ability of land to hold water • Maintaining adequate vegetative cover for controlling soil erosion • Rain water harvesting and ground water recharging. Benefits - • Promotes economic and social development of community • Employment generation and other income generation • Ecological balance 4/24/2014
  8. 8. ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING Useful for generating environmental indicators that can be integrated with collateral data and social indicators. - Synoptic view, Multi-resolution, multi-spectral, repetitive offers appropriate method for quick, unbiased mapping and monitoring of natural resources both in space and time domain. - Timely and accurate information on spatial distribution – land use, soil, vegetation density, forest, geology, water resources etc. - RS data in conjunction with collateral data helps in delineation of ridge line, characterization, prioritization, erosion prone areas, etc. 4/24/2014
  9. 9. BASE MAP SLOPE LANDUSE GEOLOGY & STRUCTURAL FEATURES GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP HYDROLOGICAL MAP Water Harvesting Sites Map GIS CONCEPT 4/24/2014
  10. 10. The crop yield has increased by in dry land farming The soil loss due to erosion was brought down Large extents of barren hill slopes were covered by vegetation. Large tracts of marginal lands brought under dry land Horticulture Development of Agro-Horti and Agro-Forestry systems. Water resources were harvested through nala bunds, farm ponds, gully embankments Regeneration of grass lands for more fodder and grass. The income of farmers increased considerably. Benefits derived from Watershed Methodology 4/24/2014
  11. 11. Human resource development (community development), Soil and land management, Water management, Afforestation, Pasture/fodder development, Livestock management, rural energy management and Farm and non farm value addition activities; The watershed development approach, as implemented in Karnataka, consists of following components 4/24/2014
  12. 12. 􀀹Electromagnetic Spectrum – Band Wavelength Spectral Location Nominal Principal Application (micro m) 0.45 - 0.52 Blue Coastal water mapping, soil / vegetation, 0.52 - 0.62 Green Vegetation discrimination, 0.62- 0.69 Red Chlorophyll absorption region, 0.76 - 0.90 Near IR Vegetation, water body, soil moisture 1.55 - 2.35 Mid IR Moisture content, Snow &Cloud, Mineral & rock discrimination, vegetation moisture content 8- 14 Thermal IR Vegetation, Soil moisture discrimination 1 cm – 1m Microwave Soil moisture 4/24/2014
  13. 13. DATA REQUIREMENT Satellite Imagery for updation. (PAN+LISS III) •Survey of India toposheets in 1 : 250,000 scale 1 : 50,000 scale • Water bodies • Drainage Network • Contours 4/24/2014
  14. 14. Steps involved in watershed development Generation of drainage map Delineation of watersheds Characterization of watersheds on a smaller scale Prioritization of watersheds/selection Characterization of watersheds on a larger scale Preparation of action plan Implementation Monitoring of developmental activities Impact assessment Post treatment management 4/24/2014
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  16. 16. Class Water Resource Region Basin Catchment Sub-catchment Watershed Nos. 6 35 112 500 3237 Averag e Size 550,00,000 ha. (55,00,000 Sq.Kms.) 95,00,000 ha. (95,000 Sq.Kms.) 30,00,000 ha. (30,000 Sq.Kms.) 7,00,000 ha. (7,000 Sq.Kms.) 1,00,000 ha (1,000 Sq.Kms.) Region Basin Catchments Subcatchments Watersheds 2 6 15 48 234 4/24/2014
  17. 17. 4/24/2014
  18. 18. WATERSHED CODIFICATION  Alpha-Numeric symbolic codes consisting alternative Arabic numbers and English alphabet letters are used to designate different stages of delineation.  In the eighth stage of delineation small letter English alphabet has been used by KSRSAC to indicate the least area of the watershed.  WRR’s are assigned Arabic number 1,2,3,…..  Basins are assigned alphabet capital letters A,B,C,…..  Catchments are assigned Arabic numbers 1,2,3,…..  Sub-catchments are assigned alphabet capitol letters A,B,C,…..  Watersheds are assigned Arabic number 1,2,3,…..  Sub-watersheds are assigned alphabet capital letters A,B,C,…..  Mini-watersheds are assigned Arabic number 1,2,3,…..  Micro-watersheds are assigned alphabet small letters a,b,c,…. Example,  Sub-watershed will have the code 4D3D6A  Mini-watershed will have the code 4D3D6A1  Micro-watershed will have the code 4D3D6A1a 4/24/2014
  19. 19. 4 B 3 B 7 C 5 d Micro- Watershed Mini-Watershed Sub-Watershed Watershed Sub-Catchment Catchment Basin Region 4 B 3 B 7 C 5 dExample : K S R S A C A I S & L U S4/24/2014
  20. 20. CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERSHEDS All characteristics affect the disposal of water. SIZE: It helps in computing parameters like precipitation received, retained, drained off. SHAPE: Different shapes based on morphological parameters like geology and structure, eg. pear, elongated etc. PHISIOGRAPHY: Lands altitude and physical disposition. SLOPE: It controls the rainfall distribution and movement: CLIMATE: It decides the quantitative approach. DRAINAGE: It determines the flow characteristics and so the erosion behavior. 4/24/2014
  21. 21. CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERSHEDS  VEGETATION: Information of species gives a sure ground for selection plants and crops. GEOLOGY AND SOILS: Their nature determines size, shape, physiographic, drainage and groundwater conditions. Soils, derivative of rocks are the basic to greenery HYDROLOGY: Basic to final goal of growing greenery in a watershed. It helps in quantification of water available. HYDROGEOLOGY: Availability of groundwater. SOCIOECONOMICS: Statistics on people and their health, hygiene, wants and wishes are important in managing water. 4/24/2014
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  23. 23. What is prioritization?  Prioritization is a process of identifying areas of main concern based on single or many parameters  Selection of one or few watersheds out of many watersheds by using predefined set of criteria 4/24/2014
  24. 24. Inputs Weightage Source Silt Yield Index/Soil Erosion Status 20 AIS and LUS / KSRSAC SC/ST Population 20 Census of India,2001 Irrigated area 10 KSRSAC (Satellite Data,2000-2001) Wastelands 20 KSRSAC (Satellite Data,2000-2001) Rainfall 10 100 years average, Preliminary Data from DES & analyzed at KSRSAC Agricultural Labourers 10 Census of India,2001 Forest Cover 10 KSRSAC (Satellite Data,2000-2001) Criteria selected and Data source used for watershed prioritisation 4/24/2014
  25. 25. Prioritization results of Gadag Taluk, Gadag District Codes Names Subwatershed Area in Hectares Marks Obtained PRIORITY Rainfall SC/ST Ag. Labourer s Wasteland Forest Cover Irrg. Area SYI Total 4D4A2O Dindur 3057.26 0.00 20.00 5.94 20.00 0.00 10.00 10.00 65.94 1 4D7C6J Madhalli 3236.63 0.00 13.66 10.00 3.79 10.00 10.00 10.00 57.46 2 4D4A1P Timmapura 4925.45 6.52 5.17 4.29 0.00 10.00 10.00 20.00 55.98 3 4D4A3I Shirhatti 4644.10 0.00 6.93 7.16 9.01 7.77 10.00 10.00 50.87 4 4D7C6F Kolivad 3147.73 0.00 9.40 7.84 1.87 10.00 10.00 10.00 49.11 5 4D7C6G Nilgund 6378.27 0.00 6.93 6.20 5.55 10.00 10.00 10.00 48.69 6 4D7C4O Belahoda 3648.44 3.95 4.90 6.60 1.38 10.00 10.00 10.00 46.83 7 4D4A2R Alur 3171.48 6.52 3.64 5.09 0.00 10.00 5.94 15.00 46.18 8 4D7C3X Nagaral 4403.38 0.92 6.05 5.73 0.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 42.70 9 4D7C4S Saidapur 5690.20 1.37 6.09 8.24 1.17 10.00 5.46 10.00 42.33 10 4D7C4M Venkatapur 4862.96 3.95 4.77 2.68 0.38 10.00 10.00 10.00 41.78 11 4D7C4R Kondihalla 4337.08 3.95 5.62 7.66 0.00 10.00 3.75 10.00 40.98 12 4D7C4E Guddehalla 4044.27 2.27 4.79 4.23 0.00 10.00 7.71 10.00 39.00 13 4D7C3Y Kanginhal 7035.79 4.93 4.89 3.97 0.00 10.00 3.41 10.00 37.20 14 4D7C3W Gadag 6581.62 4.93 3.95 0.88 0.68 10.00 6.53 10.00 36.97 15 4D7C4N Karadihalla 4910.41 4.93 3.74 0.76 0.00 9.43 7.45 10.00 36.30 16 4D7C3U Kadadi 6892.74 0.92 4.02 0.91 0.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 35.85 17 4D7C3Z Sambapura 6824.10 0.57 6.25 3.43 0.92 9.49 3.59 10.00 34.23 18 4D4A2Q Ramenahalli 5297.63 7.04 2.65 3.99 0.00 8.72 0.00 10.00 32.40 19 4D7C4P Asundi 3471.75 0.57 7.22 5.07 0.00 8.65 0.78 10.00 32.29 20 4/24/2014
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  29. 29. MONITORING THE WATERSHED The following parameters have been considered for monitoring and evaluation purpose which could be derived from satellite data: Cropped Area Changes in areal extent of agricultural crops Plantations Increase in horticultural and forest plantations Wastelands Change in areal extent Alternate Use Switch over of agricultural land Waterbody Change in number and areal extent Biomass Overall changes in biomass/ canopy cover/ productivity 4/24/2014
  30. 30. POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED BEFORE TAKING UP IMPACT STUDIES 1. SATELLITE IMAGES SHOULD BE OBTAINED ONLY AFTER CONSIDERABLE TIME AFTER IMPLEMENTATION( 6-10 YEARS) 2. CONDITIONS SHOULD BE SIMILAR FOR PRE AND POST TREATMENT RAINFALL- QUANTUM,DISTRIBUTION, ETC SOWING SEASON- EARLY/DELAY 3. AVAILABILTY OF SATELLITE DATA FOR REQUIRED DATES 4. RESOLUTION OF SATELLITE DATA- SHOULD BE SAME FOR PRE AND POST 4/24/2014
  31. 31. Address the overall impact on Natural Resources & Socio -Economic aspects APPROACH With & Without • Before (Baseline) • During (Midterm) • End of the Project • Post Project Household level Short term Impact Community / Village Long term Micro / Sub Watershed Before & After 4/24/2014
  32. 32. Indicators for Impact Assessment Natural Resources  Surface Runoff  Water Resource Development  Ground Water level/Yield  Change in Irrigated Area  Crop Diversity  Crop Yield  Crop intensity  Fodder Availability  Afforestation  Climate Change & Biodiversity  Land Use Change Socio Economic  Sustainability of Structures /CBOs/IGA  Micro Enterprises  Employment Opportunity  Migration Status  Economic potential of Household Income  BPL Family  Animal Husbandry  Impact on Milk yield 4/24/2014
  33. 33. Pre Treatment (1997) Image Post Treatment (2004)Image Comparison of Satellite Images for Koralhalli Halla Sub watershed 4/24/2014
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  36. 36. •The interrelated nature of land and water resources calls for a holistic approach towards watershed management. •Because of the ability to obtain synoptic view and repetitive coverage, remote sensing lends itself as a powerful input media. •Unbiased reproduction of the natural features in the form of photograph /imagery and thereby economising the multi disciplinary approach for planning of natural resources in a watershed for integrated development. •Technologies like GIS lend a helping hand in organisation of these huge databases in a structured format. •GIS integrate multi-thematic information ,analyse the information in an objective manner. •GIS help arrive at timely and appropriate decisions related to resource management. CONCLUSION 4/24/2014
  37. 37. •KARNATAKA WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT BOARD •FUNDAMENTALS OF REMOTE SENSING:GEORGE JOSEPH • CENTRAL WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT BOARD •ALL INDIA SOIL AND LAND USE SURVEY •KSRSAC REFERENCES 4/24/2014
  38. 38. Thanks 4/24/2014

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