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  • 1. A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM WITH REFERENCE TO REFERENCE TO SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION By A.KARTHIKA Roll No. 12MBA07 Reg. No. 9118126031009 A PROJECT REPORT FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI CHENNAI 600 025 SEPTEMBER 2013
  • 2. LIST OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO TITLE PAGE NO I Introduction 1 Industry profile 4 II Literature Review 13 III Objectives 15 Scope Of The Study 16 Need For The Study 17 Limitations 18 Research Methodology 19 IV Data Analysis And Interpretation 21 V Findings 36 Suggestions 37 Conclusions 38 Bibliography 39 Appendix 40
  • 3. BONAFIED CERTIFICATE Certified that this report “A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM AT SOUTHREN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION” is the bonafide work of A.KARTHIKA who carried out the project work under my supervision. Certified further , that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not from part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was on conferred on a earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. PRICIPAL FACULTY GUIDE OAA-MAVMM SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER
  • 4. DECLARATION I affirm that the project work titled “STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM AT SOUTHREN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION “, being submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of MBA is the original work carried out by me. It has not formed the part of any other project work submitted for award of any degree, either in this or any other university. A.KARTHIKA I certify that the declaration made above by the candidate is true.
  • 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to express my sincere and heartfelt thanks to the management and staff of our college for providing all possible guidance and support without which the project work wouldn’t have been completed successfully in time. I express my sincere thanks to Mr. S.PRABAHARAN for guiding me throughout this project work. I express my profound gratitude to J.CHANDRIKA JAYASHSKAR (DIVISIONAL PERSONAL OFFICER) SOUTHERN RAILWAYS , MADURAI, who gave permission to carry out my project in SOUTHERN RAILWAYS. I want to give my sincere thanks to his kind advice and guidance that had made my project successful. Many of the sound advices have been well taken by me and it is largely due to his patience that I was able to achieve my goals successfully. Finally, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to y beloved parents for their blessings, my friend/classmates for their help and wishes for the successful completion of this project.
  • 6. ABSTRACT The topic of the project is “A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM AT SOUTHREN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION ”. The objectives of the study were to assess the employee absenteeism in SOUTHERN RAILWAYS , MADURAI. Simple Percentage Analysis, weighted average methods were used to analysis the data collected. The descriptive research design is used for the study. Descriptive designs result in description of the data, whether in words, pictures, charts, or tables, and whether things have one thing in common they must provide descriptions of the variables in order to answer the questions. The research was conducted among 50 employees. The primary source of data was collected through interview schedule on a questionnaire; the secondary data was collected referring personnel manual of the organization.
  • 7. INTRODUCTION Employee absenteeism is a costly yet poorly understood organizational phenomenon (e.g. Johns and Nicholson, 1982; Martocchio and Harrison, 1993; Mowday, Porter and Steers, 1982; Rhodes and Steers, 1990; Gellatly, 1995). The consequences of employee absenteeism are widespread and consist of direct and indirect effects. For instance higher costs are a result of absenteeism, which can be caused both directly as indirectly. Direct costs of sickness absence to employers include statutory sick pay, expense of covering absence with temporary staff and lost production. Indirect costs, such as low morale among staff covering for those absent because of sickness and lower customer satisfaction, are difficult to measure, while they also influence the overall levels of output (Leaker, 2008). Other effects associated with absenteeism are disruption of the work flow and reduction in product quality (Klein, 1986). Leaker (2008) estimated in 2008 for the Confederation of Business Industry that the United Kingdom had approximately lost £19.2 billion in 2007 to direct and indirect costs of employee absenteeism. Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work. It’s a major problem faced by almost all employees of today. Employee are absent from work and thus the work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads to back logs, piling of work and thus work delay. Employee’s presence at work place during the scheduled time is highly essential for the smooth running of the production process in particular and the organization in general. Despite the significance of their presence, employees sometime fail to report at the work place during the scheduled time which is known as “Absenteeism”. “The non-attendance of employees for scheduled work, it distinguishes absenteeism from other forms of non-attendance that are arranged in advanced and specifically avoids judgments of legitimacy associated with absent events that are implied by as sick leave.” Gibbons, 1966: Johns/1978: Jones, 1971. “Absence occurs whenever a person chooses to allocate time to activities that competewith scheduled work either to satisfy the waxing and warning of underlying motivational rhythms.”
  • 8. French Man, 1984. “Lack of an individual physical presence at given location and time when there is a social expectation for him or her to be there.” Martocchio & Harrison1993 “Absenteeism is temporary cessation of work, for no less than one whole working day, on the initiative of the worker, when his presence is expected”. J.D.Heckett Labour Bureau, simla interpret “Absenteeism as the total of man shifts lost because of absence as a percentage of the total number of man shifts scheduled to work it excludes authorized vacation privilege leave, strike, lockout, lay-off or regularized over’s for the computation of absenteeism rate, on the other hand annual survey of industries takes in to account all the instances of workers absence with a view to ascertaining the costs of the time lost as a percentage of a total labor cost. A general definition of absenteeism includes time lost because of illness and accident and time away from the job due of personal reasons whether authorized or unauthorized. Authorized absence on leave with pay is also treated as absence. Meaning Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive occurrence for both employers and employees seemingly unpredictable in nature. A satisfactory level of attendance by employees at work is necessary to allow the achievement of objectives and targets by a department. Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work. It is a major problem faced by almost all employers of today. Employees are absent from work and thus the work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads to back logs, piling of work and thus workdelay.Absenteeismisoftwotypes-1. Innocent absenteeism Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive occurrence for both employers and employees seemingly unpredictable in nature. A satisfactory level of attendance by employees at work is necessary to allow the achievement of objectives and targets by a department Absence from work can be expensive in both monetary and human
  • 9. terms. The costs incurred when an employee is absent from work may include: (i) Replacing the employee or requiring other staff to cover the absence; (ii) Inability to provide services, or achieve section and departmental objectives; (iii) Low morale and general dissatisfaction from other staff, particularly if the absence is perceived as unwarranted Absence control can often be an important step in the process of reducing business costs. Because of competitive pressures, companies can no longer afford to carry unnecessary absence that they may have tolerated in the past. Therefore, many companies are focusing on the issue of eliminating, or at least reducing, unnecessary levels of absence. Absenteeism can be termed as an “illness” which may affect the internal structure of the organization, thus causing harm to the production process. So there is a need to control the situation, by taking a thorough and in-detail analysis to identify the critical reasons of absenteeism which will help to create a proper Organizational Culture.
  • 10. ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE SOUTHERN RAILWAY . The South Indian Railway was originally created in the British colonial times as Great Southern India Railway Co. founded in Britain in 1853 and registered in 1859. Its original headquarters was in Tiruchirappalli (Trichy) and was registered as a company in London only in 1890. Southern Railway has its headquarters in Chennai and has the following six divisions: Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirappalli, Salem, Palakkad and Thiruvananthapuram. More than 500 million passengers travel on the network every year. This zone of the Indian Railways differs from the other zones of India in that its revenue is derived from passengers and not from freight. Southern Railway, in its present form, came into existence on 14th April 1951 through the merger of the three state railways namely Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, the South Indian Railway, and the Mysore state railway. Southern Railway's present network extends over a large area of India's Southern Peninsula, covering the states of Tamilnadu, Kerala, Pondicherry,and a small portion of Andhra Pradesh. Serving these naturally plentiful and culturally rich southern states, the SR extends from
  • 11. Mangalore on the west coast and Kanniyakumari in the south to Renigunta in the North West and Gudur in the North East. Headquartered at Chennai, the Southern Railway comprises of the following six divisions.  Chennai  Madurai  Palghat  Trivandrum  Salem  Tiruchirapalli Mission Statement  Protect and safeguard Railway passengers, passengers area and Railway property.  Ensure the safety, security and boost the confidence of the traveling public in the Indian Railways. Vision Statement Indian railways shall provide efficient, affordable, customer focused and environmentally sustainable integrated transportation solutions. If shall be a vehicle of inclusive growth, connecting regions, communities, ports and centers of industry, commerce, tourism and pilgrimage across the country. The reach and access of its services will be continuously expanded and improved by its integrated team of committed, empowered and satisfied employees and by use of cutting-edge technology. MADURAI DIVISION History of Madurai Division
  • 12. History of division dates back to 1 September, 1875 when 154 kms of Railway track was laid between Trichchirappalli and Madurai. The line was further extended up to Tuticorin in 1876. From 1876 onwards, the Rail network was gradually extended to Rameshwaram, Sengottai, Kollam, and Erode etc. Madurai Division of southern railway is largest division in southern railway with 1355.78 route kms. It’s commenced its operations from 16 May, 1956 as full – fledged division. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE: SPECIFIC ITEMS FOR SOUTHERN RAILWAY IN RAILWAY BUDGET 2012-13  Surveys and feasibility studies for developing coaching terminals at Nemam and Kottayam in Kerala.  Pre-feasibility study for development of Roypuram station in Tamil Nadu for which many representations have been received.
  • 13.  Extension of MRTS from Velachery to St. Thomas Mount in Chennai to be commissioned in 2013.  Setting up of 72 MW capacity windmill plants in the wind rich areas of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.  Keeping in view the increased requirement of passenger coaches, a rail coach factory at Palakkad with the support of Government of Keralais proposed to be set up.  Setting up of new Rail Neer Plants at Palur in Tamilnadu.  In Chennai area, it is proposed to run 18 additional services on Chennai Beach- Tambaram, Chennai Beach-Chengalpattu,Chennai Beach-Avadi,Chennai Beach– Tiruttani,Chennai Beach – Gummidipundi/Sullurupetta and Chennai Beach– Velachery sections. ORGANIZATION CHART
  • 14. MADURAI JUNCTION RAILWAY STATION Madurai Railway Junction is one of the Major Railway Junction in South India and the Head Quarters of Madurai railway division. It is well connected with all Major cities in India. Madurai division is the second largest by revenue in Southern Railway. It is one of the A1 graded stations in the Southern Railway. (The railway stations which generate earning of Rs.50Cr P/A will get A1 Grade). Madurai has two terminals  Koodal Nagar Railway Station (Goods Handling)  Madurai Railway Junction (Passenger Handling) Koodal Nagar Railway Station Koodal Nagar Railway station is mainly used for Madurai Junction's Goods handling purpose. It has Rail sideware house and CONCOR for goods handling. A separate goods train going to Tuglakabad (TKD) from Koodalnagar (KON).
  • 15. TRAINS ORIGINATING FROM MADURAI JUNCTION: Sl. No. DESTINATION TRAIN NAME 1 Chennai Egmore Pandian Express,vaigai Express, Koodal Nagar Express, Mahal Super Fast Express Bi-Weekly 2 Chennai Central Chennai Central-Madurai AC Duronto Express 3 Hazrat Nizamudin Tamil Nadu Sampark Kranti Express 4 LokmanyaTilakTerminus LTT-Madurai Kurla Express 5 Tirupati Tirupati-Madurai Bi-weekly Express 6 Dehradun/Chandigarh Madurai-Dehradun/Chandigarh Bi-Weekly Express 7 Okha Vivek Express 8 Rameswaram, Dindigul, Villupuram, Sengottai, Kollam Passenger Madurai Divisional Office The divisional office located at Madurai. The divisional office spread over 11 Districts of Tamil Nadu and 1 district of Kerala Districts of Trichchirappalli, Pudukkottai, Sivagangai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Virudhunagar, Ramanathapuram, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Dindigul, Karur and Teni in Tamil Nadu state Kollam district of Kerala State DEPARTMENTS IN MADURAI DIVISIONAL OFFICE  Accounts Department The Accounts department is headed by Financial Advisor and Chief Accounts Officer (FA&CAO). The Accounts Department is mainly responsible for Keeping the accounts, Internal check of transactions affecting the receipt and expenditure, Tendering, as part of its important functions, advice to the administration whenever required or necessary in all matters involving Railway finance, Compilation of budgets in consultation with other departments and monitoring the budgetary control, assisting inventory management,.
  • 16.  Electrical department Electrical department looks after the planning , operation & maintenance of the all Electrical assets of Southern Railway, various assets include Locomotives , Electrical Multiple Unit, Traction & distribution, Train lighting, air conditioning and general electrical services. Nominated maintenance schedules are given to all the electrical assets at various maintenance depots and workshop  Engineering department The Civil Engineering Department is responsible for the construction and maintenance of all civil engineering assets, viz. all buildings including station buildings, residential quarters, hospitals, sheds, workshop structures, goods sheds etc., water supply and sanitary installations, Railway tracks, Sidings and all allied structures, Bridges including Road over bridges and Road under bridges. The maintenance wing (Open line) of Civil Engineering Organization is headed by the Principal Chief Engineer  Vigilance Organization Southern Railway's Vigilance department is headed by the Senior Deputy General Manager (SDGM), who is the Chief Vigilance Officer (CVO) for Southern Railway. The department assists the organization in curbing corruption by way of carrying out regular checks and investigation into the complaints received from public or from its own employees. Complaints on corruption are investigated, after verifying the genuineness of the complainant.  Personnel department The Personnel department is headed by Chief Personnel Officer (CPO).The major areas of concern of Personnel Department are Human Resource Development and Staff welfare.  Public Relations Public Relations department of Southern Railway acts as a communicator between the organization and public through Press & Media.PR department briefs the Print and Electronic Media from time to time on matters of public interest about developmental, objective, informative and operational activities through press releases, press conferences, conducted tours, and meetings with the members of the press. The tender notices & other work related advertisements are routed through the PR Department. It also advertises via display advertisements/notifications in newspapers on social awareness
  • 17.  Medical Department The Medical Department of Southern Railway provides comprehensive health care to its employees both serving and retired and their families. Department provide a medical relief during Railway Accidents. Monitoring the quality of drinking water in Railway Stations and Railway Colonies. Surface sanitation at certain Railway Colonies and at some nominated Railway Stations. Emergency Medical assistance to Railway passengers who take ill during their journey  Mechanical department Southern Railway operates Diesel/Electric locos, coaches and wagons on the broad gauge and Meter gauge. These assets are being maintained in good fettle by the Mechanical branch to provide safe and reliable transportation of passengers and Goods. The major activities of Mechanical Department are Periodical over Hauling (POH), Intermediate Over Hauling (IOH) of Coaches, Wagons, Diesel Locomotives, Steam locomotives and Other Rolling stocks in the workshops. Primary Maintenance of Passenger rakes, Goods rakes and other specified departmental Trains in the divisions. Manufacture of Wagons, Rehabilitation of coaches, Elastic Rail clips, Bio-Diesel in the shops. Schedule maintenance of Diesel Locomotives, & Steam locomotives in the Diesel Sheds, Imparting Training to the staff at 10 Basic Training Centre (BTC) situated all over Southern Railway. Heritage and ISO certification process  Operating Department The operating department is concerned with the running of both passengers and goods trains and is headed by Chief Operations Manager (COM).The department also arranges multi modal traffic in regular coordination with Container Corporation of India. This includes both traffic for export and traffic for domestic use. The passenger traffic has seen a constant increase over the years, due to increase in population as well as due to increased requirement to travel due to economic development. The freight traffic has also increased simultaneously. The Operating Department has to examine these increasing requirements and has to organize for satisfying the same. This also involves planning for infrastructural development and as such the Operating Department also plays a pivotal role in planning.
  • 18.  Stores Department The Stores Department is performing the function of Materials Management to achieve the objective of procuring goods of right quality in right quantity at right time form right vendor at right price. In addition Stores Department is also handling various other activities pertaining to supply chain management and disposal of scrap which are Warehousing of Materials, Distribution of Materials to consignees, Inventory Management, Fabrication and Distribution of Uniforms, Printing of Tickets, Money Value Books and Forms etc, Disposal of Scrap.  Safety Department Safety department is multi-disciplinary safety outfit .Safety department mostly acts as a catalyst and each executive department Responsible for running trains must own the task of monitoring safety.  The Signal and Telecommunication Department Signaling is vital to Railway Safety .To cope with the rising traffic density and to meet with better safety standards. Northern Railway is steadily modernizing its signaling systems. Route Relay Interlocking, Panel Interlocking, Colour Light and Automatic Block Signaling have been introduced on many routes. Safety aids like Track Circuiting and interlocking of level crossing gates and provision of telephones at manned level crossings had been increasingly adopted to further enhance safety in train operation  Commercial Department The Commercial Department is responsible for the marketing & sale of the transportation provided by a railway, for creating and developing traffic, for securing and maintaining friendly relations with the travelling and trading public and for cultivating good public relations generally. The fixing of rates, fares and other charges and the correct collection, accountal and remittance of traffic receipts are also among its functions.
  • 19. OBJECTIVES Primary objectives: 1. To study about the employee absenteeism in southern railways - Madurai division. Secondary objectives: 1. To indentify the reason for absenteeism. 2. To measure the employees absenteeism level. 3. To identify factors that motivates the employee which minimize absenteeism.
  • 20. SCOPE OF THE STUDY  This study will assist the southern railways to know the various levels and reasons for absence of employees and to make effective organization.  This project helps the organization to know the various motivating factor to minimize the absenteeism of employees.  This study is used to reduce the employee absenteeism and increase the southern railway productivity and make effective organization.
  • 21. NEED FOR STUDY  The study of for employee absenteeism in southern railways leads to analyze and identify the reason for absenteeism and rectifies it effectively.  The mainly need is to motivate the employees to reduce the absenteeism and increase the productivity of the southern railways.  Make less absenteeism in southern railways and receive the high level of employee utilization towards the improvement of southern railways.
  • 22. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. Sample size selected for this study is 50, which are proportionally less than the population of employees working in the southern railways – Madurai division. 2. As the time was limiting factor the survey was conducted at the convenient places of the researcher. 3. Through the respondents are clear about the answers they may not be in a position to explain in the manner related to this study. 4. Moreover the survey was conducted in and around the certain limits of southern railways – Madurai division and thus can’t be generalized.
  • 23. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Sources of Data The sources for collecting the data are from both  Primary data  Secondary data Primary Data The Primary data was collected from the respondents by administering a structured questionnaire to the southern railway employee. Secondary Data The Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process in the company. For this research, the secondary data collected from the hand book of railway, journals, websites, and previous project in railway. Population: According to the project the Population is more than 300. So I select the convenient sample. Population was selected only employees from the southern railways Madurai division. Sample size The sample size for this project is 50 it was selected according to time factor and researcher convenient. Research Design: A research design is the determination and statement of the general research approach or strategy adopted for the particular project. Choice of research design depends on a number of factors. The research design used in this report is descriptive in nature. Descriptive Research Design Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied.
  • 24. Questionnaire Type The type of questionnaire used in this project was unstructured and closed ended type.  Dichotomous questions  Likert scale Sampling techniques: In this project the sampling technique is convenience sample because of convenient of the researcher. Convenience sample In Convenience sampling selection, the researcher chooses the sampling units on the basis of convenience or accessibility. Statistical Tools: The statistical tools used in this project are, 1. Percentage analysis 2. Chi – square
  • 25. ANALYSIS AND INTREPRETATION TABLE NO 1 TABLE SHOWING AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS: INFERENCE: From the above table that 18 percent of the respondents are within the age 20-25 20 percent of the respondents are within the age 25-30 38 percent of the respondents are within the age 30-35 and 38 percent of the respondents are within the age 35-40 in the Southern Railways Madurai division. S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 20-25 9 18 2 25-30 10 20 3 30-35 12 24 4 35-40 19 38 Total 50 100
  • 26. CHART NO 1 CHART SHOWING AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS : INFERENCE: From the above chart that 18 percent of the respondents are within the age 20-25 20 percent of the respondents are within the age 25-30 38 percent of the respondents are within the age 30-35 and 38 percent of the respondents are within the age 35-40 in the Southern Railways Madurai division. 18 20 24 38 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 P E R C E N T A G E AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS
  • 27. TABLE NO 2 TABLE SHOWING GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Male 35 70 2 Female 15 30 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above table that 70 percent of the respondents are Male and 30 percent of the respondents are Female in the Southern Railways Madurai division.
  • 28. CHART NO 2 CHART SHOWING GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS: INFERENCE: From the above chart that 70 percent of the respondents are Male and 30 percent of the respondents are Female in the Southern Railways Madurai division. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Male Female 70 30 PERCENTAGE PARTICULARS GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS
  • 29. TABLE-3 TABLE SHOWING EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 SSLC 5 10 2 HSC 11 22 3 UG 30 60 4 PG 4 8 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above table that 10 percent of the respondents are having the educational qualification as SSLC 22 percent of the respondents are having the educational qualification as HSC 60 percent of the respondents are having the educational qualification as UG and 8 percent of the respondents are having the educational qualification as PG in the Southern Railways Madurai division.
  • 30. CHART NO 3 CHART SHOWING EDUCATIONALQUALIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES: INFERENCE: From the above chart that 10 percent of the respondents are having the educational qualification as SSLC 22 percent of the respondents are having the educational qualification as HSC 60 percent of the respondents are having the educational qualification as UG and 8 percent of the respondents are having the educational qualification as PG in the Southern Railways Madurai division. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 SSLC HSC UG PG 10 22 60 8 PERCENTAGE PARTICULARS EDUCATIONAL QUALIFACTION
  • 31. TABLE: 4 TABLE SHOWING MARITAL STATUS OF THE EMPLOYEES: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Single 10 20 2 Married 37 74 3 Widower 3 6 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above table that 20 percent of the respondents are single 74 percent of the respondents are married and 6 percent of the respondents are widower in Southern Railways Madurai division.
  • 32. CHART NO 4 CHART SHOWING MARITAL STATUS OF THE EMPLOYEES: INFERENCE: From the above chart that 20 percent of the respondents are single 74 percent of the respondents are married and 6 percent of the respondents are widower in Southern Railways Madurai division. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Single Married Widower 20 74 6 PERCENTAGE PARTICULARS MARITAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS
  • 33. TABLE: 5 TABLE SHOWING EXPERIENCE STATUS OF THE EMPLOYEES: S.NO PARTICULAR NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 0-2 2 4 2 2-5 9 18 3 5-10 14 28 4 More than 10 25 50 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above table that 4 percent of the respondents are having the experience status as within 0-2 years 18 percent of the respondents are having the experience status as within 2-5 years 28 percent of the respondents are having the experience status as within 5-10 years and 50 percent of the respondents are having the experience status as more than 10 years in the Southern Railways Madurai division.
  • 34. CHART NO 5 CHART SHOWING EXPERIENCE STATUS OF THE EMPLOYEES: INFERENCE: From the above chart that 4 percent of the respondents are having the experience status as within 0-2 years 18 percent of the respondents are having the experience status as within 2-5 years 28 percent of the respondents are having the experience status as within 5-10 years and 50 percent of the respondents are having the experience status as more than 10 years in the Southern Railways Madurai division 0 10 20 30 40 50 4 18 28 50 PERCENTATGE PARTICULARS
  • 35. TABLE: 6 TABLE SHOWING REASON FOR ABSENCE OF THE EMPLOYEES: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Sickness 16 32 2 Lack of interest in job 3 6 3 Poor working conditions 4 8 4 Long working hours 4 8 5 Personal reasons 23 46 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above table 32 percent of the respondents mentioned sickness is the reason for their absence 6 percent of the respondents mentioned lack of interest 8 percent of the respondents mentioned poor working condition and 46 percent of the respondents mentioned personal reasons is the reason for their absence in the Southern Railways Madurai division.
  • 36. CHART NO 6 CHART SHOWING REASON FOR ABSENCE OF THE EMPLOYEES: INFERENCE: From the above table 32 percent of the respondents mentioned sickness is the reason for their absence 6 percent of the respondents mentioned lack of interest 8 percent of the respondents mentioned poor working condition and 46 percent of the respondents mentioned personal reasons is the reason for their absence in the Southern Railways Madurai division. 32 6 8 8 46 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Sickness Lack of interest in job Poor working conditions Long working hours Personal reasons P E R C E N T A G E REASON FOR ABSENCE PERCENTAGE
  • 37. TABLE7 TABLE SHOWING THE LEAVE FOR REACHING OFFICE AT LATE TIME OF THE EMPLOYEES : INFERENCE: From the above table 20 percent of the respondents availing leave for coming late to office at late time and 80 percent of the respondents availing leave for coming late to office at late time. S.NO PARTICULAR NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 10 20 2 No 40 80 Total 50 100
  • 38. CHART NO 7 CHART SHOWING THE LEAVE FOR REACHING OFFICE AT LATE TIME OF THE EMPLOYEES : INFERENCE: From the above chart 20 percent of the respondents availing leave for coming late to office at late time and 80 percent of the respondents availing leave for coming late to office at late time. 20 80 0 20 40 60 80 100 Yes No P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS LEAVE FOR REACHING OFFICE AT LATE TIME OF THE EMPLOYEES
  • 39. TABLE: 8 TABLE SHOWING POLITICAL OR SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT FORCE THE EMPLOYEES ABSENT FROM WORK: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Always 8 16 2 Frequently 10 20 3 Occasionally 11 22 4 Rarely 11 22 5 Never 10 20 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above chart 16 percent of the respondents always absent 20 percent frequently absent office due to 22 percent occasionally absent 22 percent rarely absent 20 percent never absent themselves for office due to political and social engagement in the Southern Railways Madurai division.
  • 40. CHART NO 8 CHART SHOWING POLITICAL OR SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT FORCE THE EMPLOYEES ABSENT FROM WORK: INFERENCE: From the above chart 16 percent of the respondents always absent 20 percent frequently absent office due to 22 percent occasionally absent 22 percent rarely absent 20 percent never absent themselves for office due to political and social engagement in the Southern Railways Madurai division. 16 20 22 22 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 Always Frequently Occasional Rarely Never P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS POLITICAL OR SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT FORCE THE EMPLOYEES ABSENT FROM WORK
  • 41. TABLE: 9 TABLE SHOWING ABSENCE OF THE EMPLOYEES DUE TO HEAVY WORK LOAD IN THE SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION: INFERENCE: From the above table 24 percent of the respondents denoted yes to absence due to heavy work load and 76 percent of the respondents denoted no to absence due to heavy work load in the Southern Railways Madurai division. S.NO PARTICULAR NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 12 24 2 No 38 76 Total 50 100
  • 42. CHART NO 9 CHART SHOWING ABSENCE OF THE EMPLOYEES DUE TO HEAVY WORK LOAD IN THE SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION: INFERENCE: From the above chart 24 percent of the respondents denoted yes to absence due to heavy work load and 76 percent of the respondents say no to absence due to heavy work load in the Southern Railways Madurai division. 24 76 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Yes No P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS ABSENCE OF THE EMPLOYEES DUE TO HEAVY WORK LOAD PERCENTAGE
  • 43. TABLE: 10 TABLE SHOWING THE INTIMATION ABOUT THE ABSENCE OF WORK TO THE SUPERIOR BY THE EMPLOYEES: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Every time 33 66 2 Some times 15 30 3 Never 2 4 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above chart 66 percentage of the respondents makes intimation every time 30 percentage of the respondents makes intimation sometimes 4 percentage of the respondents never makes intimation about the absence of work to the superior in Southern Railways Madurai division.
  • 44. CHART NO 10 CHART SHOWING THE INTIMATION ABOUT THE ABSENCE OF WORK TO THE SUPERIOR BY THE EMPLOYEES: INFERENCE: From the above chart 66 percentage of the respondents makes intimation every time 30 percentage of the respondents makes intimation sometimes 4 percentage of the respondents never makes intimation about the absence of work to the superior in Southern Railways Madurai division. 66 30 40 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Every time Some times Never P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS INTIMATION ABOUT THE ABSENCE OF WORK TO THE SUPERIOR BY THE EMPLOYEES
  • 45. TABLE NO 11 TABLE SHOWING TAKING A LEAVE TO AVOID SOME CRITICAL OFFICIAL SITUATIONS: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 10 20 2 No 40 80 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above table the 20 percent respondents denoted yes and 80 percent denoted no for taking leave to avoid some critical official situations in Southern Railways Madurai division.
  • 46. CHART NO 11 CHART SHOWING TAKING A LEAVE TO AVOID SOME CRITICAL OFFICIAL SITUATIONS: INFERENCE: From the above table the 20 percent respondents denoted yes and 80 percent denoted no for taking leave to avoid some critical official situations in Southern Railways Madurai division. 20 80 0 20 40 60 80 100 Yes No P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS TAKING A LEAVE TO AVOID SOME CRITICAL OFFICIAL SITUATIONS
  • 47. TABLE NO 12 TABLE SHOWING THE ABSENTEEISM AFFECTS THE SETTLEMENT BENIFITS: INFERENCE: From the above table 92 percent of the respondents denoted yes and 8 percent of the respondents denoted no that absenteeism affects the settlement benefits in Southern Railways Madurai division. S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 46 92 2 No 4 8 Total 50 100
  • 48. CHART NO 12 CHART SHOWING THE ABSENTEEISM AFFECTS THE SETTLEMENT BBENIFITS: INFERENCE: From the above chart 92 percent of the respondents denoted yes and 8 percent of the respondents denoted no that absenteeism affects the settlement benefits in Southern Railways Madurai division. 92 80 20 40 60 80 100 Yes No P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS ABSENTEEISM AFFECTS THE SETTLEMENT BBENIFITS
  • 49. TABLE: 13 TABLE SHOWING SATISFACTION LEVEL OF THE EMPLOYEES WITH COLLEAGUES AND SUPERIOR RELATIONSHIP IN THE SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION: INFERENCE: From the above table that 6 percent of employees rated very satisfied 22 percent rated satisfied 60 percent as moderate and 12 percent rated Dissatisfied about colleagues and superior relationship in the working environment Southern Railways Madurai division. . S.NO PARTICULAR NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Highly satisfied 3 6 2 satisfied 11 22 3 Moderate 25 50 4 Dissatisfied 6 12 5 Highly Dissatisfied 5 10 Total 50 100
  • 50. CHART: 13 CHART SHOWING SATISFACTION LEVEL OF THE EMPLOYEES WITH COLLEAGUES AND SUPERIOR RELATIONSHIP IN SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION: INFERENCE: From the above chart that 6 percent of employees rated highly satisfied 22 percent rated satisfied 50 percent as moderate and 12 percent rated Dissatisfied and 10 percent rated highly dissatisfied about colleagues and superior relationship in the working environment Southern Railways Madurai division. . 6 22 50 12 100 20 40 60 Highly satisfied satisfied Moderate Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS SATISFACTION LEVEL OF THE EMPLOYEES WITH COLLEAGUES AND SUPERIOR RELATIONSHIP IN THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT
  • 51. TABLE: 14 TABLE SHOWING THE MOTIVATING FACTORS WHICH ENHANCE THE EMPLOYEE REGULARITY: INFERENCE: From the above table the researcher feels that 14 percentage of the employee rated good employee relation 16 percentage rated working condition 4 percentage rated future prospects 14 percentage rated job responsibility and 52 percentage rated incentives/ wages is the motivating factor which enhance the employee regularity in the Southern Railways Madurai division. S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Good employee relations 7 14 2 Working condition 8 16 3 Future prospectus 2 4 4 Job responsibility 7 14 5 Incentives/wage hike 26 52 Total 50 100
  • 52. CHART NO:14 CHART SHOWING THE MOTIVATING FACTORS WHICH ENHANCE THE EMPLOYEE REGULARITY: INFERENCE: From the above chart the researcher feels that 14 percentage of the employee rated good employee relation 16 percentage rated working condition 4 percentage rated future prospects 14 percentage rated job responsibility and 52 percentage rated incentives/ wages is the motivating factor which enhance the employee regularity in the Southern Railways Madurai division. 14 16 4 14 52 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS MOTIVATING FACTORS WHICH ENHANCE THE EMPLOYEE REGULARITY
  • 53. TABLE: 15 TABLE SHOWING FACTORS WHICH WILL REDUCE THE ABSENTEEISM IN SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Change in working condition 5 10 2 Develop attendance policy 22 44 3 Encourage and appreciation 6 12 4 Individual attention 12 24 5 Harmonic relationships 5 10 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above table the 10 percent of the respondents rated change in working condition reduces the absenteeism 44 of the respondents rated develop attendance policy 12 percent of the respondents rated encourage and appreciation 24 percent of the respondents rated individual attention and 10 percent of the respondents rated harmonic relation reduces the absenteeism in Southern Railways Madurai division.
  • 54. CHART NO 15 CHART SHOWING FACTORS WHICH WILL REDUCE THE ABSENTEEISM IN SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION: 10 44 12 24 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Change in working condition Develop attendance policy Encourage and appreciation Individual attention Harmonic relationships P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS FACTORS WHICH WILL REDUCE THE ABSENTEEISM IN SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION
  • 55. TABLE NO 16 TABLE SHOWING THE ADEQUATE WELFARE FACILITIES IN SOUTHERN RAILWAY MADURAI DIVISION: INFERENCE: From the above chart 80 percent of the respondents denoted yes to absence due to heavy work load and 76 percent of the respondents say no to adequate welfare facilities in the Southern Railways Madurai division. S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Yes 40 80 2 No 10 20 Total 50 100
  • 56. CHART NO 16 CHART SHOWING THE ADEQUATE WELFARE FACILITIES IN SOUTHERN RAILWAY MADURAI DIVISION: INFERENCE: From the above chart 80 percent of the respondents denoted yes to absence due to heavy work load and 76 percent of the respondents say no to adequate welfare facilities in the Southern Railways Madurai division. 80 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Yes No P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS ADEQUATE WELFARE FACILITIES IN SOUTHERN RAILWAY MADURAI DIVISION
  • 57. TABLE NO 17 TABLE SHOWING WORKING ENVIRONMENT IN THE SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Excellent 9 18 2 Good 23 46 3 Fair 11 22 4 Poor 4 8 5 Very poor 3 6 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above chart that 18 percent of respondents rated excellent 46 percent rated good 22percent as fair 8 percent rated poor and 6 percent as very poor about the working environment in Southern Railways Madurai division.
  • 58. CHART NO 17 CHART SHOWING WORKING ENVIRONMENT IN THE SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION: INFERENCE: From the above chart that 18 percent of respondents rated excellent 46 percent rated good 22percent as fair 8 percent rated poor and 6 percent as very poor about the working environment in Southern Railways Madurai division. 18 46 22 8 6 0 10 20 30 40 50 Excellent Good Fair Poor Very poor P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS WORKING ENVIRONMENT IN THE SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION
  • 59. TABLE: 18 TABLE SHOWING SATISFACTION LEVEL ABOUT WORK PERFORMING IN THE SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Highly satisfied 10 20 2 Satisfied 25 50 3 Moderate 8 16 4 Dissatisfied 3 6 5 Highly dissatisfied 4 8 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above table that 20 percent of respondents rated very satisfied 50 percent rated satisfied 16 percent as moderate 6percent rated Dissatisfied and 8 percent rated very dissatisfied about the work performance in Southern Railways Madurai division. .
  • 60. CHART NO 18 CHART SHOWING SATISFACTION LEVEL ABOUT WORK PERFORMING IN THE SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION: INFERENCE: From the above chart that 20 percent of respondents rated very satisfied 50 percent rated satisfied 16 percent as moderate 6percent rated Dissatisfied and 8 percent rated very Dissatisfied about the work performance in Southern Railways Madurai division. . 20 50 16 6 8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Highly satisfied Satisfied Moderate Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS SATISFACTION LEVEL ABOUT WORK PERFORMING IN THE SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION
  • 61. TABLE: 19 TABLE SHOWING LEVEL OF AGREE ABOUT THE TOPIC “STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM TOWARDS SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION” IS USEFUL ONE TO OUR ORGANIZATION IN FUTURE: S.NO PARTICULARS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1 Strongly agree 10 20 2 Agree 20 40 3 Neutral 11 22 4 Disagree 5 10 5 Strongly disagree 4 8 Total 50 100 INFERENCE: From the above table that 20 percent of respondents rated strongly agree 40 percent rated agree 22 percent as neutral 10 percent rated disagree and 8 percent rated strongly disagree about study on employee absenteeism towards southern railways madurai division is useful one to our organization in future.
  • 62. CHART: 19 CHART SHOWING LEVEL OF AGREE ABOUT THE TOPIC “STUDY ON EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM TOWARDS SOUTHERN RAILWAYS MADURAI DIVISION” IS USEFUL ONE TO OUR ORGANIZATION IN FUTURE: INFERENCE: From the above chart that 20 percent of respondents rated strongly agree 40 percent rated agree 22 percent as neutral 10 percent rated disagree and 8 percent rated strongly disagree about study on employee absenteeism towards southern railways madurai division is useful one to our organization in future. 20 40 22 10 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree P E R C E N T A G E PARTICULARS
  • 63. HYPOTHESIS: H0 - There is no significant difference in satisfaction level of the employees with colleagues and superior relationship in the southern railways Madurai division. H1 - There is significant difference in overall satisfaction level of the employees with colleagues and superior relationship in the southern railways Madurai division. Particulars Observed frequency (Oij) Expected frequency (Eij) Oij-Eij (Oij-Eij)2 (Oij-Eij)2 / Eij Strongly agree 3 10 -7 49 4.9 Agree 11 10 1 1 0.1 Neutral 25 10 15 225 22.5 Disagree 6 10 -4 16 1.6 Strongly disagree 5 10 -5 25 2.5
  • 64. ∑ (Oij-Eij) 2 / Eij = 31.6 Calculated value is 31.6 Degree of freedom = (n-1) n = (5- 1) = 4. From the table for the degree of freedom value is 3.357 Calculated value is 31.6 INFERENCE: From the above calculation, calculated value is 31.6 and table value is 3.357.so calculated value is greater than the table value so the null hypothesis is rejected and conclude that the significant difference in overall satisfaction level of the employees with colleagues and superior relationship in the southern railways Madurai division.
  • 65. HYPOTHESIS: H0 - There is no significant difference in satisfaction level about work performing in the southern railways Madurai division. H1 - There is significant difference in satisfaction level about work performing in the southern railways Madurai division. Expected Frequency: Eij = ∑Oij / N = 50 / 5 = 10 Particulars Observed frequency (Oij) Expected frequency (Eij) Oij-Eij (Oij-Eij)2 (Oij-Eij)2 / Eij Highly satisfied 10 10 0 0 0 Satisfied 25 10 15 225 22.5 Moderate 8 10 -2 4 0.4 Dissatisfied 3 10 -7 49 4.9 Highly Dissatisfied 4 10 -6 36 3.6
  • 66. ∑ (Oij-Eij) 2 / Eij = 31.47 Calculated value is 31.47 Degree of freedom = (n-1) n = (5- 1) = 4. From the table for the degree of freedom value is 3.357 Calculated value is 31.47 INFERENCE: From the above calculation, calculated value is 31.6 and from the table value is 3.357.so calculated value is greater than the table value so there the null hypothesis is rejected so there is significant difference in overall satisfaction level of the employees with colleagues and superior relationship in the southern railways Madurai division.
  • 67. FINDINGS  It was found that majority of the respondents are having the age limit 35-40 in the southern railways Madurai division.  The researcher found that 50% of the respondents are having the experience status as more than 10 years in southern railways Madurai division.  The study reveals that 46% of the respondents mentioned the personal reasons for their absence in southern railways Madurai division.  While analyzing the researcher it was found 80% of the respondents didn’t avail leave for coming late to the office at late time in southern railways Madurai division.  It was found that majority of the respondents were absent from work due to political and social engagement force in southern railways Madurai division.  It was found that majority of the respondents were absent from work due to heavy work load and political & social engagement.  The study reveals that 66 percent of the respondents were given clear intimation about their absence from work to their superiors in southern railways Madurai division.  From the analysis researcher found 80% of the respondents took leave to avoid some critical official situations in southern railways Madurai division.  From the analysis it was found that 52% of the respondents stated incentives and wages hike is the factor to enhances the employee regularity in the southern railways Madurai division.  It was found that 44% of the respondents mentioned development in the attendance policy is the major factor which will reduce absenteeism in the southern railways Madurai division.  The study reveals that 80% of the respondents are satisfied with the welfare facilities in the southern railways Madurai division.  The study reveals that 46% of the respondents are satisfied with their working environment in the southern railways Madurai division.  From the analysis researcher found 50% of the respondents was felt moderate level of relationship maintaining with their colleagues and superiors southern railways Madurai division.
  • 68.  The study reveals that 40 percent of the respondents agree about the topic “study on employee absenteeism towards southern railways Madurai division” is useful one to our organization in future.
  • 69. SUGGESTIONS  It is suggested that the employees work load can be reduced to reduce the absenteeism in the southern railways Madurai division.  It is suggested that the superior can maintain a harmonic relation with the employee so that the intimation about the leave is possible southern railways Madurai division.  It is suggested that the critical official situation can be given to top level management neither giving to the employees.  It is suggested that the wages and incentives cab be revised periodically to reduce the absenteeism southern railways Madurai division.  It is suggested that the organization can review its attendance policy periodically to reduce the absenteeism southern railways Madurai division.  It is suggested that the organization can improve the welfare facilities southern railways Madurai division. It is suggested that the organization must Convey the leave facilities to all the employees at the time of joining the company. It is suggested to Conduct regular medical examinations for employees so that it improves work environment and reduce absenteeism. It is suggested to Conduct regular training sessions for emp loyees to understand the problems faced by the employees in the work.
  • 70. CONCLUSION Southern railways is the largest monopoly sector in India. It is being one of the oldest and biggest public sector in India is also a victim of absenteeism. There are several reasons for employees absenteeism in this particular organization such as Domestic problems, Lack of co- ordination among the colleagues, and others. However, the absenteeism can be controlled and minimized by implementing good working condition, etc. Hence, it can be concluded that people are the assets in any organization and absenteeism is the practice or habit o f being absence therefore the organization has to overcome such habitual stays. Even though company is providing with sufficient facilities to the employees to an extent. The company may provide some more facilities like proper ventilation, medical facilities, transport facilities and welfare activities which would reduce absenteeism and enhance the employees to work more efficiently and effectively for achieving the organizational objectives.
  • 71. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Text Books 1. Research Methodology Methods and Techniques (Second Revised Edition) C.R. Kothari. 2. Mamoria C.B. and Mamoria S. Personnel Management, Himalaya Publishing Company, 2007 3. K. Aswathappa (2005) Human Resource and Personnel Management, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill Com. 4. Ivancevich, Human Resource Management, McGraw Hill 2002. Websites: www.a2zmba.com www.managementparadise.com www.wekipidia.com