<ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Management is a critical element in the economic growth of a country.  </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Management coordinates current organizational activities and plans future ones.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the words of...
<ul><li>DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Parker Follett. - Management, she says, is the &quot;art of gettin...
<ul><li>George R. Terry defines management as a process &quot;consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controllin...
<ul><li>MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS OR THE PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Some classify these functions into four types,...
<ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Planning is the function that determines in advance what should be done.  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Directing </li></ul><ul><li>This can be called by various names: 'leading’, 'directing, 'motivating&quot;, 'actuat...
<ul><li>MANAGEMENT PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>The four functions do not necessarily occur in the sequence presented in our ...
Controlling   Planning Directing     Organizing Fig. 1  Management Process
<ul><li>ROLES OF A MANAGER </li></ul><ul><li>Hen ry Mintzberg suggested the manager should be regarded as playing some ten...
<ul><li>Informational Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor:  As monitor, the manager has to perpetually scan his environment fo...
<ul><li>Decisional Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur:  In this role, the manager constantly looks out for new ideas and...
<ul><li>LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Although all managers perform the same functions of planning, organizing, d...
<ul><li>SKILLS OF MANAGERIAL  </li></ul><ul><li>To discharge roles successfully, a manager should possess three major skil...
<ul><li>The technical skill  is the manager's understanding of the nature of job that people under him have to perform.  <...
<ul><li>Human relations skill  is the ability to interact effectively with people at all levels.  </li></ul><ul><li>to rec...
Top Management Middle Management Supervisory Level <ul><li>At the top level, technical skill becomes least important.  </l...
<ul><li>MANAGEMENT-A SCIENCE OR AN ART? </li></ul><ul><li>Management as a Science </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a disciplin...
<ul><li>Assignment 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss – Management is an Art and Science. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the School M...
<ul><li>ORGANIZATION - MEANING </li></ul><ul><li>What is an organization?  </li></ul><ul><li>According to Amitai Etzioni ,...
<ul><li>WHY STUDY ORGANIZATIONS? </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations pervade all the important phases of man's life.  </li></u...
<ul><li>Characteristics of Organizations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal Oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinct structur...
<ul><li>Principles of Organization: </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives  </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Span ...
<ul><li>Departmentalization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal Distribution of Activities  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizat...
<ul><li>The contingency view of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Typ...
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Ch1 Managemnet and Organization

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Ch1 Managemnet and Organization

  1. 1. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Management is a critical element in the economic growth of a country. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need of bringing together the people, money, material and machines for this purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>A country with enough capital, manpower and other natural resources can still be poor if it does not have competent managers to combine and coordinate these resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Drucker rightly observes that without management, a country's resources of production remain resources and never become production. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Management coordinates current organizational activities and plans future ones. </li></ul><ul><li>In the words of Claude S. George, management is &quot;the central core of our national as well as personal activities, and the way we manage ourselves and our institutions reflects with alarming clarity what we and our society will become.&quot; </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Parker Follett. - Management, she says, is the &quot;art of getting things done through people.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>A manager is one who contributes to the organization's goals indirectly by directing the efforts of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses: </li></ul><ul><li>It uses the word 'art' in defining management. </li></ul><ul><li>Art deals with the application of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Management is not merely application of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>It also involves acquisition of knowledge i.e., science. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>George R. Terry defines management as a process &quot;consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The four management activities included in this process are: planning, organizing, actuating and controlling. </li></ul><ul><li>This definition states that management involves the act of achieving the organization's objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever the objectives of a particular organization, management is the process by which the objectives are achieved. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS OR THE PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Some classify these functions into four types, some into five and some into six or seven. </li></ul><ul><li>Newman and Summer recognize organizing, planning, leading and controlling . </li></ul><ul><li>Henri Fayol identifies planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Planning is the function that determines in advance what should be done. </li></ul><ul><li>It is looking ahead and preparing for the future. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the determination of what is to be done, how and where it is to be done, who is to do it and how results are to be evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a function which is performed by managers at all levels—top, middle and supervisory. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Once managers establish objectives and plans they must design and develop a human organization that will be able to carry out those plans successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>The organization refers to the &quot;structure which results from identifying and grouping work, defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and establishing relationships;“ </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Directing </li></ul><ul><li>This can be called by various names: 'leading’, 'directing, 'motivating&quot;, 'actuating&quot;, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Directing involves three sub-functions—communication, leadership and motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul><ul><li>The manager must ensure that everything occurs in conformity with the plans adopted, the instructions issued and the principles established. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the controlling function of management, and involves three elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing standards of performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring current performance and comparing it against the established standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking action to correct any performance that does not meet those standards. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>MANAGEMENT PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>The four functions do not necessarily occur in the sequence presented in our model. </li></ul><ul><li>Various combinations of these activities usually go on simultaneously in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Haimann has rightly observed that it is helpful to think of these managerial functions as a circular, continuous movement. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Controlling Planning Directing Organizing Fig. 1 Management Process
  10. 10. <ul><li>ROLES OF A MANAGER </li></ul><ul><li>Hen ry Mintzberg suggested the manager should be regarded as playing some ten different roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Figurehead: In this role, every manager has to perform some duties of a ceremonial nature, such as greeting the touring dignitaries, attending the wedding of an employee etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Leader: As a leader, every manager must motivate and encourage his/her employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison: In his role of liaison, every manager must cultivate contacts outside his vertical chain of command to collect information useful for his organization. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Informational Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor: As monitor, the manager has to perpetually scan his environment for information, interrogate his liaison contacts and his subordinates, and receive unsolicited information, much of it as a result of the network of personal contacts he has developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminator: In the role of a disseminator, the manager passes some of his privileged information directly to his subordinates who would otherwise have no access to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Spokesman: In this role, the manager informs and satisfies various groups and people who influence his organization. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Decisional Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur: In this role, the manager constantly looks out for new ideas and seeks to improve his unit by adapting it to changing conditions in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance: He must seek solutions of various unanticipated problems—a strike may loom large, a major customer may go bankrupt, a supplier may renege on his contract, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Allocator: In this role, the manager must divide work and delegate authority among his subordinates. He must decide who will get what. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiator: The manager has to spend considerable time in negotiations. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Although all managers perform the same functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling, there are levels among them, They are: </li></ul><ul><li>The lower management group is made up of foremen and white collar supervisors, men and women who are only one step above the rank and file. </li></ul><ul><li>The middle management , a vast and diverse group that includes sales managers, plant managers, personnel managers and many other departments heads. </li></ul><ul><li>The top management consisting of the board chairman, the company presidents, the executive vice-presidents, i.e. the men who coordinate all the specialties and make policies for the company as a whole. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>SKILLS OF MANAGERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>To discharge roles successfully, a manager should possess three major skills. </li></ul><ul><li>These are: conceptual skill, human relations skill and technical skill . </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual skill deals with ideas, Technical skill with things and Human skill with people. </li></ul><ul><li>While both conceptual and technical skills are needed for good decision-making, human skill is necessary for a good leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual skill </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual skill is his ability to conceptualize the environment, the organization, and his own job, so that he can set appropriate goals for his organization, for himself and for his team. </li></ul><ul><li>This skill seems to increase in importance as a manager move up to higher positions of responsibility in the organization. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The technical skill is the manager's understanding of the nature of job that people under him have to perform. </li></ul><ul><li>It refers to a person's knowledge and proficiency in any type of process or technique. </li></ul><ul><li>In a production department, this would mean an understanding of the technicalities of the process of production. </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas this type of skill and competence seems to be more important at the lower levels of management, its relative importance as a part of the managerial role diminishes as the manager moves to higher positions. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Human relations skill is the ability to interact effectively with people at all levels. </li></ul><ul><li>to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others; to judge the possible reactions to, and outcomes of various courses of action he may undertake; and </li></ul><ul><li>to examine his own concepts and values which may enable him to develop more useful attitudes about himself. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of skill remains consistently important for managers at all levels. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Top Management Middle Management Supervisory Level <ul><li>At the top level, technical skill becomes least important. </li></ul><ul><li>That is why, people at the top shift with great ease from one organization to another without an apparent fall in their efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Their human and conceptual skills seem to make up for their unfamiliarity with the new job's technical aspects. </li></ul>Fig. 2 Skill-mix at different management levels Conceptual Skill Human Relation Skill Technical Skill
  18. 18. <ul><li>MANAGEMENT-A SCIENCE OR AN ART? </li></ul><ul><li>Management as a Science </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a discipline a science? Should the discipline involve the use of a laboratory in order to be called a science? Obviously not. </li></ul><ul><li>They are implicit in the method of inquiry used by a discipline for gathering the data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can call a discipline scientific if its methods of inquiry are systematic and empirical; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information can be ordered and analysed; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>results are cumulative and communicable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Being systematic means being orderly and unbiased. </li></ul><ul><li>Further, the inquiry must be empirical, replicative and not merely an armchair speculation. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Assignment 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss – Management is an Art and Science. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the School Management in terms of four functions of management </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>ORGANIZATION - MEANING </li></ul><ul><li>What is an organization? </li></ul><ul><li>According to Amitai Etzioni , an organization is a social unit or human grouping, deliberately structured for the purpose of attaining specific goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, corporations, armies, schools, hospitals, churches, prisons, etc. all are organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>But tribes, ethnic and friendship groups and families are not organizations because they do not involve any significant amount of conscious planning or deliberate structuring. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>WHY STUDY ORGANIZATIONS? </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations pervade all the important phases of man's life. </li></ul><ul><li>A man is born in organizations (hospitals or clinics), he is educated in organizations (schools, colleges and universities) and he works in organizations (offices or factories). </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations satisfy and sometimes frustrate different kinds of human needs. </li></ul><ul><li>They also satisfy various types of security, social and egoistic needs of their people. </li></ul><ul><li>They learn various things, such as how to proact to environmental needs, how to motivate subordinates, how to manage conflict, how to introduce change and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>To behavioural scientists, organizations serve as a great natural laboratory. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Characteristics of Organizations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal Oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinct structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively Permanent entities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process some kind of input turning to output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interact with other organizational systems and they have to change internally to keep with external changes and pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop policies, procedures and practices over time. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Principles of Organization: </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Span of Control </li></ul><ul><li>Exception – exceptionally complex problems referred to top management. </li></ul><ul><li>Scalar Principle – Chain of Command or Line of authority </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of Command – (one employee – one supervisor) </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilty </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity – structure to be simple </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility – adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Ability </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Departmentalization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal Distribution of Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall Organizations (Mechanist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merits & Demerits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat Organization (Organic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merits & Demerits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which Type is best? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal or informal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The contingency view of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Level of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Size of an Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Span of Control </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Personal Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Characteristics </li></ul>

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