SKELETOL SYSTEM – SUB UNIT                                       CHAPTER –                                LOCOMOTION AND M...
Fig. 6.10
Functions of the Bones1.Support2.Protection3.Movement4.Storage5.Hematopoiesis
Table. 6.1
AXIAL SKELETONI. SKULL   = skeleton --- head & face   = flattened & irregular   = united by joints (sutures)Cranium -- sku...
Bones of the Skull                                                                           Figure 5.11Copyright © 2003 P...
Divisions of the bones of the skulla. Cerebral / cranial bones / brain case (8 bones)   unpaired (4)                      ...
Fig. 6.13
Figure 5.10Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Fontanelle=   membrane filled spaces found in the    skull of newborn infants    ex. 1. anterior = largest        2. poste...
Allows forgrowth
Fig. 6.37
AXIAL SKELETONI.    HYOID BONE      = small U-shape; lies in front of the neck      = base of the tongue is attached      ...
Fig. 6.16
AXIAL SKELETONI.   VERTEBRAL COLUMN     = long, curved, slightly movable pillar     = united together by cartilage & ligam...
VERTEBRAL COLUMNClassification of vertebra   young                     adult       cervical              07               ...
VERTEBRAL COLUMNGeneral parts of vertebrae1. body2. arch3. pedicle or root4. lamina5. transverse process6. articular proce...
Special characteristics of individual vertebrae a. Cervical vertebrae (7) = forms the    skeleton of the neck, all have tr...
c. Lumbar vertebrae (5) = presence of   mamillary   &           accessory   processes = triangular vertebral   foramend. S...
Fig. 6.17
Fig. 6.18
Fig. 6.20
AXIAL SKELETONI. STERNUM (breast bone)=   flat bone, found -- anterior thoracic   wall= composed of 2 plates of compact bo...
AXIAL SKELETONI.    RIBS (12 pairs) = narrow arched flat bones with 2      ends.      1. vertebral - posterior; attaches w...
Fig. 6.21
APPENDICULAR SKELETONBONES of the UPPER EXTREMITY (UE)1. Clavicle (collar bone)2. Scapula (shoulder blade) – articulates w...
BONES of the UPPER EXTREMITY (UE)6.   Carpals (wrist bone) - 8 bones arranged into     2 rows - proximal & distal rows7.  ...
Fig. 6.26
Fig. 6.22
Fig. 6.27
APPENDICULAR SKELETONBONES of the LOWER EXTREMITY (LE)1. Hip bone (innominate bone)        right & left hip bones + sacrum...
Fig. 6.29
Fig. 6.30
Fig. 6.31
Fig. 6.32
Fig. 6.33
Fig. 6.34
BONES of the LOWER EXTREMITY5. Tarsals (ankle bone) = short bones;   2 rows: internal & external rows6. Metatarsals (bones...
Fig. 6.35
Common Fracturesgreenstick fracture = the bone does notbreak all of the way through.simple, or closed     =   when the   b...
Fig. 6B
Fig. 6C
Bone DeformationRickets can result frominsufficient vitamin D in thediet or from insufficientamounts of ultravioletradiati...
JOINTS
JOINTS    = a site where 2 or more bones           come together whether           with movement or noneARTHROLOGY
JOINTSCLASSIFICATION:1. Fibrous joints      = articulating bone surfaces      = sutures of skull, inferior tibiofibular jo...
JOINTCLASSIFICATION:      cont’n.2. Cartilagenous joints       2 types:      a. Primary - united by a plate or bar of     ...
JOINTCLASSIFICATION:   cont’n.1.   Synovial joints     = articular surfaces of bones covered by     thin layer of hyaline ...
JOINTCLASSIFICATION ACCORDING to DEGREE of      MOVEMENTI.   Synarthroses     = immovable joints     = articulating surfac...
JOINTSynarthroses a. Sutures - bones of the skull b. Schindylosis - bony plate inserted into a        cleft or fissure    ...
JOINTCLASSIFICATION ACCORDING to DEGREE of      MOVEMENT (cont’n)I.   Amphiarthroses     = slightly movable joints     = a...
JOINTCLASSIFICATION ACCORDING to DEGREE of      MOVEMENT (cont’n)I.      Diarthroses        = freely movable joints     Ty...
Diarthroses      c. Pivot joints (trochoid)        = central body pivot surrounded by a bony                ligamentous ri...
Diarthroses      e. Ellipsoid        = elliptical convex articular surface that fit into an                elliptical conc...
Diarthroses      g. Ball & socket joints       = ball – shaped head of one bone fits into a               socket – like co...
Fig. 6.39a
Fig. 6.39b
POSSIBLE MOVEMENTS of JOINTS1. Gliding - simple slipping or rubbing of the apposed         flat surfaces             - no ...
POSSIBLE MOVEMENTS of JOINTS (cont’n)1.   Angular (cont’n)     c. Abduction - movement that carries extremity             ...
POSSIBLE MOVEMENTS of JOINTS (cont’n)6. Peculiar movements & positions      forearm & hand              a. Supination     ...
QUALITY IS NEVER AN ACCIDENT.IT IS     ALWAYS THE RESULT OF HIGH  AIM,SINCERE EFFORT,INTELLIGENT  DIRECTION AND PERFECT EX...
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
Skeletol system advanced
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Skeletol system advanced

  1. 1. SKELETOL SYSTEM – SUB UNIT CHAPTER – LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT DR.SRINIVAS REDDY PATIL M.Sc Zoology (Gold Medalist).,Ph.D (Reproductive Physiology)., M.Ed.,MBA.,PGDBA.,FMSPISaturday, February 9, 2013 DR.SRINIVASREDDY PATILS 1 BIOLOGY
  2. 2. Fig. 6.10
  3. 3. Functions of the Bones1.Support2.Protection3.Movement4.Storage5.Hematopoiesis
  4. 4. Table. 6.1
  5. 5. AXIAL SKELETONI. SKULL = skeleton --- head & face = flattened & irregular = united by joints (sutures)Cranium -- skull minus mandibleCalvarium -- skull after the bones of the face have been removedCavities:a. Cranial - contains the brainb. Orbital - contains eyeball & accessory organsc. Nasal
  6. 6. Bones of the Skull Figure 5.11Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. Divisions of the bones of the skulla. Cerebral / cranial bones / brain case (8 bones) unpaired (4) paired (4) 1. occipital 1. parietal 2. frontal 2. temporal 3. sphenoid 4. ethmoidb. Facial or visceral cranium paired (12) unpaired (2) a. Nasal a. Vomer b. Lacrimal b. Mandible c. Maxilla d. Zygomatic / malar / cheek bones e. Palatine f. Inferior nasal concha or turbinate
  8. 8. Fig. 6.13
  9. 9. Figure 5.10Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Fontanelle= membrane filled spaces found in the skull of newborn infants ex. 1. anterior = largest 2. posterior 3. anterolateral (sphenoidal) 4. posterolateral (mastoid)
  11. 11. Allows forgrowth
  12. 12. Fig. 6.37
  13. 13. AXIAL SKELETONI. HYOID BONE = small U-shape; lies in front of the neck = base of the tongue is attached = lies between mandible & thyroid cartilageII. OSSICLES = small bones of the ear a. Stapes (stirrup) 2 b. Incus (anvil) 2 c. Malleus (hammer) 2
  14. 14. Fig. 6.16
  15. 15. AXIAL SKELETONI. VERTEBRAL COLUMN = long, curved, slightly movable pillar = united together by cartilage & ligaments = 71 – 75 cm. long = formed by series of bones -- vertebraeFUNCTION:1. support of the trunk2. contains & protects the spinal cord & nerves
  16. 16. VERTEBRAL COLUMNClassification of vertebra young adult cervical 07 07 thoracic 12 12 lumbar 05 05 sacral 05 01 coccygeal 04 01 33 26Intervertebral discs = flattened plates of fibrocartilage that are interposed between the adjacent surfaces of the bodies of vertebraeFunction:1. uniting medium between vertebrae2. main shock absorber3. give flexibility & movement to the whole vertebral column
  17. 17. VERTEBRAL COLUMNGeneral parts of vertebrae1. body2. arch3. pedicle or root4. lamina5. transverse process6. articular process7. spinous process8. spinal or vertebral foramen
  18. 18. Special characteristics of individual vertebrae a. Cervical vertebrae (7) = forms the skeleton of the neck, all have transverse foramen atypical cervical vertebrae: 1. atlas -- 1st 2. axis or epistropheus = 2nd 3. 7th cervical vertebrae = spinous process not bifid, small transverse foramen b. Thoracic vertebrae (12) = costal pits - rib attachment = circular vertebral canal
  19. 19. c. Lumbar vertebrae (5) = presence of mamillary & accessory processes = triangular vertebral foramend. Sacrum = inverted triangular bone situated between hip bonese. Coccygeal vertebrae (1) = 4 small incomplete vertebrae fused to form the coccyx / tail bone; triangular
  20. 20. Fig. 6.17
  21. 21. Fig. 6.18
  22. 22. Fig. 6.20
  23. 23. AXIAL SKELETONI. STERNUM (breast bone)= flat bone, found -- anterior thoracic wall= composed of 2 plates of compact bone with a layer of spongy bone in between containing red bone marrow.PARTS: a. Manubrium b. Corpus or body c. Xiphoid process
  24. 24. AXIAL SKELETONI. RIBS (12 pairs) = narrow arched flat bones with 2 ends. 1. vertebral - posterior; attaches with thoracic 2. sternal - anterior; attaches with costal cartilagesClassification of ribs:a. Sternal or true ribs (1st to 7th) - ribs whose costal cartilages are directly attached to sternumb. Asternal or false ribs (8th to 12th) - ribs whose costal cartilages are not attached directly to the sternum but to 7thsubdivisions: 1. false rib proper - 8th, 9th, 10th ribs 2. floating or hanging ribs – 11th & 12th
  25. 25. Fig. 6.21
  26. 26. APPENDICULAR SKELETONBONES of the UPPER EXTREMITY (UE)1. Clavicle (collar bone)2. Scapula (shoulder blade) – articulates with humerus & clavicle3. Humerus (arm bone) - longest & largest bone of UE articulates with scapula (above) radius & ulna (below)4. Radius - lateral bone of the forearm; cup- shaped head5. Ulna - principal bone of the forearm; longer & larger than radius
  27. 27. BONES of the UPPER EXTREMITY (UE)6. Carpals (wrist bone) - 8 bones arranged into 2 rows - proximal & distal rows7. Metacarpals (bones of the hand) - 5 long bones placed between carpals & phalanges - numbered from lateral to medial Phalanges (bones of the fingers) = 14 long bones of the fingers -- 3 bones except thumb - 2 bones
  28. 28. Fig. 6.26
  29. 29. Fig. 6.22
  30. 30. Fig. 6.27
  31. 31. APPENDICULAR SKELETONBONES of the LOWER EXTREMITY (LE)1. Hip bone (innominate bone) right & left hip bones + sacrum = pelvic girdle 3 bones: 1. ilium* 2. ischium* *Converge on acetabulum  a concave fossa -- articulates with 3. pubis* head of femur  form hip joint2. Femur (thigh) = longest, strongest, largest bone in the body3. Tibia (shin bone) = long bone; anterior, medial, & larger of the 2 bones of the leg4. Fibula (peroneal bone) = long slender bone placed parallel with the tibia but located laterally
  32. 32. Fig. 6.29
  33. 33. Fig. 6.30
  34. 34. Fig. 6.31
  35. 35. Fig. 6.32
  36. 36. Fig. 6.33
  37. 37. Fig. 6.34
  38. 38. BONES of the LOWER EXTREMITY5. Tarsals (ankle bone) = short bones; 2 rows: internal & external rows6. Metatarsals (bones of foot) = 5 long bones numbered from medial to lateral7. Phalanges (bones of toes) = similar to bones of the fingers
  39. 39. Fig. 6.35
  40. 40. Common Fracturesgreenstick fracture = the bone does notbreak all of the way through.simple, or closed = when the bonebreaks but the skin does not.compound, or open = when the brokenbone tears through the skin, introducingthe dangerous possibility of infection.The area around a break swells anddiscolors, but some fractures can bedetected only by X-ray.The weakened bones of the elderly are
  41. 41. Fig. 6B
  42. 42. Fig. 6C
  43. 43. Bone DeformationRickets can result frominsufficient vitamin D in thediet or from insufficientamounts of ultravioletradiation from the sun.It can lead to skeletaldeformation, such asvertebral or leg curvature.
  44. 44. JOINTS
  45. 45. JOINTS = a site where 2 or more bones come together whether with movement or noneARTHROLOGY
  46. 46. JOINTSCLASSIFICATION:1. Fibrous joints = articulating bone surfaces = sutures of skull, inferior tibiofibular joints = very little movement possible
  47. 47. JOINTCLASSIFICATION: cont’n.2. Cartilagenous joints 2 types: a. Primary - united by a plate or bar of hyaline cartilage b. Secondary - united by a plate of fibrocartilage = articular surfaces of bones -- covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage = small amount of movement
  48. 48. JOINTCLASSIFICATION: cont’n.1. Synovial joints = articular surfaces of bones covered by thin layer of hyaline cartilage separated by a joint cavity = permits great degree of movement
  49. 49. JOINTCLASSIFICATION ACCORDING to DEGREE of MOVEMENTI. Synarthroses = immovable joints = articulating surface is in direct contact = uniting medium: fibrous tissue hyaline cartilage fibrocartilage
  50. 50. JOINTSynarthroses a. Sutures - bones of the skull b. Schindylosis - bony plate inserted into a cleft or fissure e.g.: vomer into maxilla, palatine bones c. Gomphosis - a conical process received into corresponding socket e.g.: root of teeth into alveolus of maxilla or mandible d. Synchondrosis - a cartilagenous medium which later may ossify e.g.: between epiphysis & diaphysis of long bone
  51. 51. JOINTCLASSIFICATION ACCORDING to DEGREE of MOVEMENT (cont’n)I. Amphiarthroses = slightly movable joints = articulating surfaces connected by a wide disc of fibrocartilage a. Symphysis - uniting medium: fibrocartilage e.g.: symphysis pubis b. Syndesmosis - large amount of fibrous connective tissue  wide membrane e.g.: interosseous membrane between radius & ulna
  52. 52. JOINTCLASSIFICATION ACCORDING to DEGREE of MOVEMENT (cont’n)I. Diarthroses = freely movable joints Types: a. Articular surfaces covered by hyaline cartilage e.g.: sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular joints b. Hinge joints (ginglymus) = flexion & extension movements possible e.g.: elbow, knee, ankle
  53. 53. Diarthroses c. Pivot joints (trochoid) = central body pivot surrounded by a bony ligamentous ring = possible movement is rotation only e.g.: atlantoaxial & superior radioulnar joints d. Condyloid = have 2 distinct convex surfaces that articulate with 2 concave surfaces = flexion, extension, adduction, abduction possible = small amount of rotation e.g.: metacarpophalangeal metatarsophalangeal joints
  54. 54. Diarthroses e. Ellipsoid = elliptical convex articular surface that fit into an elliptical concave articular surface = F, E, add., abd. possible = rotation impossible e.g.: wrist joint f. Saddle joints = articular surfaces are reciprocally concavoconvex, resembling saddle on a horse’s back = F, E, add., abd., rotation possible e.g.: carpometacarpal joint of thumb
  55. 55. Diarthroses g. Ball & socket joints = ball – shaped head of one bone fits into a socket – like concavity of another = free movements possible: F, E, add., abd., medial rotation, lateral rotation, circumduction e.g.: acetabulum of hip bone with head of thigh bone
  56. 56. Fig. 6.39a
  57. 57. Fig. 6.39b
  58. 58. POSSIBLE MOVEMENTS of JOINTS1. Gliding - simple slipping or rubbing of the apposed flat surfaces - no angular or rotary movement e.g.: in between vertebral bodies2. Angular - generally found in long bones a. Flexion - movement that forms an acute angulation between 2 approximating joints = angle is decreased b. Extension - movement that form an obtuse angulation between 2 parts = angle is increased
  59. 59. POSSIBLE MOVEMENTS of JOINTS (cont’n)1. Angular (cont’n) c. Abduction - movement that carries extremity away from the median plane of the body d. Adduction - movement that carries extremity towards the median plane of the body4. Circumduction - circular motion5. Rotation - movement along a central axis without the bones being displaced from such axis - directed medially or laterally
  60. 60. POSSIBLE MOVEMENTS of JOINTS (cont’n)6. Peculiar movements & positions forearm & hand a. Supination b. Pronation foot a. Inversion - plantar surface of the foot directed towards the median plane b. Eversion - plantar surface of the foot directed away from the median plane
  61. 61. QUALITY IS NEVER AN ACCIDENT.IT IS ALWAYS THE RESULT OF HIGH AIM,SINCERE EFFORT,INTELLIGENT DIRECTION AND PERFECT EXECUTION

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