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Child labour presentation
 

Child labour presentation

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powerpoint presentation on child labour

powerpoint presentation on child labour

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    Child labour presentation Child labour presentation Presentation Transcript

    • CONTENTS  Introduction  Categories of child labour  Child labour in India  Basic reasons for child labour  Consequences of child labour  Some facts about child labour  Child labour in Statistics  Child labour laws in India (legal)  Child labour: STILL A BIG CHALLENGE  Conclusion
    • Child labour is the practice of having children engage in economic activity, on part or full-time basis. The practice deprives children of their childhood, and is harmful to their physical and mental development. Poverty, lack of good schools and growth of informal economy are considered as the important causes of child labour in India. INTRODUCTION
    • Harvesting rice
    • Poverty and Hazardous Child Labour: A Vicious Circle
    • Preparing tobacco leaves
    • According to the Census 2001 figures there are 1.26 crore working children in the age group of 5-14 as compared to the total child population of 25.2 crore. There are approximately 12 lacs children working in the hazardous occupations/processes which are covered under the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act i.e. 18 occupations and 65 processes. However, as per survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) in 2004-05, the number of working children is estimated at 90.75 lakh. It shows that the efforts of the Government have borne the desired fruits. CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA
    • Metal worke r
    • CAUSES  PRIMARY CAUSES  CULTURAL CAUSES  MACROECONOMIC CAUSES
    • PRIMARY CAUSES International Labour Organization (ILO) suggests poverty is the greatest single cause behind child labour. For impoverished households, income from a child's work is usually crucial for his or her own survival or for that of the household. Income from working children, even if small, may be between 25 to 40% of these household income. Other scholars such as Harsch on African child labour, and Edmonds and Pavcnik on global child labour have reached the same conclusion.
    • CULTURAL CAUSES In European history when child labour was common, as well as in contemporary child labour of modern world, certain cultural beliefs have rationalized child labour and thereby encouraged it. Some view that work is good for the character-building and skill development of children. In many cultures, particular where informal economy and small household businesses thrive, the cultural tradition is that children follow in their parents' footsteps; child labour then is a means to learn and practice that trade from a very early age. Similarly, in many cultures the education of girls is less valued or girls are simply not expected to need formal schooling, and these girls pushed into child labour such as providing domestic services.
    • MACROECONOMIC CAUSES Biggeri and Mehrotra have studied the macroeconomic factors that encourage child labour. They focus their study on five Asian nations including India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand and Philippines. They suggest that child labour is a serious problem in all five, but it is not a new problem. Macroeconomic causes encouraged widespread child labour across the world, over most of human history. They suggest that the causes for child labour include both the demand and the supply side. While poverty and unavailability of good schools explain the child labour supply side, they suggest that the growth of low paying informal economy rather than higher paying formal economy is amongst the causes of the demand side. Other scholars too suggest that inflexible labour market, size of informal economy, inability of industries to scale up and lack of modern manufacturing technologies are major macroeconomic factors affecting demand and acceptability of child labour.
    • Electroplat e worker
    • Consequences of child labour The presence of a large number of child laborers is regarded as a serious issue in terms of economic welfare. Children who work fail to get necessary education. They do not get the opportunity to develop physically, intellectually, emotionally and psychologically. In terms of the physical condition of children, children are not ready for long monotous work because they become exhausted more quickly than adults. This reduces their physical conditions and makes the children more vulnerable to disease. Children in hazardous working conditions are even in worse condition. Children who work, instead of going to school, will remain illiterate which limits their ability to contribute to their own well being as well as to community they live in. Child labour has long term adverse effects for India.
    • Stitching soccer balls
    • SOME FACTS ABOUT CHILD LABOUR  According to the Indian census of 1991, there are 11.28 million working children under the age if fourteen years in India.  Over 85% of this child labour is in the country’s rural areas, working in agricultural activities such as farming, livestock, rearing, forestry and fisheries.  The world’s highest number of working children is in India. ILO estimates that 218 million children were involved in child labour in 2004, of which 126 million were engaged in hazardous work.  The Hindi belt, including Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, account for 1.27 crore working children in the country, engaged in both hazardous and non-hazardous occupations and processes.  Over 19 lakh children labourers in the 5-14 age group are in Uttar Pradesh. Rajasthan accounts for over 12.6 lakh workers followed by Bihar with over 11 lakh and Madhya Pradesh with 10.6 lakh.  However, according to the 2001 census, Andhra Pradesh with 13.6 lakh child labour stands second in the national lust after UP.
    • A child repairing tyres
    • Where does most child labour occur?
    • Child labour laws & initiatives After its independence from colonial rule, India has passed a number of constitutional protections and laws on child labour. The Constitution of India in the Fundamental Rights and the Directive of State Policy prohibits child labour below the age of 14 years in any factory or mine or castle or engaged in any other hazardous employment (Article 24). The constitution also envisioned that India shall, by 1960, provide infrastructure and resources for free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to 14 years. (Article 21-A and Article 45).
    • The major national legislative developments include the following: The Factories Act of 1948: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory. The law also placed rules on who, when and how long can pre-adults aged 15–18 years be employed in any factory. The Mines Act of 1952: The Act prohibits the employment of children below 18 years of age in a mine. The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986: The Act prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in hazardous occupations identified in a list by the law. The list was expanded in 2006, and again in 2008. The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) of Children Act of 2000: This law made it a crime, punishable with a prison term, for anyone to procure or employ a child in any hazardous employment or in bondage. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009: The law mandates free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14 years. This legislation also mandated that 25 percent of seats in every private school must be allocated for children from disadvantaged groups and physically challenged children.
    • In 1979, the Indian government formed the Gurupadswamy Committee to find about child labour and means to tackle it. The Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act was not enacted based on the recommendations of the committee in 1986.[citation needed] A National Policy on Child Labour was formulated in 1987 to focus on rehabilitating children working in hazardous occupations.[73] The Ministry of Labour and Employment had implemented around 100 industry-specific National Child Labour Projects to rehabilitate the child workers since 1988. Initiatives against child labour
    • Non-governmental organizations Many NGOs like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, CARE India, Child Rights and You, Global march against child labour, RIDE India etc. have been working to eradicate child labour in India. Pratham is India's largest non-governmental organization with the mission 'every child in school and learning well.' Founded in 1994, Pratham has aimed to reduce child labour and offer schooling to children irrespective of their gender, religion and social background. It has grown by introducing low cost education models that are sustainable and reproducible. Child labour has also been a subject of public interest litigations in Indian courts.
    • CHILD LABOUR: STILL A BIG CHALLENGE Despite a law in force in India, prohibiting child labour, millions of children to be employed in homes, at roadside restaurants and in factories across the country. These young kids are also subjected to exploitation in various other ways, including sexual and mental abuse. With June 12 being observed as anti- child labour day, activists alleged that lack of enforcement of the Child Labour Act and no rehabilitation has been fueling child labour.
    • Forward Steps : The ideal scenario on Child Welfare would be when every child enjoys the fullness of childhood through education, recreation and adequate health facilities. It is impossible to attain these facilities by the child labour. All the children were able to enjoy the completeness of childhood only :  When the true conscience of the nation is awakened.  When all the policy makers and the bureaucrats take the issue of child labour seriously and commit themselves to the cause of the holistic development of every child in India.  When the employees would not even contemplate the idea of employing a child for any work which might deny the child of a normal childhood.  When all Policies laid down by the Government under various Plans and Laws were implemented properly.
    • What ‘We’ can do as a person to stop child labour? • To donate funds in NGOs working for the rehabilitation of street children. • To contact NGOs and make them aware about child labour happening in our society. • To make the rural people aware about the benefits of education. • To provide free education for the orphans. • To start campaign against child labour. • To help the government to stop child labour.
    • SAY NO TO CHILD LABOUR
    • Conclusion The problem of child labour continues to pose a challenge before the nation. Government has been taking various pro-active measures to tackle this problem. However, considering the magnitude and extent of the problem and that it is essentially a socio-economic problem inextricably linked to poverty and illiteracy, it requires concerted efforts from all society to make a dent in the problem. The social evil of child labour can be brought under control, if each individual takes responsibility of prevailing child labour. Each and every citizen should be aware of their responsibilities and should take corrective measures to stop child labour, so that we can have a better and developed India. Child labour can be controlled if the government functions effectively with the support of the public.