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Unit 11  Meiosis
Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>No gametes </li></ul><ul><li>No fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>...
Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>Hydra – budding </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria – binary fission </li></ul><ul><li>Flatworm – rege...
Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Production of offspring from the fusion of two gametes. </li></ul><ul><li>- sperm – male gamet...
Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Maintain genetic diversity (variation) in populations. </li></ul><ul><li>- promotes variation ...
Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>The sexes of vertebrates are separate </li></ul><ul><li>Hermaphrodite – organism that has both...
Fertilization <ul><li>Joining of sperm and egg </li></ul><ul><li>Restores the diploid chromosome number. </li></ul><ul><li...
External Fertilization <ul><li>Eggs fertilized outside the female’s body </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic animals </li></ul><ul><...
Internal Fertilization <ul><li>Eggs fertilized inside the female’s body </li></ul><ul><li>Favors animals that live on land...
Vertebrate Reproduction and Development <ul><li>Monotremes </li></ul><ul><li>- egg laying mammals </li></ul><ul><li>- inte...
<ul><li>Marsupials </li></ul><ul><li>- mammals with pouches </li></ul><ul><li>- internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>-...
<ul><li>Placental Mammals </li></ul><ul><li>- internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>- internal development </li></ul><u...
Advantages of Bearing Live Young <ul><li>Developing fetus not exposed to external environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Developin...
Egg Laying <ul><li>Amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>- external fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>- hundreds of eggs in water </l...
<ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><li>- internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>- one to four eggs </li></ul><ul><li>- hard she...
Bird Eggs <ul><li>Shell – hard for development on land </li></ul><ul><li>- oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse into </li></u...
<ul><li>Allantois </li></ul><ul><li>- stores waste produced by the embryo </li></ul><ul><li>- serves as respiratory organ ...
<ul><li>Yolk sac </li></ul><ul><li>- contains yolk </li></ul><ul><li>- food supply for the embryo </li></ul>
 
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Unit 11 Meiosis And Sexual Reproduction

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Transcript of "Unit 11 Meiosis And Sexual Reproduction"

  1. 1. Unit 11 Meiosis
  2. 2. Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>One parent </li></ul><ul><li>No gametes </li></ul><ul><li>No fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring identical </li></ul><ul><li>Advantageous in constant environment because offspring can be produced in a short time. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>Hydra – budding </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria – binary fission </li></ul><ul><li>Flatworm – regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Insects – parthenogenesis (unfertilized egg develops) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Production of offspring from the fusion of two gametes. </li></ul><ul><li>- sperm – male gamete; haploid </li></ul><ul><li>- egg – female gamete; haploid </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Maintain genetic diversity (variation) in populations. </li></ul><ul><li>- promotes variation because offspring </li></ul><ul><li>inherit genes from 2 different parents </li></ul><ul><li>- crossing over </li></ul><ul><li>- variation is advantageous in fluctuating </li></ul><ul><li>environments </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>The sexes of vertebrates are separate </li></ul><ul><li>Hermaphrodite – organism that has both male and female reproductive organs </li></ul><ul><li>- Ex: earthworm </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fertilization <ul><li>Joining of sperm and egg </li></ul><ul><li>Restores the diploid chromosome number. </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>- Internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>- External fertilization </li></ul>
  8. 8. External Fertilization <ul><li>Eggs fertilized outside the female’s body </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic animals </li></ul><ul><li>- requires water because sperm must </li></ul><ul><li>swim to eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Many gametes must be released </li></ul><ul><li>Fish, amphibians </li></ul>
  9. 9. Internal Fertilization <ul><li>Eggs fertilized inside the female’s body </li></ul><ul><li>Favors animals that live on land </li></ul><ul><li>Internal embryonic development or lay shelled eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals, birds, reptiles </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vertebrate Reproduction and Development <ul><li>Monotremes </li></ul><ul><li>- egg laying mammals </li></ul><ul><li>- internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>- external development </li></ul><ul><li>- duckbill platypus </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Marsupials </li></ul><ul><li>- mammals with pouches </li></ul><ul><li>- internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>- complete their development </li></ul><ul><li>in external pouches </li></ul><ul><li>- Kangaroo, koalas, wombats </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Placental Mammals </li></ul><ul><li>- internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>- internal development </li></ul><ul><li>- Placenta </li></ul><ul><li>- nutrients and oxygen to embryo </li></ul><ul><li>- carbon dioxide & wastes from </li></ul><ul><li>embryo to mother </li></ul><ul><li>- allows the embryo to develop longer </li></ul>
  13. 13. Advantages of Bearing Live Young <ul><li>Developing fetus not exposed to external environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing fetus nourished internally by placenta. </li></ul><ul><li>Baby protected after birth </li></ul>
  14. 14. Egg Laying <ul><li>Amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>- external fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>- hundreds of eggs in water </li></ul><ul><li>Reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>- internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>- 1 – 200 eggs </li></ul><ul><li>- nests on land </li></ul><ul><li>- leathery eggs, no hard shell </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><li>- internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>- one to four eggs </li></ul><ul><li>- hard shells </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bird Eggs <ul><li>Shell – hard for development on land </li></ul><ul><li>- oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse into </li></ul><ul><li>and out through shell </li></ul><ul><li>Amnion </li></ul><ul><li>- fluid filled sac </li></ul><ul><li>- surrounds and cushions the embryo </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Allantois </li></ul><ul><li>- stores waste produced by the embryo </li></ul><ul><li>- serves as respiratory organ </li></ul><ul><li>Chorion </li></ul><ul><li>- regulates transport of oxygen and CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>between the embryo and surface of </li></ul><ul><li>egg </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Yolk sac </li></ul><ul><li>- contains yolk </li></ul><ul><li>- food supply for the embryo </li></ul>
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