Natural family planning

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family planning by s3(s-vyasa)

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  • The slides will give information about two methods of natural family planning. Abstinence was discussed at the beginning of the presentation – this is also a method of natural family planning. The two methods that will be presented in the following slides are - fertility awareness - withdrawal
  • - This method is commonly referred to as “pulling out”. - The withdrawal method prevents pregnancy by preventing semen from entering the woman’s vagina. A woman cannot get pregnant if the sperm and egg do not meet.
  • Withdrawal requires considerable self-control by the male. The man must rely on his body sensations to tell him when he will ejaculate. Some men have difficulty recognizing when they are about to ejaculate and have difficulty “pulling out” in time. -
  • There is a high pregnancy rate if it is not used correctly. The man must recognize he is going to ejaculate in time to pull out and away from the vagina. Some couples do not find the sex as pleasurable because of the interruption during the excitement phase of sex. Due to the high rate of failure - this method is not recommended if it is medically dangerous for a female to become pregnant. Withdrawal does not offer any protection against sexually transmitted infection (STI). Therefore it is still important to use condoms every time unless you are in a relationship with someone that has tested negative for STI.
  • In the early non-fertile phase of a woman’s cycle, the passageway from the vagina to the uterus is closed by thick mucus. Sperm are unable to pass through the cervix. In this picture, s perm appear much larger than they would be in reality
  • In the fertile phase, the passageway from the vagina to the uterus is open. A slippery-type mucus assists the movement of sperm through the cervix and nourishes the sperm. The cervix is completely open during the preparation stage of the fertile phase
  • Once the oocyte is released, the cervix begins to close. After the fertile phase ends, the cervix is again closed off by a thick-mucus plug, blocking the cervical canal. Sperm are unable to pass through the cervix. This late infertile phase is followed by the menstrual phase . It takes three days for the cervix to close completely
  • Role of Cervical Mucus Nourish sperm, that is, keep it alive. Sperm can live up to 3-5 days in this environment. When there is no mucus, the sperm will die quickly; for they can live up to an hour without mucus. Eliminate weaker sperm or damaged sperm. Only the best quality sperm will reach the oocyte. Provide transportation so they can move towards the fallopian tubes. Finally, to let the woman know when her fertile time starts and ends.
  • Natural family planning

    1. 2. Definition <ul><li>A way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily, upon the basis of the knowledge, attitude , and responsible decisions by the individual and couples , in order to promote the health and welfare of the family group and thus contribute effectively to the social development of a country </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>Family planning refers to that practices that help individuals or couples to attain certain objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid unwanted births </li></ul><ul><li>To bring about wanted births </li></ul><ul><li>To regulate the intervals between pregnancies </li></ul><ul><li>To control the time at which birth occurs in relation to the ages of the parents </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the number of the children in the family </li></ul>
    3. 4. Aim of the family planning <ul><li>Healthy baby and healthy mother during the pregnancy and even after the delivery </li></ul>
    4. 6. Contraceptives methods <ul><li>Preventive methods to help woman to avoid unwanted pregnancies </li></ul>
    5. 7. Types Spacing /temporary Permanent/ terminal <ul><li>Barrier methods </li></ul><ul><li>Physical methods </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical methods </li></ul><ul><li>Combined methods </li></ul>2.Intra – uterine devices 3.Hormonal methods 4.Post conceptional methods 5.Miscellaneous/ natural methods Male sterilization Female sterilization
    6. 8. Without identifying physiological changes Identifying physiological changes
    7. 9. <ul><li>Without identifying physiological changes </li></ul><ul><li>Abstinence </li></ul><ul><li>Coitus interruptus </li></ul><ul><li>Safe period method (rhythm method) </li></ul>
    8. 10. Identifying the physiological changes <ul><li>Basal body temperature method </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical mucus method </li></ul><ul><li>Symptothermic method </li></ul>
    9. 11. Abstinence <ul><li>Complete abstinence hard to practice </li></ul><ul><li>If controlled for long time temperamental changes and nervous breakdown </li></ul>
    10. 12. Coitus interruptus <ul><li>During sex the man withdraws his penis from the vagina before he ejaculates (cums). </li></ul>
    11. 13. Effectiveness? <ul><li>Depends upon the timing of withdrawing of penis </li></ul><ul><li>High rate of failure > 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Even the precoital secretion may contain sperms </li></ul>
    12. 14. Advantages <ul><li>Natural method that does not require devices or medicine in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no known side effects. </li></ul><ul><li>No cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Is morally and culturally acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>Better than not using any birth control method. </li></ul>
    13. 15. Disadvantages <ul><li>a high rate of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Sex may not be as pleasurable </li></ul><ul><li>Not recommended if it is dangerous for the woman to become pregnant. </li></ul><ul><li>No protection against sexually transmitted infections. </li></ul>
    14. 16. Safe period <ul><li>Even called as calendar method/ rhythm method </li></ul>
    15. 17. Basis of safe period <ul><li>Ovulation occurs 12 to 16 days prior to onset of menstruation </li></ul>
    16. 18. Calculation of conception days <ul><li>Shortest cycle- 18 days 1 st day of fertile period </li></ul><ul><li>Longest cycle – 10 days last day of fertile period </li></ul>
    17. 19. <ul><li>If calculation not possible </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid intercourse 8 th to 22 nd day counting from the first day of bleeding </li></ul>
    18. 20. Disadvantage <ul><li>If Cycle is not regular difficult to predict the safe period </li></ul><ul><li>Educated and highly motivated co-operative and responsible couple </li></ul><ul><li>Half a month abstinence from intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>Not applicable during the postnatal period </li></ul><ul><li>Failure rate: 9 per 100 </li></ul>
    19. 21. Medical complications <ul><li>Ectopic pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic abnormalities </li></ul>
    20. 22. <ul><li>Identifying physiological changes </li></ul>
    21. 23. Basal body temperature method(BBT) It depends upon the identification of the rise of the BBT at The time of the ovulation as a result of the increase in the production of the progesterone
    22. 24. Principle <ul><li>Same as safe period </li></ul><ul><li>Woman recognizes some physiological changes relating to the ovulation and avoiding sex during that time </li></ul>
    23. 25. Rise of temperature <ul><li>On ovulation day BBT rises progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of 0.3 to 0.5 degree C </li></ul><ul><li>No ovulation no rise in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Time to measure: before getting out of the bed in the morning </li></ul>
    24. 26. <ul><li>Reliable : </li></ul><ul><li>3 days after the increase in body temperature till the beginning of bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback: </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Abstinence of intercourse in pre-ovulatory phase </li></ul>
    25. 27. Cervical mucus method <ul><li>Even called ovulatory method </li></ul><ul><li>Principle : based on the observation of changes in the characteristics of cervical mucus </li></ul>
    26. 28. <ul><li>At the time of ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>watery clear resembling raw egg white smooth slippery and profuse cervical mucus </li></ul><ul><li>After ovulation: </li></ul><ul><li>Mucus thickens and lessens </li></ul>
    27. 29. <ul><li>Methods to assess: </li></ul><ul><li>wiping the inner part of vagina </li></ul><ul><li>Lady should able to distinguish the different type of mucus </li></ul>
    28. 31. In the early non-fertile phase of a woman’s cycle, the passageway from the vagina to the uterus is closed by thick mucus. Sperm are unable to pass through the cervix.
    29. 32. In the fertile phase, the passageway from the vagina to the uterus is open. A slippery-type mucus assists the movement of sperm through the cervix and nourishes the sperm. The cervix is completely open during the preparation stage of the fertile phase
    30. 33. After the fertile phase ends, the cervix is again closed off by a thick-mucus plug, blocking the cervical canal. Sperm are unable to pass through the cervix. This late infertile phase is followed by the menstrual phase . It takes three days for the cervix to close completely Once the oocyte is released, the cervix begins to close.
    31. 34. Role of Cervical Mucus <ul><li>Nourish sperm, that is, keep it alive. Sperm can live up to 3-5 days in this environment. When there is no mucus, the sperm will die quickly; for they can live up to an hour without mucus. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate weaker sperm or damaged sperm. Only the best quality sperm will reach the oocyte. </li></ul>
    32. 35. Role of Cervical Mucus <ul><li>Provide transportation so they can move towards the fallopian tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, to let the woman know when her fertile time starts and ends. </li></ul>
    33. 36. Symptothermic method <ul><li>Combination of BBT methods, cervical mucus methods, and calendar techniques </li></ul>

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