Cancer.ppt

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Here i have disscussed about the prevention and cure of the disease

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Cancer.ppt

  1. 1. Contents…Introduction Breast cancerProblem statement Cervical cancerIn IndiaCancer patternEnvironmental factorsgenetic factorsCancer control
  2. 2. IntroductionCancer may regarded as a group of diseases characterized by an Abnormal growth of cells Ability to invade tissue and even distant organs The eventually death of the affected patient if the tumor has progressed beyond the stage when it can be successfully removed
  3. 3. Major categories of cancer are Carcinoma Arises from the epithelial cells lining the internal surface of various organs (e.g. mouth, oesophagus, uterus) Sarcoma Arises from the mesodermal cells constituting the various connective tissues (e.g. fibrous tissue, bone) Lymphoma, myeloma and leukemia Arising from the cells of the bone marrow and immune system
  4. 4. Problem statementWorldwideEvery year 10 million people are diagnosed and morethen 6 million die22.4 million peoples were living with cancer in 2000Most common cancer worldwide are Lungs cancer (12.3%) Breast cancer (10.4%) Colorectal cancer (9.4%)
  5. 5. Respiratory tract cancer is most common site ofcancer in India, Indonesia, srilanka and ThailandCancer of cervix is most common in India andIndonesiaCancer associated with tobacco constitute 44.6% ofcancer in men and 20% in female
  6. 6. India…The four most common cancer in India areMale-oropharynx, esophagus, stomach and lowerrespiratory tractFemale-breast, cervix, oropharynx and esophagusTabaco is used widely used in India91% cases of oropharynx is due to Tabaco use60% cases in female are breast, cervix and ovarycancer
  7. 7. Cancer patternsThere are lot of international variations in the patternof cancer which are attributed to a number of factorssuch as environmental factors food habit lifestyle genetic factor inadequacy in detection and reporting of cases
  8. 8. Environmental factorsTobacco Tobacco in various forms of usage can cause cancer of lungs, larynx, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, bladder, pancreas and probably kidney Cigarette smoking is now responsible for more than 1 million death each yearAlcohol Excess intake of alcohol can cause esophageal and liver cancer Beer consumption may be associated with rectal cancer Alcohol contributes about 3 % of all cancer deaths
  9. 9. Dietary factor Smoked fish is related to stomach cancer Dietary fiber to intestinal cancer Beef consumption to bowel cancer High fat diet to breast cancer Food additives and contaminants have fallen under suspicion as causative agents
  10. 10. Occupational exposures These includes exposure to benzene, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, vinyl chloride, asbestos, polycyclic hydrocarbons, etc. The risk of occupational exposure is said to be increased if the individual also smokes cigarette Occupational exposure is usually reported 1-5% of human cancer
  11. 11. Virus Hepatitis B & C - hepatocarcinoma HIV infection – kaposi’s carcinoma AIDS – non Hodgkin’s lymphoma Epstein – bar virus – Burkitts lymphoma and naso – pharyngial carcinoma Cytomegalovirus – Kaposi’s Sa Pappiloma virus – cervix cancer Human T cell leukemia virus – T cell leukemia
  12. 12. Parasite May be a cause of cancer Schistosomiasis can produce Ca of bladderCustoms, habits and life style May be associated with an increased risk of cancer Smoking and lung cancer Tobacco and beetle chewing and oral cancer
  13. 13. Others Sunlight, radiation, water and air pollution, medication and pesticides These are related to cancer as environmental factors
  14. 14. Genetic factorsGenetic influences have long been suspectedRetinoblastoma occurs in children of the same parentMongols are more likely to develop leukemiaThere is probably a complex relationship betweenhereditary susceptibility and environmentalcarcinogenic stimuli in the causation of cancer
  15. 15. Cancer controlIt consists ofprevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, aftercare and rehabilitation, reducing incidence andprevalencePrimary control Reducing the exposure to the risk factors Control of Tabaco and alcohol consumption Control of these two will reduce the total burden of cancer by 1 million cases per year
  16. 16. Personal hygiene Improvement in hygiene may decline the incidence of certain types of cancersRadiation Effort should be made to reduce the amount of radiation received by each individuals to a minimum without reducing the benefitsOccupational Exposure Should protect workers from exposure to industrial carcinogens
  17. 17. Food, drugs, and cosmetics Should be tested for carcinogensAir pollutions Control of air pollution is a preventive measureTreatment of pre cancerous lesions Early detection and prompt treatment of precanerous lesionsLegislation It comes under primary prevention
  18. 18. Cancer Education Should be directed in high risk groups To motivate people for early diagnosis and treatment Remind early warning symptoms A lump or hard area in the breast A change in a wart or mole A persistent change in digestive and bowel habits A persistent cough or hoarseness Excessive loss of blood at the monthly period or loss of blood outside the usual dates Blood loss from any natural orifice A swelling or sore that does not get better Unexplained loss of weight
  19. 19. Secondary PreventionCancer registration Hospital-based registries Population based registriesEarly detection of casesTreatment
  20. 20. Breast cancer
  21. 21. Commonest cause of death in middle aged womenCauses 5,19,000 deaths a year worldwideAbout 9 lakh women are diagnosed every yearMortality rates have increased during the past 60years in all countries
  22. 22. Risk factorsAge Uncommon below the age of 35 Incidence increased rapidly between ages of 35 and 50 There is a dip in incidence at the time of menopause A secondary rise in frequency occurs after the age of 65 Women who developed their first breast cancer under the age of 40 have 3 times the risk of developing a second breast cancer Mean age of occurrence in Indian women is 42
  23. 23. Family history High in those with positive history in their family Esp. if mother or sister has developed breast cancer when premenopausalParity Related to age at which women bear their first child Those who had their first child in the late thirties are at a higher risk than multiparous women Unmarried women tend to have more breast tumors than married Single women and nulliparous women have the same risk
  24. 24. Age at menarche and menopause Early menarche and late menopause are risk factors Risk is reduced for those with surgically induced menopause Forty or more years of menstruation doubles the risk of breast cancer as compared with 30 years
  25. 25. Hormonal factor Elevated levels of estrogen and progesteron are important factor in increasing breast cancer riskPrior breast biopsy Prior breast biopsy for beningn breast diseases is associated with increased risk of breast cancerDiet Breast cancer can be linked with high fat diet and obesity
  26. 26. Socio-economic status It is higher in socio-economic groups Age factorOther Radiation Women exposed to radiation may develop breast cancer Oral contraceptic pills Prolonged use of pills before first pregnancy and before the age of 25yrs can cause breast cancer
  27. 27. PreventionPrimary Prevention Aim should be towards elimination of risk factors Promotion of cancer education Increase the average of menarche by reducing childhood obesity and increased stannous physical activities Or decrease the frequency of ovulation by increased stannous physical activities
  28. 28. Secondary Prevention Screening leads to early diagnosis which influences treatment To detect recurrence as early as possible To detect cancer in opposite breast at an early stage To generate research data that might be usefull
  29. 29. Cancer Of The Cervix
  30. 30. Second most common disease in women5,24,000 estimated new cases in in 1995Most common in developing countriesWhich accounts around 80% of casesCases and death rates are declined markedly in thelast 40 yrs due to reduction of the risk factors andextensive screening programs
  31. 31. Natural HistoryThe disease (a progressive course) Normal epithelium Dysplasia Cancer in situ (persists for 8yrs) Invasive cancer
  32. 32. Causative agnt Human papiloma virus-sexually transmitted-cancer This virus is found in more then 95% of the cancers
  33. 33. Risk FactorAge- Affects relatively young women Age of 25-45 yrs has increased incidenceGenital warts Past or present occurrence of clinical genital warts has been found to be a important risk factorEarly marriage Early marriage, early coitus, early childbearing and repeated childbirth have increased risk
  34. 34. Oral contraceptive pills Using of pills can cause cancer of cervix It is because of high level of estrogenSocio-economic class More common in lower socio-economic groups It is because of poor genital hygiene
  35. 35. PreventionPrimary Prevention Personal hygiene and birth controlSecondary Prevention Early detect of cases through screening Treatment by radical surgery and radiotheropy It is difficult to cure once the symptoms are develop
  36. 36. Thank you…

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