ByTeam B.N.Y.S  S-VYASA
Contents…... INTRODUCTION ACIDS & BASES TYPES OF ACIDS & BASES pH BUFFERS TYPES OF BUFFER (MECHANISM) DISORDERS RO...
Introduction Acid-base regulation  – Regulation of hydrogen ion     • Buffer system     • Respiratory regulation     • Re...
Why To Regulate To maintain homeostasis Regulates enzymatic functions
Acids And Bases Acids  – Release protons (H) ;Eg-H2CO3 , HCL Bases  – Accept protons (H) ; Eg-HCO3
Types of acids and bases Strong acids  – Release large amount of Hydrogen ions Weak acids  – Release small amount of Hyd...
pH Hydrogen ion conc. Determines pH
What Is Buffer ??? A buffer is a solution (or a substance) that has  the ability to maintain pH and bring it back to  its...
Contd…. When Hydrogen ion conc. Increases  – Reaction shifts towards right When Hydrogen ion conc. Decreases  – Reaction...
Types of chemical buffer– Carbonic acid-bicarbonate –– Buffering changes caused by organic and fixed acids– Protein buffer...
Buffer Systems in Body Fluids                           Figure 27.7
Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate             Buffering System Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system   Weak acid – H2CO3 Bica...
Contd…   Strong base is added    H+ conc. Reduces     NaOH + H2CO3       NaHCO3+H2O    In this way CO2 conc. decreases  ...
Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate Buffer            System
Bicarbonate buffer- Has the following limitations:  – Cannot protect the ECF from pH changes due    to increased or depre...
Phosphate buffer system- Main elements of phosphate buffer system-  - H2PO4, and HPO4 Phosphoric acid changes pretty qui...
Contd…
Contd…. Phosphate buffer system in the ECF is low    compared to the bicarbonate buffer. Its buffering power is less com...
Contd 1.Conc. of phosphate is more in tubules. 2. Tubular fluid has lower pH. Conc. of phosphate is more in ICF compare...
Protein buffer system Proteins are made up of amino acids Amino acids have a central carbon with four  groups off of it:...
Structure of amino acids
Contd… The carboxyl and amino groups are what enable  proteins to act as buffers. Carboxyl group is attached to the amin...
Contd... At neutral pH the carboxyl ion is present as  COO instead of COOH. Acidic medium – becomes COOH Basic medium –...
Contd… Amino group is attached to the amino acid  central carbon: C - NH2. Neutral pH, the amino group is actually-  NH3...
Contd..
Respiratory regulationWhen alveolar ventilation increases   CO2 conc. In ECF decreases        H+ conc. decreases         O...
Respiratory regulation Contd… Pulmonary expiration of CO2 balances metabolic formation of CO2  – 1.2 mol/L of dissolved C...
Contd… Increasing alveolar ventilation decreases ECF         hydrogen ion conc. And raises pH– If alveolar ventilation in...
Contd… Increased Hydrogen ion conc. Stimulates  alveolar ventilation Change in alveolar ventilation rate is much  greate...
ReasonAlveolar ventilation rate decreases          Increases pH    O2 added in blood reduces Demand of O2 in blood increas...
Feedback control of Hydrogen       ion conc. By RS    H conc. Falls below normal     Respiration is depressed   Alveolar v...
Bufffering power of RS The kidneys work in elimination of hydrogen  ion conc. and control imbalance. Its capacity is 1-2...
Impairment of lungs function: Impairment of lung function leads to  emphysema and respiratory disorders. Kidneys play a ...
Renal mechanism of acid-base            regulation Kidneys regulate the blood pH by 1. maintaining alkali reserves 2. e...
Contd… Excretion of hydrogen ions Reabsorption of bicarbonate ion Excretion of ammonium ions
Disorders of acid-base regulation MAY LEAD TO--------- ALKALOSIS--                OR ACIDOSIS--
Disorders of acid-base regulation                   cont… Respiratory acidosis Respiratory alkalosis Metabolic acidosis...
Contd… Respiratory acid-base disorders are initiated by  an increase or decrease in partial pressure of  carbondioxide wh...
Contd… Alkalosis - Partial pressure of oxygen  increases. Acidosis – Partial pressure of carbondioxide  increases.
Contd…Respiratory acidosis- Decrease in rate of pulmonary ventilation- Increased pCO2 of ECF.Respiratory alkalosis- Inc...
Respiratory acidosis                       Figure 27.12a
Respiratory alkalosis                        Figure 27.12b
Contd… Metabolic acidosis- Decreased ECF bicarbonate ion conc. Metabolic alkalosis- Increased ECF bicarbonate ion conc.
Contd…DISTURBANCE          pH          PRIMARY          RATIO   SECONDARY                                 CHANGE          ...
Contd… Causes - Metabolic acidosis 1. Renal tubular acidosis 2. Diarrhea 3. Vomiting of intestinal contents 4. Diabet...
Contd… Causes- Metabolic alkalosis 1. Vomiting of gastric contents 2. Ingestion of alkaline drugs etc.
Correction by renal for… Acidosis- Increased excretion of hydrogen ions and  addition of bicarbonate ions to the ECF. A...
EAT MORE -- Alkaline (80%)                              AcidAlkaline food chartEAT LESS -- Acidic (20%)Highly Alkaline    ...
SO WHY NOT CONTROL THEACID BASE BALANCE WITH       FOOD…???
References Guytons medical physiology,(Buffer System) Ionic changes By Rudolf Jensen
The Central Role of the CarbonicAcid-Bicarbonate Buffer System in   the Regulation of Plasma pH                           ...
The Central Role of the CarbonicAcid-Bicarbonate Buffer System in   the Regulation of Plasma pH                           ...
Acid-Base Disorders Respiratory acid base disorders  – Result when abnormal respiratory function causes    rise or fall i...
Respiratory acidosis Results from excessive levels of CO2 in body fluids
Respiratory alkalosis Relatively rare condition Associated with hyperventilation
Metabolic acidosis Major causes are:  – Depletion of bicarbonate reserve  – Inability to excrete hydrogen ions at kidneys...
Figure 27.13 The Response to     Metabolic Acidosis                           Figure 27.13
Figure 27.14 Metabolic Alkalosis                             Figure 27.14
Detection of acidosis and               alkalosis Diagnostic blood tests  – Blood pH  – PCO2  – Bicarbonate levels Disti...
Changes with age include Reduced total body water content Impaired ability to perform renal compensation Increased wate...
You should now be familiar with: What is meant by “fluid balance,” “electrolyte  balance,” and “acid-base balance” The c...
You should now be familiar with: How sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride  ions are regulated to maintain electrolyte ...
Buffer system
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Buffer system
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  1. 1. ByTeam B.N.Y.S S-VYASA
  2. 2. Contents…... INTRODUCTION ACIDS & BASES TYPES OF ACIDS & BASES pH BUFFERS TYPES OF BUFFER (MECHANISM) DISORDERS ROLE OF NUTRITION
  3. 3. Introduction Acid-base regulation – Regulation of hydrogen ion • Buffer system • Respiratory regulation • Renal regulation
  4. 4. Why To Regulate To maintain homeostasis Regulates enzymatic functions
  5. 5. Acids And Bases Acids – Release protons (H) ;Eg-H2CO3 , HCL Bases – Accept protons (H) ; Eg-HCO3
  6. 6. Types of acids and bases Strong acids – Release large amount of Hydrogen ions Weak acids – Release small amount of Hydrogen ions Strong bases – Accept large amount of Hydrogen ions Weak bases – Accept small amount of Hydrogen ions
  7. 7. pH Hydrogen ion conc. Determines pH
  8. 8. What Is Buffer ??? A buffer is a solution (or a substance) that has the ability to maintain pH and bring it back to its optimal value by addition or removal of hydrogen ions Buffer + H H buffer
  9. 9. Contd…. When Hydrogen ion conc. Increases – Reaction shifts towards right When Hydrogen ion conc. Decreases – Reaction shifts towards left In this way hydrogen ion concentration is maintained
  10. 10. Types of chemical buffer– Carbonic acid-bicarbonate –– Buffering changes caused by organic and fixed acids– Protein buffer system-Amino acids– Minor buffering system-– Phosphate –Buffer pH in the ICF
  11. 11. Buffer Systems in Body Fluids Figure 27.7
  12. 12. Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate Buffering System Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system Weak acid – H2CO3 Bicarbonate salt (NaHCO3) Strong acid is added – When HCL is added Hydrogen conc. increases – CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H + HCO3
  13. 13. Contd… Strong base is added H+ conc. Reduces NaOH + H2CO3 NaHCO3+H2O In this way CO2 conc. decreases This inhibits respiration.
  14. 14. Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate Buffer System
  15. 15. Bicarbonate buffer- Has the following limitations: – Cannot protect the ECF from pH changes due to increased or depressed CO2 levels – Only functions when respiratory system and control centers are working normally – It is limited by availability of bicarbonate ions (bicarbonate reserve).
  16. 16. Phosphate buffer system- Main elements of phosphate buffer system- - H2PO4, and HPO4 Phosphoric acid changes pretty quickly into dihydrogen phosphate, or H2PO4-. This dihydrogen phosphate is an efficient buffer.
  17. 17. Contd…
  18. 18. Contd…. Phosphate buffer system in the ECF is low compared to the bicarbonate buffer. Its buffering power is less compared to the bicarbonate buffer. It has its importance in the renal tubules of kidneys for two reasons..
  19. 19. Contd 1.Conc. of phosphate is more in tubules. 2. Tubular fluid has lower pH. Conc. of phosphate is more in ICF compared to ECF.
  20. 20. Protein buffer system Proteins are made up of amino acids Amino acids have a central carbon with four groups off of it:1.a carboxyl group (COOH)2.an amino group (NH2)3.a hydrogen atom4.an R group.
  21. 21. Structure of amino acids
  22. 22. Contd… The carboxyl and amino groups are what enable proteins to act as buffers. Carboxyl group is attached to the amino acid central carbon: C - COOH Carboxyl group consists of a double bond to one of the oxygens and a single bond to the hydroxyl group.
  23. 23. Contd... At neutral pH the carboxyl ion is present as COO instead of COOH. Acidic medium – becomes COOH Basic medium – becomes COO.
  24. 24. Contd… Amino group is attached to the amino acid central carbon: C - NH2. Neutral pH, the amino group is actually- NH3+ rather than just NH2. Acidic medium – becomes NH3+ Basic medium- becomes NH2
  25. 25. Contd..
  26. 26. Respiratory regulationWhen alveolar ventilation increases CO2 conc. In ECF decreases H+ conc. decreases Or vice versa.......
  27. 27. Respiratory regulation Contd… Pulmonary expiration of CO2 balances metabolic formation of CO2 – 1.2 mol/L of dissolved CO2 is present in the ECF corresponding to pCO2 of 40 mm/hg – Rate of pulmonary ventilation is inversely proportional to CO2 & pCO2 – So either pulmonary ventilation rate of CO2 – or its formation by tissues can change pCO2 in ECF.
  28. 28. Contd… Increasing alveolar ventilation decreases ECF hydrogen ion conc. And raises pH– If alveolar ventilation increases the pCO2 decreases.– If alveolar ventilation decreases the pCO2 increases.– Twice rise of AV--rises pH of ECF by about 0.23– Decrease of AV to ¼ -- decreases pH by 0.45
  29. 29. Contd… Increased Hydrogen ion conc. Stimulates alveolar ventilation Change in alveolar ventilation rate is much greater in reduced levels of pH than in increased levels of pH
  30. 30. ReasonAlveolar ventilation rate decreases Increases pH O2 added in blood reduces Demand of O2 in blood increases pO2 also decreases Stimulates ventilation
  31. 31. Feedback control of Hydrogen ion conc. By RS H conc. Falls below normal Respiration is depressed Alveolar ventilation decreases H increases back to normal
  32. 32. Bufffering power of RS The kidneys work in elimination of hydrogen ion conc. and control imbalance. Its capacity is 1-2 times as much as other chemical buffers.
  33. 33. Impairment of lungs function: Impairment of lung function leads to emphysema and respiratory disorders. Kidneys play a major physiologic mechanism for returning pH to normal
  34. 34. Renal mechanism of acid-base regulation Kidneys regulate the blood pH by 1. maintaining alkali reserves 2. excreting / reabsorbing acid/base. Urine pH is lower than blood pH Kidneys- Acidification of urine.
  35. 35. Contd… Excretion of hydrogen ions Reabsorption of bicarbonate ion Excretion of ammonium ions
  36. 36. Disorders of acid-base regulation MAY LEAD TO--------- ALKALOSIS-- OR ACIDOSIS--
  37. 37. Disorders of acid-base regulation cont… Respiratory acidosis Respiratory alkalosis Metabolic acidosis Metabolic alkalosis
  38. 38. Contd… Respiratory acid-base disorders are initiated by an increase or decrease in partial pressure of carbondioxide whereas metabolic disorders are initiated by an increase or decrease in bicarbonate ion.
  39. 39. Contd… Alkalosis - Partial pressure of oxygen increases. Acidosis – Partial pressure of carbondioxide increases.
  40. 40. Contd…Respiratory acidosis- Decrease in rate of pulmonary ventilation- Increased pCO2 of ECF.Respiratory alkalosis- Increased rate of ventilation- Decrease the pCO2
  41. 41. Respiratory acidosis Figure 27.12a
  42. 42. Respiratory alkalosis Figure 27.12b
  43. 43. Contd… Metabolic acidosis- Decreased ECF bicarbonate ion conc. Metabolic alkalosis- Increased ECF bicarbonate ion conc.
  44. 44. Contd…DISTURBANCE pH PRIMARY RATIO SECONDARY CHANGE CHANGEMetabolic Acidosis Decreased Deficit of bi- <20 Decrease in PaCO2 carbonateMetabolic Increased Excess of >20 Increase in PaCO2Alkalosis bicarbonateRespiratory Decreased Excess of <20 Increase in bicarbonateacidosis carbonic acidRespiratory Increased Deficit of >20 Decrease in bicarbonatealkalosis carbonic acid
  45. 45. Contd… Causes - Metabolic acidosis 1. Renal tubular acidosis 2. Diarrhea 3. Vomiting of intestinal contents 4. Diabetes Mellitus 5. Ingestion of acids 6. Chronic renal failure
  46. 46. Contd… Causes- Metabolic alkalosis 1. Vomiting of gastric contents 2. Ingestion of alkaline drugs etc.
  47. 47. Correction by renal for… Acidosis- Increased excretion of hydrogen ions and addition of bicarbonate ions to the ECF. Alkalosis- Decreased tubular secretion of hydrogen ions and increased excretion of HCO3_
  48. 48. EAT MORE -- Alkaline (80%) AcidAlkaline food chartEAT LESS -- Acidic (20%)Highly Alkaline Moderately Alkaline Mildly Alkaline Neutral/ Mildly Acidic Moderately Highly Acidic AcidicpH 9.5 alkaline water Avocado Artichokes Black Beans Fresh, Natural Juice AlcoholHimalayan salt Beetroot Asparagus Chickpeas/Garbanzos Ketchup Coffee & Black TeaGrasses Capsicum/Pepper Brussels Sprouts Kidney Beans Mayonnaise Fruit JuiceCucumber Cabbage Cauliflower Seitan Butter (Sweetened)Kale Celery Carrot Cantaloupe Apple CocoaKelp Collard/Spring Greens Chives Currants Apricot HoneySpinach Endive Courgette/Zucchini Fresh Dates Banana JamParsley Garlic Leeks Nectarine Blackberry JellyBroccoli Ginger New Baby Potatoes Plum Blueberry Mustard MisoSprouts(soy, alfalfa etc) Green Beans Peas Sweet Cherry Cranberry Rice SyrupSea Vegetables (Kelp) Lettuce Rhubarb Watermelon Grapes Soy SauceGreen drinks Mustard Greens Swede Amaranth Mango VinegarAll Sprouted Beans/ Sprouts Okra Watercress Millet Mangosteen Yeast Onion Grapefruit Oats/Oatmeal Orange Dried Fruit Radish Coconut Spelt Peach Beef Red Onion Buckwheat Soybeans Papaya Chicken Rocket/Arugula Spelt Rice/Soy/Hemp Protein Pineapple Eggs Tomato Lentils Freshwater Wild Fish Strawberry Farmed Fish Lemon Tofu Rice & Soy Milk Brown Rice Pork Lime Other Beans & Legumes Brazil Nuts Oats Shellfish Butter Beans Goat & Almond Milk Pecan Nuts Rye Bread Cheese Soy Beans Most Herbs & Spices Hazel Nuts Wheat Dairy White Haricot Beans Avocado Oil Sunflower Oil Wholemeal Bread Artificial Sweeteners Chia/Salba Olive Oil Grapeseed Oil Wild Rice Syrup Quinoa Coconut Oil ` Wholemeal Pasta Mushroom Flax Oil/ Udo’s Oil Ocean Fish
  49. 49. SO WHY NOT CONTROL THEACID BASE BALANCE WITH FOOD…???
  50. 50. References Guytons medical physiology,(Buffer System) Ionic changes By Rudolf Jensen
  51. 51. The Central Role of the CarbonicAcid-Bicarbonate Buffer System in the Regulation of Plasma pH Figure 27.11a
  52. 52. The Central Role of the CarbonicAcid-Bicarbonate Buffer System in the Regulation of Plasma pH Figure 27.11b
  53. 53. Acid-Base Disorders Respiratory acid base disorders – Result when abnormal respiratory function causes rise or fall in CO2 in ECF Metabolic acid-base disorders – Generation of organic or fixed acids – Anything affecting concentration of bicarbonate ions in ECF
  54. 54. Respiratory acidosis Results from excessive levels of CO2 in body fluids
  55. 55. Respiratory alkalosis Relatively rare condition Associated with hyperventilation
  56. 56. Metabolic acidosis Major causes are: – Depletion of bicarbonate reserve – Inability to excrete hydrogen ions at kidneys – Production of large numbers of fixed / organic acids – Bicarbonate loss due to chronic diarrhea
  57. 57. Figure 27.13 The Response to Metabolic Acidosis Figure 27.13
  58. 58. Figure 27.14 Metabolic Alkalosis Figure 27.14
  59. 59. Detection of acidosis and alkalosis Diagnostic blood tests – Blood pH – PCO2 – Bicarbonate levels Distinguish between respiratory and metabolic Animation: Acid-Base Homeostasis
  60. 60. Changes with age include Reduced total body water content Impaired ability to perform renal compensation Increased water demands – Reduced ability to concentrate urine – Reduced sensitivity to ADH/ aldosterone Net loss of minerals Inability to perform respiratory compensation Secondary conditions that affect fluid, electrolyte, acid- base balance
  61. 61. You should now be familiar with: What is meant by “fluid balance,” “electrolyte balance,” and “acid-base balance” The compositions of intracellular and extracellular fluids The hormones that play important roles in regulating fluid and electrolyte balance The movement of fluid that takes place within the ECF, between the ECF and the ICF, and between the ECF and the environment
  62. 62. You should now be familiar with: How sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions are regulated to maintain electrolyte balance The buffering systems that balance the pH of the intracellular and extracellular fluids The compensatory mechanisms involved in acid-base balance
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