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Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security
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Conservation Agriculture & SRI for climate change adaptation and food security

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Dr. Amir Kassam, OBE, FSB …

Dr. Amir Kassam, OBE, FSB
Visiting Professor, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading;
Convener, Land Husbandry Group of the Tropical Agriculture Association (TAA);
Former Deputy Director General at WARDA (the Africa Rice Centre) and Interim Executive
Secretary, CGIAR Science Council

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  • 1. Inception and Planning Workshop: Sustaining and Enhancing the Momentum for Innovation and Learning around the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in the Lower Mekong River Basin (SRI-LMB), Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok Thailand, 09-12 April 2013 Looking at Conservation Agriculture through the Lens of Sustainable Production Intensification Amir Kassam OBE, FSB University of Reading Tropical Agriculture Association (TAA) European Conservation Agriculture Federation (ECAF) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN
  • 2. There is now a structural response to harness sustainable production intensification based on what I will present This is backed by: -International agencies – FAO, WB, IFAD, EU, ADB, GEF, CIRAD, CBD, CGIAR Centres … -Donor agencies - GIZ, NORAD, AFD … -Foundations - Aga Khan, Howard Buffet … -NGOs – CARE, Oxfam, World Vision, Concern Inter … -Corporations – when farmer driven e.g. Syngenta, … -Universities – Ponta Grossa, Londrina, Evora, Reading, Alberta, California, Earth, Ludhiana, Teramo, Cornell … -Farmer associations – Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Canada, US, Europe … -NARS – Embrapa, Canada, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia, India…
  • 3. • Save and Grow: is about implementing a new paradigm of sustainable production intensification. • No single overall solution but all productivity solutions need to be based on ecologically sustainable production intensification principles such as those of Conservation Agriculture. • Mobilize the whole ecosystem rather than fight or degrade it, and enhance natural capital and the flow of ecosystem services. For example, FAO’s response to SPI challenge Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France 3
  • 4. Technical objectives of sustainable intensification • Agricultural land productivity – yield and output • Enhanced input-use efficiency – production factor productivities Simultaneously! • Natural capital and ecosystems services • Use of biodiversity – natural and managed (and carbon) to build farming system resilience But how? What does this mean in practice? 4
  • 5. Conventional productivity approach regular tillage, clean seedbed, exposed Effects: • Loss of organic matter • Destruction of biological life & processes • Soil compaction 5
  • 6. Land degradation due to tillage 6 Depleted water infiltration due to soil compaction
  • 7. Iguassu Falls, Brazil This is millions of tonnes of topsoil going over the edge. 7
  • 8. A healthy soil in which roots can perform its functions looks like this 8
  • 9. Sustainable productivity approach Empirical and scientific evidence internationally shows .... • No or minimum mechanical soil disturbance by – seeding or planting directly into untilled soil • Maintenance of organic matter cover on the soil surface – using crop residues and cover crops to build soil health • Diversification of species -- both annuals and perennials - in associations, sequences and rotations Plus complementary crop, nutrient, water & pest Management == Conservation Agriculture 9
  • 10. Sustainable Land Management in CA Planting holes, ripping or mulching, direct drill 10
  • 11. Ecological foundation of sustainable agriculture production (CA) Minimum soil disturbance Soil Cover Crop Diversity 11
  • 12. CA does not solve ALL problems (NO panacea) but complemented with other practices CA base allows for high production intensity and sustainable agriculture in all land-based production systems. Ecological Base of CA Minimum soil disturbance Soil Cover Crop Diversity Integrated Pest Management Integrated Plant Nutrient Management Integrated Weed Management Integrated Water management Sustainable mechanization Compaction management, CTF Permanent Bed and Furrow Systems System of Rice Intensification Good seed Genetic potential Genetic resources mgmt Pollinator/ Biodiversity management Organic agriculture 12
  • 13. Conservation Agriculture 13 Benefits are documented where CA has been applied over a longer time and large area: Canada, Brazil, Australia, Argentina. Conservation Agriculture: Imapcts Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France
  • 14. Conservation Agriculture 14 Similar reports are now appearing increasingly from small scale farmers and from other regions: Conservation Agriculture - Impacts Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France
  • 15. Conservation Agriculture CA opens the way for diversified and integrated production: • Horizontal integration of other production sectors (agro-forestry, crop-livestock integration!) • Ecosystem services • Labour saving allowing vertical integration in the value chain • Employment generation and local and national economic development 15 Conservation Agriculture – Wider picture Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France
  • 16. •Erosion & loss of productivity: North America, Brazil, China • Drought & loss of productivity: China, Australia, Kazakhstan, Zambia, Kenya • Cost of production & energy efficiency: global • Ecosystem services with productivity: global • Increasingly a preferred choice for SPI including CC: global Conservation Agriculture AG department brainstorming, April 12, 2012 Drivers for adoption of CA 16
  • 17. USA 26.5 Canada 13.5 Australia 17 Europe 1 Kazakhstan 2 Africa 1 Brazil 25.5 Conservation Agriculture globally 125 Million ha (9% of cropland -- 2011) Argentina 25.5 (10.5) Paraguay 2.4 China 3.1 tropical savannah continental, dry temperate, moist temperate, moist continental, dry irrigated smallholder smallholder smallholder arid arid large scale large scale large scale large scale large scale large scale subtropical, dry tropical savannah other LA 2.4 >50% W (30%) 15% 79% 100% West (35%) Russia, Ukraine 5.1 FAO Impact ? ? Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France World total 2008 = 95 Million ha 17
  • 18. Global CA area (million ha) over time History and Development 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 125 Increasing at 10 M ha p. a. Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France 18
  • 19. Pattern of impacts of CA Conservation Agriculture • Increase yields, production, profit (depending on level and degradation) • Less fertilizer use (-50%) less pesticides (-20%) • Less machinery and labour/drudgery & fuel consumption (-70%) • water needs (-30%) • More stable yields – lower impact of climate (drought, floods, heat, cold) – CC adaptability • Climate change mitigation (C sequestration) • Lower environmental cost (water, infrastructure) Wheat yield and nitrogen amount for different duration of no-tillage in Canada 2002 (Lafond 2003) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0 30 60 90 120 nitrogen (kg/ha Grainyield(t/ha) 20-year no-tillage 2-year no-tillage AG department brainstorming, April 12, 2012 19
  • 20. Advantages: livelihood/income Smallholder farmers: • 50% labour saving • less drudgery • improved food security • better livelihood/income • stable & increased yields Mechanized Farmers: • less machinery • 70% fuel saving • better livelihood/income • stable & increased yields 20
  • 21. Itaipu dam today (source: Itaipu Binacional) Water resources are threatened by conventional tillage agricultural practices. Conservation Agriculture is an alternative to reduce impacts on river’s quality and to maintain a high level of productivity and sustainability. Cultivating Good Water Programme And what happened to Brazil’s river of tea? 21
  • 22. Conservation Agriculture • Conservation Agriculture is capable of serving as a basis for sustainable food and agriculture production intensification • Conservation Agriculture spreading exponentially world-wide • Transformation to CA has been farmer-driven • CA shows globally similar positive results, including for women • CA is only in very few cases promoted by policies • Several constraints but can and are being addressed but needs to be accelerated 22 Concluding remarks Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France
  • 23. CA is proving to be widely applicable and a good solution for: Sustainable production intensification with ecosystem services in all field-based production systems, and can contribute to resilient rural livelihoods and poverty reduction. 23 Thank you for your attention. More information: http://www.fao.org/ag/ca And finally ….
  • 24. Experiences in Asia 24 •Special challenge: convert paddy rice to CA • India, Bangladesh and Pakistan experiment with components of CA • 5 million ha of no-till wheat in Indo-Gangetic Plains across India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh, in the wheat-rice double cropping system, but only marginal adoption of permanent no-till systems and full CA because of puddled rice. • Double no-till wheat-rice system now being ‘rolled’ out. • In India no-till systems being tried out in rainfed areas. Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France
  • 25. Experiences in Asia 25 Growing interest in CA in Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam •China promotes CA officially as means against drought, dust storms, erosion; subsidies for equipment • Kazakhstan promotes CA in wheat growing areas in the North • DPR Korea promotes CA to fight hunger Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France
  • 26. No-till Rice: • no puddling • no flooding • less CH4 • less N2O • less water
  • 27. Surface mulching with no-till wheat, Pakistan/India
  • 28. Conservation Agriculture in Bangladesh example of 2WT-based CA technologies: (a) strip- tillage in Bangladesh; (b) direct seeding with the Australian designed Rogro seed drill; (c) Brazilian two- row direct seeder; and (d) bed planter in Bangladesh. 28 (a) (b) (c) (d) Example of 2WT-based CA technologies: (a) strip-tillage in Bangladesh; (b) direct seeding with the Australian designed Rogro seed drill; (c) Brazilian two-row direct seeder; and (d) bed planter in Bangladesh.
  • 29. CA adoption in sub-Saharan Africa (‘000 ha) – Total 1.01 Million ha in 2011, 600,000 since 2008 Ghana, 30.00 Kenya, 33.00 Lesotho, 2.00 Malawi, 16.00 Madagascar, 6.00 Mozambique, 152.00 Namibia, 0.34 South Africa, 368.00 Sudan, 10.00 Tanzania, 25.00 Zambia, 200.00 Zimbabwe, 139.30 Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France 29
  • 30. Experiences in Sub-Saharan Africa Conservation Agriculture 30 • Commercial farmers use CA mainly due to drought and cost problems •CA is part of regional agricultural policy (CAADP) • Increased interest by governments and development organizations – CA successful model for emergency and rehabilitation projects • Increase of CA adopters among small scale farmers in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi due to development projects and support programmes Cross Slot Conference and Tour 2012 – Germany/France
  • 31. Situation in Malawi 31
  • 32. Longer term maize grain yields on farmers fields in Malawi - Lemu 32Harvest year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Maizebiomassyield(kgha -1 ) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Conventional control, maize (CPM) CA, maize (CAM) CA, maize/legume intercropping (CAML) a a a a b b aa b b a a b a a b a a
  • 33. Longer term maize grain yields on farmers fields in Malawi - Zidyana 33 Zidyana Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 YielddifferencebetweenCAandCP(kgha -1 ) -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 CAML CAM C
  • 34. Regional perspective – Southern Africa Conventional tillage yield (kg ha-1 ) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Conservationagriculturetreatmentyield(kgha-1 ) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Planting basins, Mozambique Jab planter, Mozambique Direct seeding, Zimbabwe Ripper, Zimbabwe Direct seeding, Zambia Ripper, Zambia Direct seeding, Malawi Intercropping, Malawi 34
  • 35. Economic viability-Malawi Lemu Zidyana CP CA CAL CP CA CAL Gross Receipts 528.6 881.5 979.7 1047.2 1309.5 1293.7 Variable costs Inputs 238.5 341.0 353.6 221.7 323.7 346.1 Labour days (6 hr days) 61.7 39.9 49.4 61.7 39.9 49.4 Labour costs 159.5 103.2 127.9 155.6 100.7 124.7 Sprayer costs 1.7 1.2 1.7 1.2 Total variable costs 398.1 445.9 482.8 377.3 426.1 472.1 Net returns (US$/ha) 130.5 435.5 497.1 669.9 883.3 821.9 Returns to labour (US$/day) 1.8 5.2 4.9 5.4 9.8 7.6 Source: Ngwira et al., 2012
  • 36. Adoption of CA in Malawi.... (16,000 ha; 35,000 farmers) 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AreaoffarmerspracticingCA(ha) NooffarmerspracticingCA withTLCsupport Farmers Total Area 36
  • 37. Conservation Agriculture: an approach to reducing food insecurity Current CA area in Malawi is: 16,000 ha; 35,000 farmers “In both study locations (Lemu & Zidyana) CA monocrop maize and CA maize–legume intercrop gave higher water infiltration than the conventional treatment. Improvements in crop productivity, overall economic gain and soil quality have made CA an attractive system for farmers in Malawi and other areas with similar conditions. However, for extensive adoption of CA by smallholder farmers, cultural beliefs that crop production is possible without the ubiquitous ridge and furrow system and residue burning for mice hunting have to be overcome.” Ngwira, Theierfelder & Lambert (2012) Journal of Renewable energy and Food Systems, August issue 37
  • 38. What can we learn from these examples? From CIMMYT • Yield comparisons are good BUT, more important, are the initial socio-economic benefits. • Under the same fertilizer level, signficant yield increases can be expected after 3-5 cropping season. • CA benefits appear in high potential and low potential areas. • Women benefit at various levels. Land preparation is manual labour reduced by 20-25 labour days per ha. With herbicides for weeding, another 15-20 labour days per ha which mostly benefits women. 38
  • 39. Itaipu dam today (source: Itaipu Binacional) Water resources are threatened by conventional tillage agricultural practices. Conservation Agriculture is an alternative to reduce impacts on river’s quality and to maintain a high level of productivity and sustainability. Cultivating Good Water Programme And what happened to Brazil’s river of tea? 39
  • 40. CA is proving to be widely applicable and a good solution for: Sustainable production intensification with ecosystem services that can contribute to resilient rural livelihoods and poverty reduction. 40 Thank you for your attention. More information: http://www.fao.org/ag/ca And finally ….

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