P2P - Principle Architecture and Challenges
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P2P - Principle Architecture and Challenges P2P - Principle Architecture and Challenges Presentation Transcript

  • Prof. Kang Xi By Anand Lotia Srijish Sridharan (0356187) (0332873)
  • INTRODUCTION
  • INTRODUCTION
    • What does a Peer mean in P2P?
    • Hosts on Internet having equal rights
    • Fundamental architecture in today’s world
    • Server-Client and P2P architecture
  • HISTORY OF P2P
  • HISTORY OF P2P
    • Is the P2P concept new or did it already exist?
    • USENET and DNS – similar concept to P2P networks
    • Peer-to-Peer communication model:
    • Each peer can act as Server and Client
    • Each peer can initiate the communication session
    • Peers are directly connected to each other for file transfer
  • HISTORY OF P2P
    • USENET
    • Based on UUCP (Unix-to-Unix Protocol)
    • Used to exchange files, system patches, etc
    • Now uses NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
  • HISTORY OF P2P
    • DNS (Domain Name System)
    • DNS information is spread over different servers
    • Can act as Server or Client
  • HISTORY OF P2P
    • Launch of the first Peer-to-Peer application
    • Napster – Shawn Fanning (1999)
    • Created to share music in the Northeastern University
  • HISTORY OF P2P
    • Following the pioneer
    • Morpheus
    • Kazaa
    • BearShare
    • iMesh
  • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
  • Peer-to-Peer Architecture Architecture Based on File Listing Based on Node Connections Centralized Decentralized Unstructured Structured
  • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
    • Depending upon the listing of files:
    • Centralized (Hybrid)
    • Decentralized
    • Depending upon how the nodes are connected:
    • Unstructured
    • Structured
  • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
    • Centralized (Hybrid)
    • File listing exists on central server
    • All peers connect to this central server
    • Examples: Napster, ICQ
  • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
    • Decentralized
    • No Central Server
    • Each node connected to many other nodes
    • May be pure Peer-to-Peer or with Super Peers
    • Examples: Gnutella, BitTorrent
  • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
    • Unstructured
    • Nodes created arbitrarily
    • Each node copies link information from other connected nodes
    • Simple, however not efficient
    • Examples: FastTrack, Gnutella
  • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
    • Structured
    • Implements algorithms to ensure connection between nodes.
    • Efficient, however complex algorithms involved
    • Examples: DHT and HyperCuP
  • Types of P2P Networks
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • Napster
    • Gnutella
    • FastTrack
    • eDonkey
    • BitTorrent
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • Napster
    • Peers connect to the Central Server
    • File request sent to the server
    • Server responds with the ID of the sharing peer
    • Peers are directly connected for file transfers
    • Control messages used to ignoring spam users, sending private messages, creating favorites list, etc
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • Napster Clients
    • Napster
    • Napigator
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • Gnutella
    • Peers connected to each other in flat ad-hoc topology
    • Each peers – acts as client and server
    • Dynamic network – Peers can connect and disconnect as they wish without affecting the network
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • Connection procedure in Gnutella network
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • File Query and Response in Gnutella
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • Gnutella Clients
    • BearShare
    • LimeWire
    • Cabos
    • Shareaza
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • Gnutella – Analysis and Improvement
    • Flexibility
    • Performance & Stability
    • Reliability
    • Anonymity
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • FastTrack
    • Based on Hybrid architecture
    • Two tiers of control
    • First Tier – nodes connected to Super Peers
    • Second Tier – Super Peers connected to each other
    • Download same file from multiple users
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • FastTrack Clients
    • Kazaa
    • iMesh
    • Grokster
    • Morpheus
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • eDonkey
    • Based on hybrid architecture
    • Two tier architecture
    • First Tier – central servers for maintaining list of files
    • Second Tier – for file transfers
    • Two types of server software used – MetaMachine and eServer
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • eDonkey Protocol Features
    • Ability to search files based on meta-data (music, artist, bit-rate, extension, number of sources, file size)
    • Ability to download same file from multiple peers
    • Ability to share partial files
    • Ability to detect corrupt files
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • eDonkey Connection Procedure
    • Client initiates TCP connection to connect to the Server
    • File query messages is sent using UDP
    • Requesting peer connects to the sharing peer by TCP
    • Files are divided in 9.5 MB blocks
    • MD4 (128 bit) checksum is calculated for every block
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • eDonkey Clients
    • eDonkey2000 (developed by MetaMachine)
    • eMule
    • MLDonkey
    • aMule
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • BitTorrent
    • Based on decentralized network
    • Files are divided into pieces or blocks
    • Pieces can be of size from 64 kB to 4 MB
    • Pieces can be further fragmented into blocks of 16 kB
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • BitTorrent
    • Trackers – tracks seeders, leechers and file pieces from different users
    • Seeders – Hold complete files and shares with other peers
    • Leechers – Download files from other peers
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • BitTorrent
    • Users download .torrent files which includes meta-data information
    • Torrent files can have one or multiple trackers
    • Files are downloaded in pieces or blocks
    • Implements file sharing fairness
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • BitTorrent surpassed eDonkey traffic (2006)
  • Types of P2P Networks
    • BitTorrent Clients
    • Azureus
    • BitComet
    • µTorrent
    • BitTorrent
  • Challenges in P2P
  • Challenges in P2P
    • Challenges faced in P2P networks
    • Distribution of copyrighted files
    • Security Issues
    • Bandwidth Consumption
  • Challenges in P2P
    • Distribution of Copyrighted Files
    • Several P2P networks sued by music companies and private organizations (RIAA, MPAA, ARIA)
    • Users are also targeted
    • Copyright laws limited to few countries
  • Challenges in P2P
    • Security Issues
    • Spread of virus, malware, spyware, adware, etc
    • Use of Steganography
    • Spread of null files by RIAA, MPAA
    • Peers can be assigned reputation values
    • Pseudospoofing & Shilling attacks
  • Challenges in P2P
    • Bandwidth Consumption
    • Bandwidth for existing Internet traffic (2007)
  • Windows P2P Networking
  • Windows P2P Networking
    • Windows P2P Networking Model
    • Works with IPv6
    • Uses UPnP messages to communicate
    • Peers discovered by Simple Service Discovery Protocol
  • Windows P2P Networking
    • Microsoft Windows P2P Architecture
  • CONCLUSION
  • CONCLUSION
    • Potential of P2P networks are vast and still being discovered and developed
    • Can be used, not only for file transfer, but also real time media streaming, VOIP, distributed computing, etc
  • THANK YOU