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P2P - Principle Architecture and Challenges
 

P2P - Principle Architecture and Challenges

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    P2P - Principle Architecture and Challenges P2P - Principle Architecture and Challenges Presentation Transcript

    • Prof. Kang Xi By Anand Lotia Srijish Sridharan (0356187) (0332873)
    • INTRODUCTION
    • INTRODUCTION
      • What does a Peer mean in P2P?
      • Hosts on Internet having equal rights
      • Fundamental architecture in today’s world
      • Server-Client and P2P architecture
    • HISTORY OF P2P
    • HISTORY OF P2P
      • Is the P2P concept new or did it already exist?
      • USENET and DNS – similar concept to P2P networks
      • Peer-to-Peer communication model:
      • Each peer can act as Server and Client
      • Each peer can initiate the communication session
      • Peers are directly connected to each other for file transfer
    • HISTORY OF P2P
      • USENET
      • Based on UUCP (Unix-to-Unix Protocol)
      • Used to exchange files, system patches, etc
      • Now uses NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
    • HISTORY OF P2P
      • DNS (Domain Name System)
      • DNS information is spread over different servers
      • Can act as Server or Client
    • HISTORY OF P2P
      • Launch of the first Peer-to-Peer application
      • Napster – Shawn Fanning (1999)
      • Created to share music in the Northeastern University
    • HISTORY OF P2P
      • Following the pioneer
      • Morpheus
      • Kazaa
      • BearShare
      • iMesh
    • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
    • Peer-to-Peer Architecture Architecture Based on File Listing Based on Node Connections Centralized Decentralized Unstructured Structured
    • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
      • Depending upon the listing of files:
      • Centralized (Hybrid)
      • Decentralized
      • Depending upon how the nodes are connected:
      • Unstructured
      • Structured
    • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
      • Centralized (Hybrid)
      • File listing exists on central server
      • All peers connect to this central server
      • Examples: Napster, ICQ
    • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
      • Decentralized
      • No Central Server
      • Each node connected to many other nodes
      • May be pure Peer-to-Peer or with Super Peers
      • Examples: Gnutella, BitTorrent
    • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
      • Unstructured
      • Nodes created arbitrarily
      • Each node copies link information from other connected nodes
      • Simple, however not efficient
      • Examples: FastTrack, Gnutella
    • Peer-to-Peer Architecture
      • Structured
      • Implements algorithms to ensure connection between nodes.
      • Efficient, however complex algorithms involved
      • Examples: DHT and HyperCuP
    • Types of P2P Networks
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • Napster
      • Gnutella
      • FastTrack
      • eDonkey
      • BitTorrent
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • Napster
      • Peers connect to the Central Server
      • File request sent to the server
      • Server responds with the ID of the sharing peer
      • Peers are directly connected for file transfers
      • Control messages used to ignoring spam users, sending private messages, creating favorites list, etc
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • Napster Clients
      • Napster
      • Napigator
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • Gnutella
      • Peers connected to each other in flat ad-hoc topology
      • Each peers – acts as client and server
      • Dynamic network – Peers can connect and disconnect as they wish without affecting the network
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • Connection procedure in Gnutella network
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • File Query and Response in Gnutella
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • Gnutella Clients
      • BearShare
      • LimeWire
      • Cabos
      • Shareaza
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • Gnutella – Analysis and Improvement
      • Flexibility
      • Performance & Stability
      • Reliability
      • Anonymity
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • FastTrack
      • Based on Hybrid architecture
      • Two tiers of control
      • First Tier – nodes connected to Super Peers
      • Second Tier – Super Peers connected to each other
      • Download same file from multiple users
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • FastTrack Clients
      • Kazaa
      • iMesh
      • Grokster
      • Morpheus
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • eDonkey
      • Based on hybrid architecture
      • Two tier architecture
      • First Tier – central servers for maintaining list of files
      • Second Tier – for file transfers
      • Two types of server software used – MetaMachine and eServer
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • eDonkey Protocol Features
      • Ability to search files based on meta-data (music, artist, bit-rate, extension, number of sources, file size)
      • Ability to download same file from multiple peers
      • Ability to share partial files
      • Ability to detect corrupt files
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • eDonkey Connection Procedure
      • Client initiates TCP connection to connect to the Server
      • File query messages is sent using UDP
      • Requesting peer connects to the sharing peer by TCP
      • Files are divided in 9.5 MB blocks
      • MD4 (128 bit) checksum is calculated for every block
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • eDonkey Clients
      • eDonkey2000 (developed by MetaMachine)
      • eMule
      • MLDonkey
      • aMule
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • BitTorrent
      • Based on decentralized network
      • Files are divided into pieces or blocks
      • Pieces can be of size from 64 kB to 4 MB
      • Pieces can be further fragmented into blocks of 16 kB
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • BitTorrent
      • Trackers – tracks seeders, leechers and file pieces from different users
      • Seeders – Hold complete files and shares with other peers
      • Leechers – Download files from other peers
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • BitTorrent
      • Users download .torrent files which includes meta-data information
      • Torrent files can have one or multiple trackers
      • Files are downloaded in pieces or blocks
      • Implements file sharing fairness
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • BitTorrent surpassed eDonkey traffic (2006)
    • Types of P2P Networks
      • BitTorrent Clients
      • Azureus
      • BitComet
      • µTorrent
      • BitTorrent
    • Challenges in P2P
    • Challenges in P2P
      • Challenges faced in P2P networks
      • Distribution of copyrighted files
      • Security Issues
      • Bandwidth Consumption
    • Challenges in P2P
      • Distribution of Copyrighted Files
      • Several P2P networks sued by music companies and private organizations (RIAA, MPAA, ARIA)
      • Users are also targeted
      • Copyright laws limited to few countries
    • Challenges in P2P
      • Security Issues
      • Spread of virus, malware, spyware, adware, etc
      • Use of Steganography
      • Spread of null files by RIAA, MPAA
      • Peers can be assigned reputation values
      • Pseudospoofing & Shilling attacks
    • Challenges in P2P
      • Bandwidth Consumption
      • Bandwidth for existing Internet traffic (2007)
    • Windows P2P Networking
    • Windows P2P Networking
      • Windows P2P Networking Model
      • Works with IPv6
      • Uses UPnP messages to communicate
      • Peers discovered by Simple Service Discovery Protocol
    • Windows P2P Networking
      • Microsoft Windows P2P Architecture
    • CONCLUSION
    • CONCLUSION
      • Potential of P2P networks are vast and still being discovered and developed
      • Can be used, not only for file transfer, but also real time media streaming, VOIP, distributed computing, etc
    • THANK YOU