Birds of india


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Birds of india

  1. 1. Birds of India ENVIS-CenterBombay Natural History Society
  2. 2. What are Birds?• Warm blooded animals – body covered with feather – which can fly, swim and walk – lay eggs – shows parental care• They evolved from dinosaurs millions of years ago• The first bird is called as Archaeopteryx
  3. 3. Some facts about the birds• Birds are found all over the world - Antarctic and Arctic to Deserts of Sahara and Kalhari, Tropical South America and Africa to Himalayan forest and Pelagic islands• They can tolerate extreme cold and extreme heat• They migrate long distances – Arctic Tern trips from North Pole to South Pole twice a year• Some migrate non-stop over the oceans – Bar-tailed Godwit• Some flies at very high altitude – Bar-headed Geese were observed at an altitude of 20,000 feet above sea level
  4. 4. Diversity of the Birds• There are about 10,000 species of birds found all over the world• Of them 1400 species found in South Asia• 1200 found in India• 565 + found in Maharashtra• 350 found in and around Mumbai• According to our study there were 140 bird species in New Mumbai
  5. 5. Indian Pond-heron Ardeola grayii• Very common bird found near water bodies• Mainly feeds on fish, frogs and aquatic insects• During breeding season get very attractive golden plumage
  6. 6. Indian Shikra Accipiter badius • One of the common birds of prey found in countryside and in forests • Feeds on small birds, lizards and frogs • Specialised hunter and hunt the birds in midair.
  7. 7. Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela• One of the huge birds of prey. Found mainly in well wooded streams in forests• Specialised in killing reptiles such as snakes and larger reptiles• Build huge nests on big trees
  8. 8. White-breasted WaterhenAmaurornis phoenicurus • Commonly found near water in marshes and swamps. • Known for its chorus call during breeding season • Its long legs and fingers enable it to walk on floating vegetaion
  9. 9. Barn Owl Tyto alba• Wide spread through out the world. Except Antarctica and remote pelagic islands• Specialised rodent hunter. 90% food contains mice.• Very common bird in Mumbai
  10. 10. Greater Coucal Centrops sinensis• Very strong and effective hunter feeds on various types of animals such as rats, lizards, frogs, insects and small birds• Member of cuckoo family but makes its own nest and takes care of the eggs and offsprings• Considered as good omen if seen during morning
  11. 11. Coppersmith Barbet Megalaima haemacephala• Common bird found in gardens and well wooded areas• Famous for its typical call from which it gots its name• Feeds especially on fig fruits
  12. 12. White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis • Found near water bodies, streams, fields and water logged areas • Feeds on variety of animals such as fish, frogs, large insects, lizards, small snakes etc. • Known for its magnificent colours and patience for catching the prey
  13. 13. Little Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis• As the name suggests it eats honey bees, wasps dragonflies and other insects.• Most of the hunting is carried out on wings• They live in small flocks and hunt together or solitarily• Very interesting roosting behaviour – they sit in closely tight flocks in green leafy trees.• Communal breeding sites
  14. 14. Asian Palm Swift Cypsiurus balasiensis • Nests on Palmera Palms • Highly dependent on palm and could have co-evolved with it • Feeds in air itself live in large colonies • Nests on palm in colonies
  15. 15. Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach • Local migrant to our region during winters • Small bird of prey feeds on insects, frogs, lizards and small birds • Peculiar habit of hanging the food remains on thorny bushes – therefore also called as Butcher Bird
  16. 16. Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus (somervillei)• Live in groups of 7-9 birds. They are mainly members of same clan• Hunt in groups feeds on insects and berries• Communal nesting behaviour – 2-3 females lay eggs in single nest
  17. 17. Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer• Commonly found in well wooded and moist areas.• Feeds on fruits, berries and occasionally on insects• Famous for
  18. 18. Purple-rumped Sunbird Nectarinia zeylonica • One of the beautiful birds of India, found every where • Can be seen easily over the flowers sucking nectar • Works as pollinator for many flowering plants
  19. 19. Thick-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum agile • One of the smallest birds of India • Very active and agile bird • Very important factor in forest ecosystem works as pollinator for many flowering plants
  20. 20. Oriental Magpie-robin Copsycus saularis • One of the songster birds of India • Prefers wooded areas • Feeds exclusively on insects • Male sings melodious songs during breeding season
  21. 21. Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus• Commonly found in forested areas.• Famous for mimicking calls of other birds• Some times steals food from other birds by mimicking predators call
  22. 22. Rufous Treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda • Commonly found in forests and well wooded areas. • Hunt in pairs of parties • Predator of chicks and eggs of small birds
  23. 23. Threatened Birds of India
  24. 24. Why birds are threatened• Habitat Destruction• Expansion of Agriculture• Rapid Industrialization• Poaching and Trade• Global Warming and Climate Change
  25. 25. Categories of threatened birds- Extinct – not seen at least for 50 years- Critically Endangered – likely to be extinct- Endangered – high risk of extinction- Vulnerable – risk of extinction- Near threatened – close to vulnerable- Least Concern – not qualify any of the above- Data deficient – no information available
  26. 26. Threatened Birds ScenarioSpecies World IndiaCritically Endangered 181 9Endangered 351 12Vulnerable 674 59Near Threatened 795 58Total 2001 138
  27. 27. Critically Endangered• In Central India we have 9 species of the birds which come under this category
  28. 28. White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis• This species is widely distributed in India• Till late 1990 it was in abundant but declined rapidly• Cause – veterinary use of diclofenac for livestock
  29. 29. Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus • This species is also widely distributed in India • Like White-backed Vultures their population declined rapidly after 1990 • Cause – veterinary use of diclofenac for cattle
  30. 30. Jerdons Courser Rhinptilus bitorquatus• This is endemic bird found in south-eastern Andhra Pradesh. Earlier known from few places in Central India from Godavari River basin.• Habitat specialist bird found only in scrub forest• Threats – habitat destruction because of human activities
  31. 31. Forest Owlet Heteroglaux blewitti• This bird is endemic to Satpuda Mountains known from only from six places in Central India. Because of the Forest Owlet, the Central Indian Forests come under Endemic Bird Area• Only found in dry deciduous forests• Threats – habitat destruction for fuel wood, illicit wood cutting, overgrazing and direct persecution by tribal
  32. 32. Endangered• We have 12 bird species which come under this category
  33. 33. Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps • Historically spread all over Indian subcontinent. Now restricted to only a few places in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh • Habitat specialist birds representative of Grassland • Threats – expansion of agriculture, habitat fragmentation, overgrazing, pesticides and hunting
  34. 34. Vulnerable• We have 59 species which come under this category
  35. 35. Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis • The species found all over India in large wetlands • The population is declining very fast • Threats – destruction of nesting habitat, drainage and pollution of wetlands and dearth of food
  36. 36. Sarus Crane Grus antigone • Historically widespread all over south Asia and Australia. Now declining all over its range • Threats - primarily threatened by a combination of habitat loss and modification (owing primarily to agricultural expansion), pollution and persecution
  37. 37. Near Threatened• We have 58 species which fall under this category
  38. 38. Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala • Widespread and locally common resident in South east Asia • It frequents freshwater marshes, lakes and reservoirs, flooded fields, paddy fields, freshwater swamp forests, riverbanks, intertidal mudflats and saltpans • Threats - habitat loss, disturbance, pollution and hunting of adults and collection of eggs and nestlings from colonies is cause for concern
  39. 39. Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor • Found only in Asia and African Continent • Every year 10% population decline is observed in Africa. It breeds in Little Run of Katch in Gujarat • After breeding, disperse over Indian Subcontinent • Threats – water pollution, disturbance to nesting sites and habitat destruction
  40. 40. Thank You!•