Role of non-monetary inputs in Sustainable cropping Systems Presented by:- P. Sri Ranjitha, RAD/11- 04
What is Sustainable Agriculture?Sustainable agriculture is a profitable way of producing high quality food and fiber that: Protects and renews the natural environment, Builds local economies, and Enhances the quality of life of farmers and farm workers. Source: Cooperative Development Institute
“Non monetary inputs are defined as those cultural operations which help to achieve high yield at no extra cost & whose cost does not change with the level of output”Some of the non-monetary inputs in crop production are:-- Tillage- Time of Sowing- Plant population- Choice of crops & Varieties- Plant protection- Weed management Source: Farming system
TillageIn sequential cropping• When cropping intensity is increased - less time between two crops - affect the intensity of tillage.• For triple crop rotation, i.e., Eg. Sorghum (Feb – May) – 100 days Ragi (May – August) – 90 days 360 days Cotton (August – January) – 170 days Very little time is left for land preparation for ragi and cotton.• Land shaping of succeeding crop may not be possible before sowing & have to be done late Eg. Rice-fallow pulse/cotton• Increase in cost of cultivation Source: Jayanthi et al.,2008
• Minimum tillage - Restricting the number of tillage operations to the minimum possible required level. Seed zone is tilled intensively.• Zero tillage - Succeeding crop is sown, without any preparatory cultivation in the stubbles of the previous crop.
In case of minimum or no tillage Temperature is a few degrees lower than in open/ conventional method. E.g. In Sorghum, at 5 cm depth after 2 weeks after planting temperature is Conventional- 410C ; No tillage- 310C Prevents surface encrustation owing to good seedling emergence E.g. Planting Cotton in finger millet stubbles in the northern districts of Tamil Nadu. Cost reduction & time saving can be achieved. Source: Jayanthi et al.,2008
Off season tillageLand shaping after crop establishmentEg. Cotton sown in ragi stubbles, ridges & earthing up operations are carried out at first top dressing of nitrogen at 30-35 DAS.Using labour saving implements.
Yield and economics of maize and wheat as influenced by different tillage practices in maize – wheat cropping rotation Tillage practice Grain yield (t/ha) Biological yield (t/ha) B:C ratio 2008-09 2009-10 2008-09 2009-10Maize Zero tillage 2.62 2.82 7.89 8.76 1.14Conventional tillage 3.20 2.91 9.39 10.70 0.73 SEm 0.10 0.12 0.49 0.74 0.08 CD (P=0.05) 0.35 0.40 1.55 NS 0.35Wheat Zero tillage 3.04 3.09 11.94 10.27 2.81Conventional tillage 4.04 4.09 14.64 14.37 2.25 SEm 0.06 0.10 0.37 0.78 0.17 CD (P=0.05) 0.21 0.36 1.27 2.70 0.77 Source: Singh et al.,2011
Influence of different treatments on yield structures & yield of Sunflower for two seasons (2004 & 2005)Treatments Crop Heads per m 2 Seeds/ Head 1000 seed wt Seed Yield emergence (g) (kg ha -1 ) rate (%) Complete 90.5a 7.0a 823.0b 58.1a 3394a residue removal Residue 90.0a 6.7a 839.0ab 57.3a 3755a burning Residueincorporated (%) 25 90.8a 7.1a 863.0a 56.8a 3796a 50 80.6b 5.9b 870.3a 54.8a 3745a 75 70.06c 5.3b 777.0a 48.6b 3340b 100 70.0b 5.2b 715.0d 41.9c 3323b Source: Bahrani et al., 2009
SOWINGSowing Time: Optimum time of sowing / planting E.g. Cotton – August 15th Turmeric – End of May Any fluctuation in optimum sowing time results in drastic yield reduction. E.g. Wheat. Correct age of seedlings should be used for transplanting E.g. Ragi/ sorghum – 16 to 18 days
The most common causes of late wheat planting following rice harvest. Source: Hobbs et al
Depth of Sowing / Planting: Sowing should be done at optimum depth E.g. Rice – 4 to 5 cm Ragi – 2 to 3 cm Sorghum – 3 to 4 cm Cotton, maize, groundnut – 5 to 7 cm In Kharif, sowing should be shallow and in Rabi deeper except pre sowing irrigation.
Mean values for some agronomic traits in rapeseed grown at 4 different sowing times in 2 seasons Parameters Plant height Beginning of Duration of Seed Yield (cm) flowering (day) flowering (day) (kg/ha) Season (S) S1 (2005-06) 109.1b 38.3a 26.3b 197.5a S2 (2006-07) 120.2a 35.2b 28.7a 167.1b LSD 0.05 4.2 0.5 0.7 11.2Sowing time (ST) ST1 (Oct 10) 121.4a 31.9d 27.9b 2437.5a ST2(Oct 20) 114.5b 34.2c 26.7c 2298.8a ST3(Oct 30) 117.6ab 38.2b 28.9a 1526.6b ST4(Nov 10) 105.2c 42.9a 26.4c 1027.4c LSD 0.05 5.7 0.7 0.9 14.9 Source: Turhan et al.,2011
Faba bean yield (kg/ha) and yield components as affected by planting dates grown under rainfed conditions of Jordan during 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 seasons Treatment Grain yield Pod Grain yield Pod (kg/ha) no./plant (kg/ha) no./plant 2003-2004 2004-2005 D1 1369a 8.3a 247a 3.7a D2 1115b 4.8b 163b 3.4a D3 531c 5.3b - -Means within each column, followed by the same letter are not significantly different at 5% probability level Source: Thalji et al.,2006
Effect of seeding depth on the yield and yield attributes of wheat Source : M Arifin
Effect of planting dates and intercropping systems on Pod yield (t/ha) of Okra and tuber yield (t/ha) Sweet potato Planting dates Okra Yield (t/ha) Tuber Yield (t/ha) 2009 2010 2009 2010 Sole Crop 12th July 5.1 5.3 16.5 15.0 26th July 4.5 4.2 13.5 13.0 9th August 4.1 4.0 10.7 11.2 Sweet potato -Okra 12th July 4.7 4.5 13.6 13.1 26th July 4.4 4.2 13.1 12.0 9th August 3.9 3.7 12.8 11.0 LSD (P≤0.05) 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.3 CV (%) 4.2 7.0 15.4 12.6 Source: M. O. Ijoyah et al.,2011
Plant populationSpacing and Plant Population: Optimum plant population. E.g. Soybean – 3.33 lakhs/ha Practicing paired row/ Skip row planting E.g. Rainfed groundnut – 20/50 cm Sorghum 45 x 15 cm (or) 60/30 x 15 cm Uniform row planting with a replacement of main crop rows by intercrop rows Eg. Sorghum + Black gram at 2:1 ratio
Effects of density on the seed yield of soybean intercropped with sorghumP – Population density of SoybeanP1-0.5m 0.1m, P2-0.5 m 0.06m and P3-0.5m 0.05m Source: O. M. Egbe, 2010
Effect of different cropping system on forage yield (t.ha-1) Cropping Systems Forage yield Cp 6.13c M1 10.47a M2 11.13a M3 10.16a C 8.7b LSD at 0.05% 1.44Different letters indicate significance at P ≤ 0.0 Cp: sole cow pea; M 1: alternate-row intercrop; M 2: within-row intercrop; M 3: mixed intercrop; C: sole maize Source: Eskandari et al.,2009
Choice of Crops & VarietiesSelection of crop depends on a no. of factors1. Depends on - allelopathic effect. Eg. Sorghum after sunflower - depletion of nutrients i.e., rooting depth2. Irrigation water availability Eg. Rice- Cotton/gingelly Rice- Black gram3. Influenced by the timing of the rainfall. For example, winter wheat is more suited to regions with higher winter rainfall while areas with summer wet seasons may be more suited to summer growing crops such as sorghum, sunflower or cotton.4. Vegetables deserve their place in cropping systems
For Inter cropping situation :-a) Cereals- Sorghum + Pigeon pea Maize + Bean Pearl millet + Castor/ Groundnut/ Black gramb) Pulses- Red gram + Ground nut Red gram + Black gram/ Soybeanc) Cotton- Cotton + Green gram/ Black gram/ Groundnut/ Cluster bean/ Oniond) Sugarcane- Sugarcane + Black gram/ Soybean Sugarcane + Green manure- Dhainchae) Dry lands – Pigeon pea + Green gram/ Bajra/ Sorghum/ Groundnut
For Sequential cropping situation:-a. Wetlands – Rice- Riceb. Irrigated uplands – Maize- Wheat Green gram- Maize – Wheatc. Dry lands – Sorghum- Safflower/ Horse gram Pearl millet- Cowpea/Black gramSelection of varieties – Region/season/duration• Low temperature – MDU 2 rice• Saline soil – CO 43 rice• Rice fallow – Black gram T9 Cotton MCU 9
Pest managementSeed treatment E.g. Carbendazim @ 1gm/kg seedRaising disease tolerant varieties E.g. Rice variety Vijetha is tolerant against blastTime of sowing E.g. Early sowing of maize controlled Fusarium spp. related diseases (ear, stalk & root rot) in MBCSs.Practicing crop rotation - Cereals – legumes etc.
Non host plants in mixtures emit chemicals/ odours that affect the pests there byprotecting host plants. E.g. Volatiles released from Mustard have a inhibitory effect on Groundnut stem rot pathogens – Sclerotium rolfsii.IPM / IPDMAlteration in micro climate E.g. Sorghum + pulses reduced the early shoot borer incidence
Population of DBM on cabbage intercropped with selected crops Source: Talekar et al
Average pest densities in each cropping system Source: Fabiao et al.,2007
Weed managementWeeding during critical crop weed competition period - Maize – 10-35 DAS - Sugarcane- 21-90 DAPDepends on growth habit of intercropE.g. Greengram/Cowpea in Sorghum Cowpea in BananaPre-emergence herbicide with little residual effect E.g. Butachlor- Maize + Green gram Trifluralin – Maize + GroundnutLine sowing/ planting for inter cultivation
Effect of different cropping systems on dry wt of weed (kg/ha) Cropping C I1 I2 I3 M LSD at System 0.05% Weeds dry 106.23b 96.85a 97.51a 97.65a 116.23c 6.22 wt. C: Sole Cow pea; I 1: Alternate-row intercrop; I 2: Within row intercrop; I 3: Mixed intercrop; M: sole maize Source: Eskandari et al.,2011
Weed biomass in sole- cropped barley and barley intercropped with red clover. Asterisks indicate significant differences between treatments (P < 0.05). Source : Liebman et al.,2001
Some practical low cost technologies: Mulching and irrigation in tea is a practical example for low cost technology. The mulching was done with coir pith. Instead of that mulch crops are grown in the field and then cut and incorporated it as mulch and then tea plantation is taken up. Usage of Neem leaves for cereal storage is another low cost technology. Sun drying is a common low non monetary input which has got lot of prospects in the processing industry also. Use of biofertilizer like Azospirillium for cereals, millets, cotton, sesame and Rhizobium for pulses.