Sustainable Livelihood SR

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Compiled by S.Rengasamy to introduce the concept of livelihood to MSW students specializing in community development

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Sustainable Livelihood SR

  1. 1. The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework <ul><li>It’s ONE WAY of “organising” the complex issues surrounding POVERTY </li></ul><ul><li>It’s NOT the ONLY WAY </li></ul><ul><li>It needs to be : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made appropriate to local circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made appropriate to local priorities </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Why an ‘approach’? It’s about trying to see development standing in the shoes of the poor not from the shoes of: the ‘expert’ or the ‘service delivery manager’
  3. 4. 'A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource base' (Chambers, R. and G. Conway, 1992).
  4. 5. Livelihood &quot;A livelihood, on the other hand, is engagement in a number of activities which, at times, neither require a formal agreement nor are limited to a particular trade. Livelihoods may or may not involve money. Jobs invariably do. Livelihoods are self-directing. .... . Livelihoods are based on income derived from &quot;jobs&quot;, but also on incomes derived from assets and entitlements. &quot; Job &quot;A job connotes one particular activity or trade that is performed in exchange for payment. It is also a formal agreement, as manifested by a contract, between an employer and employee...... . A job can, however, comprise part of an overall livelihood, but does so only to complement other aspects of a livelihood portfolio.
  5. 6. What is a livelihood? <ul><li>A livelihood comprises </li></ul><ul><li> -- the capabilities, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assets (material and social) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>required for a means of living. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not just the means to survive </li></ul><ul><li>but the capability to thrive </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Is simply a tool to help: </li></ul><ul><li>plan new development/adaptation initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>assess the contribution to livelihood sustainability made by existing activities </li></ul><ul><li>It: </li></ul><ul><li>provides a checklist of relevant issues </li></ul><ul><li>highlights what influences what </li></ul><ul><li>emphasizes the multiple interactions that affect people’s livelihoods </li></ul>The Sustainable Livelihood Framework -1
  7. 8. The Sustainable Livelihood Framework -2 <ul><li>Helps us think holistically about: </li></ul><ul><li>The things that poor rural households might be very vulnerable to </li></ul><ul><li>The assets and resources that help them thrive and survive </li></ul><ul><li>The policies and institutions that impact on their livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>How they respond to threats of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of adaptation strategies are open to them </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Principles of SLA </li></ul><ul><li>People-centered : beginning by understanding peoples’ priorities and livelihood strategies . </li></ul><ul><li>● Responsive and participatory : responding to the expressed priorities of poor people. </li></ul><ul><li>● Multi-level: ensuring micro-level realities inform macro-level institutions and processes. </li></ul><ul><li>● Conducted in partnership: working with public, private and civil society actors. </li></ul><ul><li>● Sustainable: environmentally, economically, institutionally, and socially. </li></ul><ul><li>● Dynamic: ensuring support is flexible and process-oriented, responding to changing livelihoods. </li></ul><ul><li>● Holistic: reflecting the integrated nature of people’s lives and diverse strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>● Building on strengths: while addressing vulnerabilities . </li></ul>
  9. 10. Principles -1 <ul><li>People at the centre </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not supply driven </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asset-based analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build on inherent potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not on weaknesses and gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on outcomes (results) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Principles -2 <ul><li>If people are at ‘the centre’, </li></ul><ul><li>it affects the way services are delivered </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves users directly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible and dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Joined-up’ work (Integration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. ‘ PIPS’ effectively determine: <ul><li>access (to various types of capital, to livelihood strategies and to decision-making bodies and sources of influence) </li></ul><ul><li>the terms of exchange between different types of capital </li></ul><ul><li>returns (economic and otherwise) to any given livelihood strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Without a pro-poor and supportive </li></ul><ul><li>enabling environment, interventions have little impact </li></ul>
  12. 13. SLA and RBA: Complimentary? <ul><li>Rights-based perspective: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focuses on linkages between public institutions and civil society and, particularly, on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>how to increase the accountability of public institutions to all citizens. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The livelihoods approach, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>takes as its starting point a need to understand the livelihoods of poor people in context. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>also recognizes the importance of these rights and of enhancing accountability </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Principles -3 <ul><li>Focus on institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the ‘rules of the game’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ voice’ and ‘choice’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rights, entitlements, inclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multi-level consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ micro-macro’ linkages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on sustainability </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Livelihoods assets Financial Capital Natural Capital Social Capital Physical Capital Human Capital The Poor
  15. 16. The SL Framework Livelihood Capital Assets Human Social Physical Financial Natural Vulnerability Context Livelihood Strategies Policies & Institutions Government Socio-Cultural <ul><li>Livelihood Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>+ Sustainable use of NR base </li></ul><ul><li>+ Income </li></ul><ul><li>+ Well-being </li></ul><ul><li>- Vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>+ Food security </li></ul>
  16. 17. Sustainable Livelihoods Framework
  17. 18. Focussing on the poor The Poor Ethnic Ability Gender Age Class
  18. 19. Livelihood Assets Financial Physical Natural Social Human Personal The Poor Gender Age Class Ethnic Ability
  19. 20. Unpacking Policies and Institutions Enabling agencies Service providers Financial Physical Natural Social Human Personal The Poor Gender Age Class Ethnic Ability
  20. 21. Unpacking “Processes” Markets Politics Culture Rights Enabling agencies Service providers Financial Physical Natural Social Human Personal The Poor Gender Age Class Ethnic Ability
  21. 22. An Envelope of Action ASPIRATIONS OPPORTUNITIES Markets Politics Culture Rights Enabling agencies Service providers Financial Physical Natural Social Human Personal The Poor Gender Age Class Ethnic Ability
  22. 23. Strong Envelope – People Less Vunerable VULNERABILITY - Shocks Seasonality Trends - VULNERABILITY ASPIRATIONS OPPORTUNITIES Markets Politics Culture Rights Enabling agencies Service providers Financial Physical Natural Social Human Personal The Poor Gender Age Class Ethnic Ability
  23. 24. Weak Envelope – People More Vulnerable VULNERABILITY - Shocks Seasonality Trends - VULNERABILITY ASPIRATIONS OPPORTUNITIES Markets Politics Culture Rights Enabling agencies Service providers Financial Physical Natural Social Human Personal The Poor Gender Age Class Ethnic Ability
  24. 25. ACTIONS OUTCOMES Markets Politics Culture Rights VULNERABILITY - Shocks Seasonality Trends - VULNERABILITY ASPIRATIONS OPPORTUNITIES Enabling agencies Service providers Financial Physical Natural Social Human Personal The Poor Gender Age Class Ethnic Ability
  25. 26. The five Capitals /Assets Land, Water, Wildlife, Biodiversity, Environment, Solar Natural: Transport, Shelter, Water, Energy Built: Networks, Groups, Trust, Access to services Social: Savings, Credit, Remittances, Pensions Financial: Skills, Knowledge, Information, Ability to work, Health Human: Examples Assets/ Capitals
  26. 27. The five capitals <ul><li>Human capital - skills, knowledge & info., ability to work, health </li></ul><ul><li>Natural capital - land, water, wildlife, biodiversity, environment </li></ul><ul><li>Financial capital - savings, credit, remittances, pensions </li></ul><ul><li>Physical capital - transport, shelter, water, energy, comms </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital - networks, groups, trust, access to institutions </li></ul>
  27. 28. Social Capital - Issues <ul><li>Much debate centers on the concept of social capital – one of the key terms in the development lexicon and the missing link in development ‘the glue that holds society together’ </li></ul><ul><li>Concept attributed to Putnam who identifies three elements of social relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal trust, networks and shared norms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where these elements function well they enable people to act together more effectively, make decisions, formulate policy and gain access to power and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed that the major obstacle of economic and social development in the ‘third world’ is ineffective institutions </li></ul>
  28. 29. Social capital - critique <ul><li>Key critiques of Putnam’s approach are that it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devalues political civil society – concentrates on ‘apolitical’ institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romanticizes associational life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic – “path dependent development” – you either have social capital or you don’t. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A repackaging of what social scientists have studied for years with new terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>social capital equals “Bankspeak”, a term designed to neutralize and obscure problems and relations of power (Harriss and Fine) </li></ul>
  29. 30. Counterpoints <ul><li>Hilary argues that the concept of social capital exposes the limitations of conventional economic approaches for understanding economic and social processes </li></ul>
  30. 31. What is a sustainable livelihood? <ul><li>A livelihood is sustainable when it can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cope with and recover from stresses and shocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>while not undermining the natural resource base. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Livelihood Strategies W hat do people do? <ul><li>Natural-resource based </li></ul><ul><li>Non-NR / off-farm activities </li></ul><ul><li>Migration / remittances </li></ul><ul><li>Pensions and grants </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification vs. diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term vs. long-term </li></ul>
  32. 33. Livelihood outcomes <ul><li>What people are trying to achieve with their assets and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of livelihood outcome </li></ul><ul><li>More income </li></ul><ul><li>Increased well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Improved food security </li></ul><ul><li>More sustainable use of the natural resource base </li></ul>
  33. 34. Livelihood Outcomes W hat are people seeking to achieve? <ul><li>More sustainable use of the NR base </li></ul><ul><li>More income </li></ul><ul><li>Increased well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Protect rights </li></ul><ul><li>Recover dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Improved food security </li></ul>
  34. 35. Human Capital <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to work </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to adapt </li></ul>
  35. 36. Natural Capital <ul><li>Land and produce </li></ul><ul><li>Water & aquatic resources </li></ul><ul><li>Trees and forest products </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Wild foods & fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Env ironmental services </li></ul>
  36. 37. Social Capital <ul><li>Networks and connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>patronage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neighbourhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kinship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relations of trust and mutual support </li></ul><ul><li>Formal and informal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Common rules and sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>Collective representation </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms for participation in decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul>
  37. 38. Physical Capital <ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transport - roads, vehicles, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secure shelter & buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water supply & sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools and techology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tools and equipment for production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>s eed , fertiliser, pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traditional technology </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Financial Capital <ul><li>S avings </li></ul><ul><li>Credit/debt - formal, informal, NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Remittances </li></ul><ul><li>Pensions </li></ul><ul><li>Wages </li></ul>
  39. 40. The Asset Mix <ul><li>D ifferent households with different access to livelihood “assets/capital” </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihoods affected by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diversity of assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amount of assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>balance between assets </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. So…….. <ul><li>Human capital </li></ul><ul><li>labour capacity </li></ul><ul><li>no education </li></ul><ul><li>limited skills </li></ul><ul><li>Natural capital </li></ul><ul><li>landless </li></ul><ul><li>access to common property resources </li></ul><ul><li>Financial capital </li></ul><ul><li>low wages </li></ul><ul><li>no access to credit </li></ul><ul><li>Physical capital </li></ul><ul><li>poor water supply </li></ul><ul><li>poor housing </li></ul><ul><li>poor communications </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital </li></ul><ul><li>low social status </li></ul><ul><li>descrimination against women </li></ul><ul><li>strong links with family & friends </li></ul><ul><li>traditions of reciprocal exchange </li></ul><ul><li>= an extremely reduced “livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>pentagon” </li></ul>Landless female agricultural labourer Financial Capital Social Capital Physical Capital Human Capital Natural Capital
  41. 42. Understanding vulnerability <ul><li>Moser characterizes vulnerability as insecurity in the well being of individuals, households or communities in the face of a changing environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because people move in and out of poverty the concept of vulnerability better captures processes of change that poverty line measures </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Understanding vulnerability <ul><li>Chambers observes that vulnerability has two sides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An external side of risks, shocks and stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An internal side of defencelessness due to lack of means to cope with damaging loss </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. “ Vulnerability” Context <ul><li>Shocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods, droughts, cyclones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deaths in the family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence or civil unrest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul><ul><li>Trends and changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markets and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalisation </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Vulnerability Context The external environment in which people exist <ul><li>Shocks - illness,death in the family, disaster-floods,droughts,cyclones, economic, conflict-violence or civil unrest, crop / livestock pests & diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses – long term trends that undermine livelihood potential: population, environment- declining natural resource base , climate change, markets and trade- inflation , currency devaluation, structural unemployment, poor governance, globalisation etc </li></ul><ul><li>Season ality - prices, production, health, employment </li></ul>
  45. 46. Vulnerability Context Shocks Seasonality Trends Changes “ Vulnerability” Context F P H N S The Poor
  46. 47. Policies, Institutions & Processes <ul><li>Policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of different LEVELS of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of NGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of interational bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>political, legislative & representative bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>executive agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>judicial bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>civil society & membership organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>law, money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>political parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commercial enterprises & corporations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the “rules of the game” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decision-making processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social norms & customs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gender, caste, class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Policies Institutions Processes Vulnerability Context Shocks Seasonality Trends Changes Policies, Institutions & Processes F P H N S The Poor influence
  48. 49. Livelihood Strategies <ul><li>Combining: </li></ul><ul><li>the assets they can access </li></ul><ul><li>Taking account of: </li></ul><ul><li>the vulnerability context </li></ul><ul><li>Supported or obstructed by: </li></ul><ul><li>policies, institutions and processes . </li></ul><ul><li>……… ..……….. leading to </li></ul>
  49. 50. Livelihood Outcomes <ul><li>Poverty - a “poor” livelihood outcome : </li></ul><ul><li>based on a fragile or unbalanced set of livelihood assets </li></ul><ul><li>unable to sustain to shocks, changes or trends </li></ul><ul><li>not supported, or actively obstructed by policies, institutions and processes that do not allow assets to be used as they might </li></ul><ul><li>livehood options combined in a “bad” or unsustainable strategy </li></ul>
  50. 51. The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework Policies Institutions Processes Vulnerability Context Shocks Seasonality Trends Changes Livelihood Strategies Livelihood Outcomes influence N S F P H The Poor
  51. 52. Uses <ul><li>A guide for people in the analysis of development practice and issues </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages discussion and probing </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily easier to explain but more complete </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically identifies many features – politics, rules, social norms, gender/age/class/ethnic issues – that will help make it more culture specific </li></ul><ul><li>Still not a magic bullet! </li></ul>
  52. 53. Advantages <ul><li>Addresses some of the “grey areas” identified regarding SL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Places the poor firmly at the centre – makes people visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests the importance of clear definition of who is at the centre of the analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpacks the PIP box – more specific regarding key institutions and processes – and provides a more practical approach to analysing institutional and policy issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates political dimension more explicitly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps understand entry points – based on opportunities and aspirations, possible at different levels (identifying them still depends on good analysis) </li></ul></ul>
  53. 55. How does the SL differ from previous approaches?
  54. 56. A Sustainable Livelihoods Framework

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