Climatic (Change and Economic Globalization) in  Indian Agriculture Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social S...
The earth's climate is generally defined as the average weather over a long period of time. A place or region's climate is...
Climate Variability <ul><li>Although an area's climate is always changing, the changes do not usually occur on a time scal...
Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences  பசுமை இல்ல விளைவு  பசுமை இல்லம் என்பது சில தாவரங்களை சரியான...
What Causes Climate? <ul><li>Climate is the name for the general conditions of temperature and precipitation for  </li></u...
Factors that Affect Precipitation <ul><li>The two factors that affect the amount of precipitation at a particular location...
<ul><li>Climate Zones </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth’s climate can be divided into general climate zones according to average...
Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
<ul><li>It is important to understand  </li></ul><ul><li>vulnerability of agriculture to climate change and economic chang...
<ul><li>Agriculture in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>27 % GDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>700 million people </li></ul></ul><...
Vulnerability index <ul><li>Biophysical vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Soil degradation and cover </li></ul><ul><li>Flood...
Climate Change <ul><li>Climate Issues:   </li></ul><ul><li>increasingly important to governments, corporations, the public...
Reasons for Societal Concern <ul><li>Droughts & Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes & Cyclones </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Storm...
Societal Areas of Concern <ul><li>Food Production & Security </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources  </li></ul><ul><li>Energy <...
Climate Change  <ul><li>Climate Variability </li></ul><ul><li>(seasonal to inter-annual) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Fluctua...
Climate Change <ul><li>Encourage education on climate change  issues </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how climate change affec...
Climate Impacts <ul><li>On ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>(terrestrial & marine) </li></ul><ul><li>On societies </li></ul><u...
Climate Policy & Law <ul><li>Air pollution, acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Energy consumptio...
Climate Politics:  how you get to policy and law <ul><li>Greenhouse effect vs White House effect </li></ul><ul><li>Greenpe...
Other impacts on agriculture <ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilization effect :  Higher levels of carbon will increase yield. </li></u...
Fertilization and Pest Effects <ul><li>Higher amounts of carbon in the atmosphere will increase photosynthesis and plant p...
Western Himalayan Eastern Himalayan . Lower Gangetic Plains Middle Gangetic Plains.   Upper Gangetic Plains Trans Gangetic...
Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
<ul><li>Land Use Classification </li></ul><ul><li>India has a diverse agro-climate, topography and soil types on the basis...
<ul><li>AGRO-ECOLOGICAL REGIONS (AERs) AND SUB-REGIONS (AESRs) </li></ul><ul><li>Agro-Ecological Regions:  The country has...
<ul><li>Bio-Climatic Regions </li></ul><ul><li>The agro-ecological regions fall into 6 major climatic regions as given bel...
Classification of ‘dryland’ regions in India using Thornthwaite Classification Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute ...
Agro-Meteorological Regions of the Country Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences  The country has ...
Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences  <ul><li>1. Geographical area  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reportin...
LAND USE PATTERN IN TAMILNADU <ul><li>The geographical area of Tamil Nadu is 13 million ha. According to professional surv...
LAND USE PATTERN IN TAMILNADU Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
LAND USE PATTERN IN TAMILNADU <ul><li>1.FORESTS </li></ul><ul><li>In Tamil Nadu Dharmapuri district ranks the first with a...
LAND USE PATTERN IN TAMILNADU <ul><li>5. PERMANENT PASTURES AND OTHER GRAZING LANDS </li></ul><ul><li>All grazing lands, w...
LAND USE PATTERN IN TAMILNADU <ul><li>9. NET AREA AND GROSS AREA SOWN </li></ul><ul><li>Net area sown represents the area ...
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Climatic Change And Economic Globalization In Agriculture

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This presentation is compiled by Mr. S.Rengasamy, Faculty, Mdurai Institute of Social Sciences to introduce the role of climate in Indian Agriculture to MSW Community Development Specialization Students. This presentation also used to explain the role of Climate to NGO staffs

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Climatic Change And Economic Globalization In Agriculture

  1. 1. Climatic (Change and Economic Globalization) in Indian Agriculture Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  2. 2. The earth's climate is generally defined as the average weather over a long period of time. A place or region's climate is determined by both natural and anthropogenic (human-made) factors. The natural elements include the atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, while the human factors can include land and resource uses. Changes in any of these factors can cause local, regional, or even global changes in the climate. Weather is the current atmospheric conditions, including temperature, rainfall, wind, and humidity at a given place. If you stand outside, you can see that it's raining or windy, or sunny or cloudy. You can tell how hot it is by taking a temperature reading. Weather is what's happening right now or is likely to happen tomorrow or in the very near future. Climate, on the other hand, is the general weather conditions over a long period of time. we're not surprised to see temperature going up in May. Some meteorologists say that &quot;climate is what you expect and weather is what you get.&quot; According to one middle school student, &quot;climate tells you what clothes to buy, but weather tells you what clothes to wear.&quot; Climate is sometimes referred to as &quot;average&quot; weather for a given area. However, some atmospheric scientists think that you need more than &quot;average&quot; weather to accurately portray an area's climatic character - variations, patterns, and extremes must also be included. Thus, climate is the sum of all statistical weather information that helps describe a place or region. The term also applies to large-scale weather patterns in time or space such as an 'Ice Age' climate or a 'tropical' climate. Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  3. 3. Climate Variability <ul><li>Although an area's climate is always changing, the changes do not usually occur on a time scale that's immediately obvious to us. While we know how the weather changes from day to day, subtle climate changes are not as readily detectable. Weather patterns and climate types take similar elements into account, the most important of which are: </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature of the air The humidity of the air The type and amount of cloudiness The type and amount of precipitation Air pressure Wind speed and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Although weather and climate are different, they are very much interrelated. A change in one weather element often produces changes in the others - and in the region's climate. For example, if the average temperature over a region increases significantly, it can affect the amount of cloudiness as well as the type and amount of precipitation that occur. If these changes occur over long periods of time, the average climate values for these elements will also be affected. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  4. 4. Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  5. 5. Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  6. 6. Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences பசுமை இல்ல விளைவு பசுமை இல்லம் என்பது சில தாவரங்களை சரியான சீ தோஷ்ண நிலையில் வைத்திருக்க குளிர் பிரதேசங்களில் அமைக்கப்படும் கண்ணாடிக் கூண்டு . தாவரங்களின் மீது விழும் சூரிய ஒளியைக் இக் கூண்டு தடுக்காது . ஆனால் வெப்பம் வெளியேறுவதை தடுக்குமாகையால் கூண்டிற்குள் கட்டுப்பாடான சீதோஷ்ண நிலை பேணப்படும் . green house gases எனப்படும் பசுமை இல்ல வாயுக்கள் கண்ணாடிக் கூண்டு மாதிரி செயல்பட்டு , பூமியின் வெப்பத்தை ப்ரிதிபலிக்க விடாமால் தடுத்து பூமியை சூடேற்றுகிறது . அதிகரிக்கும் இந்தச் சூட்டையே அண்டச் சூடு அல்லது புவி வெப்பம் என்கிறோம் . பசுமை இல்ல கண்ணாடிக் கூண்டு இது மாதிரிதான் வளி மண்டலத்தில் பசுமை இல்ல வாயுக்கள் பூமியை போர்த்தி / மூடி இருக்கிறது பூமிக்கு வரும் சூரிய வெப்பம் பூமியில் இருந்து வெளியேறும் / பிரதிபலிக்கும் வெப்பம் வெளியேற வாய்ப்பு இல்லாமல் பூமியிலே தங்கி விடும் வெப்பம் சீ . ரெங்கசாமி பசுமை இல்ல விளைவு பசுமை இல்லம் என்பது சில தாவரங்களை சரியான சீ தோஷ்ண நிலையில் வைத்திருக்க குளிர் பிரதேசங்களில் அமைக்கப்படும் கண்ணாடிக் கூண்டு . தாவரங்களின் மீது விழும் சூரிய ஒளியைக் இக் கூண்டு தடுக்காது . ஆனால் வெப்பம் வெளியேறுவதை தடுக்குமாகையால் கூண்டிற்குள் கட்டுப்பாடான சீதோஷ்ண நிலை பேணப்படும் . green house gases எனப்படும் பசுமை இல்ல வாயுக்கள் கண்ணாடிக் கூண்டு மாதிரி செயல்பட்டு , பூமியின் வெப்பத்தை ப்ரிதிபலிக்க விடாமால் தடுத்து பூமியை சூடேற்றுகிறது . அதிகரிக்கும் இந்தச் சூட்டையே அண்டச் சூடு அல்லது புவி வெப்பம் என்கிறோம் . பசுமை இல்ல கண்ணாடிக் கூண்டு இது மாதிரிதான் வளி மண்டலத்தில் பசுமை இல்ல வாயுக்கள் பூமியை போர்த்தி / மூடி இருக்கிறது பூமிக்கு வரும் சூரிய வெப்பம் பூமியில் இருந்து வெளியேறும் / பிரதிபலிக்கும் வெப்பம் வெளியேற வாய்ப்பு இல்லாமல் பூமியிலே தங்கி விடும் வெப்பம் சீ . ரெங்கசாமி
  7. 7. What Causes Climate? <ul><li>Climate is the name for the general conditions of temperature and precipitation for </li></ul><ul><li>an area over a long period of time. The climate of a region is determined by two </li></ul><ul><li>basic factors: temperature and precipitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that Affect Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Latitude, elevation and the presence of ocean currents are three natural factors that affect the temperature at a particular location. </li></ul><ul><li>Latitude is the measure of the distance north and south of the equator. Latitude is measured in degrees. Areas close to the equator, or 0 degrees latitude, receive the direct rays of the sun. These direct rays provide the most radiant energy. Areas near the equator have a warm climate. Polar regions have a cold climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation, or altitude, is the distance above sea level. As elevation increases, the air becomes less dense. This means there are fewer gas molecules in the air and they are spread far apart. Less- dense air cannot hold as much heat as denser air. So as elevation increases, temperature decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>The surface temperature of water affects the temperature of the water above it. Warm water warms the air and cold water tends to cool it. Land areas near warm water currents have warm temperatures. The Gulf Stream is an ocean current that carries warm water along the eastern coast of the United States. The California Current travels toward the equator carrying cold water along the west coast of the United States. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  8. 8. Factors that Affect Precipitation <ul><li>The two factors that affect the amount of precipitation at a particular location are prevailing </li></ul><ul><li>winds and mountain ranges. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevailing Winds </li></ul><ul><li>A wind that blows more often from one direction that from any other direction is called a prevailing wind. Prevailing winds have a great influence on the climate of regions in their path. Different prevailing winds carry different amounts of moisture. The amount of moisture carried by a prevailing wind affects the amount of precipitation a region receives. Winds formed by rising warm air tend to bring precipitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of Prevailing Winds </li></ul><ul><li>The direction from which a prevailing wind blows also affects the amount of moisture it carries. Some prevailing winds blow from the water to the land ( seabreeze). </li></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul><ul><li>A region that receives less than 25 centimeters of rainfall a year is called a desert. The combined effect of a prevailing wind’s moisture content and its direction can make it possible for a desert to exist near a large body of water. The Sahara Desert is bordered on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The prevailing winds that blow across the Sahara originate far inland, carry little moisture and are caused by sinking cold air. </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Ranges </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of precipitation at a particular location is also affected by mountain ranges. A mountain range acts as a barrier to prevailing winds. The windward side of a mountain has a wet climate. On the leeward side, relatively dry air moves down the side of the mountain and results in very little precipitation. A good example is the Great Basin on the leeward side of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  9. 9. <ul><li>Climate Zones </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth’s climate can be divided into general climate zones according to average temperatures. Scientist classify localized climates as microclimates. The three major climate zones on the Earth are the polar, temperate, and tropical zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Polar Zones </li></ul><ul><li>In each hemisphere, the polar zone extends from the pole to about 60 degrees latitude. In polar zones, the average yearly temperature is below freezing. There are some areas in the polar zones, such as the northern coasts of Canada and Alaska and the southern tip of South America, where the snow melts during the warmest part of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate zones </li></ul><ul><li>In each hemisphere, the temperate zone is found between 60 degrees and 30 degrees latitude. IN the areas of the temperate zones farther from the equator, snow is common in the winter. In the areas of the temperate zones closer to the equator, rain normally falls all year round. The average amount of precipitation is about the same throughout. The average temperatures range from 5 degrees C to 20 degrees C. </li></ul><ul><li>Desert in the temperate zones </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts in the temperate zones are usually located in land, far away from the oceans. The winds that blow across these inland deserts carry little moisture. Although very hot during the day, temperatures at night can drop to below freezing. Inland deserts are found in Australia (the Great Sandy Desert) and Central Asia ( the Gobi Desert). </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical zones </li></ul><ul><li>The tropical zones, which extend from 30 degrees north and south latitude to the equator, have high temperatures and high humidity. Tropical zones are also known as low-latitude climates. The average temperature during the coldest month of the year does not fall below 18 degrees C. Many deserts are located on the western coasts of the continents. This is because the prevailing winds, the trades, blow from east to west. </li></ul><ul><li>Marine & continental climate </li></ul><ul><li>Within each of the three major climate zones, there are marine and continental climates. Areas near an ocean or other large body of water have a marine climate. Areas located within a large landmass have a continental climate. Areas with a marine climate receive more precipitation and have a more moderate climate. A continental climate has less precipitation and a greater range in climate </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  10. 10. Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  11. 11. <ul><li>It is important to understand </li></ul><ul><li>vulnerability of agriculture to climate change and economic changes </li></ul><ul><li>Social and economic policies enhance or constrain farmers’ ability to adapt to climate change in the context of globalization (e.g., by limiting/increasing choices) </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  12. 12. <ul><li>Agriculture in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>27 % GDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>700 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more than 60 % is rainfed cultivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both climate change and economic globalization are ongoing processes with uneven impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian agriculture will be confronted by both processes simultaneously, leading to changing patterns of vulnerability. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  13. 13. Vulnerability index <ul><li>Biophysical vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Soil degradation and cover </li></ul><ul><li>Flood prone districts </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural workers and laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Gender discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation availability </li></ul>Climate sensitivity index (precipitation variability and dryness) Trade sensitivity index (port distance and export- & import- sensitive crops) Climate change vulnerability Globalization vulnerability Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  14. 14. Climate Change <ul><li>Climate Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>increasingly important to governments, corporations, the public </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions: </li></ul><ul><li>climate anomalies getting more frequent, costly and deadly </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming: </li></ul><ul><li>looming in the 21 st century </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  15. 15. Reasons for Societal Concern <ul><li>Droughts & Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes & Cyclones </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Storms & Frosts </li></ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul><ul><li>El Nino & La Nina </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  16. 16. Societal Areas of Concern <ul><li>Food Production & Security </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Public Health </li></ul><ul><li>Public Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  17. 17. Climate Change <ul><li>Climate Variability </li></ul><ul><li>(seasonal to inter-annual) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Fluctuations </li></ul><ul><li>(decade scale) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>(new global climate state) </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Meteorological Events </li></ul><ul><li>(where weather meets climate) </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  18. 18. Climate Change <ul><li>Encourage education on climate change issues </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how climate change affects societies </li></ul><ul><li>Make climate information “ usable ” </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  19. 19. Climate Impacts <ul><li>On ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>(terrestrial & marine) </li></ul><ul><li>On societies </li></ul><ul><li>(industrialized & agricultural) </li></ul><ul><li>Human impacts on the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>(direct & indirect) </li></ul><ul><li>Methods to assess impacts </li></ul><ul><li>(quantitative & qualitative) </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  20. 20. Climate Policy & Law <ul><li>Air pollution, acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Energy consumption, landuse practices, GHGs emission controls </li></ul><ul><li>Transboundary water issues, coastal ocean issues, air-shed management </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  21. 21. Climate Politics: how you get to policy and law <ul><li>Greenhouse effect vs White House effect </li></ul><ul><li>Greenpeace vs. Wise-Use </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation vs. Exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Technophiles vs. Technophobes </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence on market mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Local, national, regional, global politics </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  22. 22. Other impacts on agriculture <ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilization effect : Higher levels of carbon will increase yield. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daylight effect : Moving north will reduce exposure to the sun and reduce yield. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pest effect: Warmer climate will lead to northward movement of pest and reduce yield. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein effect : Increase in carbon will lead to higher yields but less protein production. </li></ul></ul></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  23. 23. Fertilization and Pest Effects <ul><li>Higher amounts of carbon in the atmosphere will increase photosynthesis and plant productivity and thus increase overall supply. </li></ul><ul><li>The fertilization effects may be associated with less production of protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Pests will migrate with the warmer weather towards the Poles, causing damage to trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, productivity may decline if the pest effect is greater than the fertilization effect. </li></ul><ul><li>There also will be high adjustment costs because developing new crop systems is costly. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  24. 24. Western Himalayan Eastern Himalayan . Lower Gangetic Plains Middle Gangetic Plains. Upper Gangetic Plains Trans Gangetic Plains Eastern Plateu & Hill Region Central Plateau & Hill Region Western Plateau & Hill Region Southern Plateau & Hill Region East Coast Plains & Hill Region West Coast Plains & Ghat Region Gujarat Plains & Ghat Region Western Dry region Island Region Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  25. 25. Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  26. 26. Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  27. 27. <ul><li>Land Use Classification </li></ul><ul><li>India has a diverse agro-climate, topography and soil types on the basis of which it has been categorized into various regions. Major part of the country is rain fed. Rainfall, therefore, constitutes an important parameter in the classification of the country into various regions for the purpose of planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Agro-Climatic Regions: India has been divided into 15 agro-climatic zones on the basis of climate, in combination with soil and other factors that affect the agriculture in the region. This classification originated in 1979 by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) through the National Agricultural Research Project (NARP). These are: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Western Himalayan Region. 2. Eastern Himalayan Region. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Lower Gangetic Plains Region. 4.Middle Gangetic Plains Region. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Upper Gangetic Plain Region. 6.Trans Gangetic Plains Region. </li></ul><ul><li>7.Eastern Plateu and Hill Region. 8.Central Plateau and Hill Region. </li></ul><ul><li>9.Western Plateau and Hill Region. 10.Southern Plateau and Hill Region. </li></ul><ul><li>11.East Coast Plains and Hill Region. 12.West Coast Plains and Ghat Region. </li></ul><ul><li>13Gujarat Plains and Ghat Region. 14.Western Dry Region. </li></ul><ul><li>15.Island Region. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  28. 28. <ul><li>AGRO-ECOLOGICAL REGIONS (AERs) AND SUB-REGIONS (AESRs) </li></ul><ul><li>Agro-Ecological Regions: The country has also been categorised into 20 Agro-Ecological Regions, based on physiography, soils, climate, growing period and also taking into account available water capacity of the soil, etc. The mapping and classification of the various parts of the country for generation of agro-ecological regions involved the superimposition of four base maps, namely physiography, soils, bioclimate and length of growing period and have been used for resource planning at national level. </li></ul><ul><li>Agro-Ecological Sub-Regions (AESRs): The agro-ecological regions were subsequently refined to prepare a 60 Agro-Ecological Sub-Regions (AESR) Map for regional level planning using the detailed soil information at subgroup level, physiography at land form level, and bioclimate (refined limits of arid, semi-arid and sub-humid bioclimate) types and length of growing period (LGP) at 30 day class interval. The AESR map is useful for regional level planning and resource allocation. The information of length of growing period as well as agro-ecological zoning supported by moisture availability index can act as an excellent base for crop modelling and crop suitability evaluation. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  29. 29. <ul><li>Bio-Climatic Regions </li></ul><ul><li>The agro-ecological regions fall into 6 major climatic regions as given below: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-arid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Sub-humid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moist Sub-humid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per-humid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on the classification laid down by the National Bureau of Soil Science and Land Use Planning (NBS&LUP) in the publication “Agro-Ecological Sub-regions of India for Planning and Development” (Velayutham 1999) and the Method of the dryland classification of bioclimatic zonation of the country, main Areas/districts in the concerned regions falling in the various bioclimatic regions. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  30. 30. Classification of ‘dryland’ regions in India using Thornthwaite Classification Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  31. 31. Agro-Meteorological Regions of the Country Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences The country has also been classified into 35 agro-meteorological divisions for the purpose of monitoring rainfall intensity and drought. These are given in the table. The concept of drought on a sub-divisional/district scale is presently under review.
  32. 32. Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences <ul><li>1. Geographical area </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reporting area </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Forests </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Not available for cultivation (a+b) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. (a) Non-agricultural uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. (b) Barren and uncultivable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(iii) Other cultivated land (excluding fallow land) (a+b+c) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. (a) Permanent pastures and other grazing land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. (b) Miscellaneous tree crops and groves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. (c) Cultivable wasteland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(iv) Fallow land (a+b) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6. (a) Fallow land other than current fallows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. (b) Current fallows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(v) Net area sown (vi-iii) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8. (vi) Gross cropped area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. (vii) Area sown more than once </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(viii) Net irrigated area </li></ul><ul><li>(ix) Gross irrigated area </li></ul><ul><li>Source : Agricultural statistics at a glance, </li></ul>
  33. 33. LAND USE PATTERN IN TAMILNADU <ul><li>The geographical area of Tamil Nadu is 13 million ha. According to professional survey and also </li></ul><ul><li>village records, the land use pattern during 2000-2001 is indicated in the following Table </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  34. 34. LAND USE PATTERN IN TAMILNADU Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  35. 35. LAND USE PATTERN IN TAMILNADU <ul><li>1.FORESTS </li></ul><ul><li>In Tamil Nadu Dharmapuri district ranks the first with a forest cover area and works out to 17.2% of the state’s total forest </li></ul><ul><li>area. This is followed by Erode district with 2,28750 hectares (10.7%). The Nilgiris district has about 56.3% of the </li></ul><ul><li>total area as forests followed by Dharmapuri with 38.0%. Dharmapuri, Erode, Vellore, Coimbatore, </li></ul><ul><li>Thiruvannamalai, The Nilgiris, Dindigul, Salem, Thirunelveli and Theni Districts account for 79.8% of the </li></ul><ul><li>total forest area of the state. </li></ul><ul><li>2. BARREN AND UNCULTURABLE LAND </li></ul><ul><li>In Tamil Nadu, an extent of 475850 hectares of land comes under barren and uncultivable land </li></ul><ul><li>category, which represents 3.7% of the total geographical area of the state. Villupuram district alone </li></ul><ul><li>accounts for 57297 hectares which is 12.0% of the state’s barren and uncultivable land and about 7.9% of </li></ul><ul><li>its geographical area is under this category. The area under this category is very meagre in Thiruvarur </li></ul><ul><li>district with 0.2% of the total geographical area. </li></ul><ul><li>3. LAND PUT TO NON-AGRICULTURAL USES </li></ul><ul><li>The lands occupied by buildings, pathways, roads, canals and land put to uses other than agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>purposes are brought under this category. Area under this classification is 1978320 hectares accounting </li></ul><ul><li>for 15.2% of the state’s geographical area . The extent under this category has increased by 10555 </li></ul><ul><li>hectares during the year under report as compared to 1998-99. In Kancheepuram district about 141750 </li></ul><ul><li>hectares of land are put to non-agricultural uses, which is the highest in the state (7.2%) followed by </li></ul><ul><li>Pudukottai with 128103 hectares (6.5%). In Chennai district about 98.3% of its geographical area is put to </li></ul><ul><li>non-agricultural uses. </li></ul><ul><li>4. CULTURABLE WASTE </li></ul><ul><li>The total area under culturable waste is 3,48,640 hectares or 2.7% of the total geographical area of the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirunelveli, Karur, Thoothukudi, Sivagangai, Dharmapuri, Tiruchirapalli,Thiruvannamalai, Villupuram, </li></ul><ul><li>Pudukkottai and Thanjavur districts account for nearly 72% of the area under this category. The area of </li></ul><ul><li>culturable waste is very meagre in Kanyakumari district with 0.04% of the State’s geographical area. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  36. 36. LAND USE PATTERN IN TAMILNADU <ul><li>5. PERMANENT PASTURES AND OTHER GRAZING LANDS </li></ul><ul><li>All grazing lands, whether they are permanent pastures or meadows are considered as permanent pastures. </li></ul><ul><li>An extent of 122585 hectares or 1.0% of the geographical area of the state falls under this category. The </li></ul><ul><li>extent under this category is the highest in Kancheepuram district with 18317 hectares followed by </li></ul><ul><li>Dharmapuri district with 13,668 hectares. </li></ul><ul><li>6. LAND UNDER MISCELLANEOUS TREE CROPS </li></ul><ul><li>Lands under casuarina trees, thatching grasses, bamboo bushes and other groves for fuel etc., which are not </li></ul><ul><li>included under orchards are classified under this category. The extent is 242990 hectares or 1.9% of the </li></ul><ul><li>geographical area of the state. Thoothukudi district with 34223 hectares under this classification ranked first </li></ul><ul><li>contributing 14.1% of the total area of the state under this category. </li></ul><ul><li>7. CURRENT FALLOW LANDS </li></ul><ul><li>The cultivable lands, which are kept fallow during the entire period under review is known as current fallow. </li></ul><ul><li>The area under current fallow during 1999-2000 constituted 8.4% of the total geographical area of the state </li></ul><ul><li>with an extent of 1085385 hectares as against 955507 hectares during the previous year. The extent is the </li></ul><ul><li>highest in Coimbatore and Erode districts with 135802 and 131500 hectares of land respectively. Coimbatore </li></ul><ul><li>and Erode districts together accounted for 24.6% of the total area of the state under this category. </li></ul><ul><li>8. OTHER FALLOW LANDS </li></ul><ul><li>All lands which are taken up for cultivation but have temporarily put off cultivation for a period of not less </li></ul><ul><li>than one year and not more than five years are treated as other fallow lands. An extent of 1139522 hectares, </li></ul><ul><li>which is 8.8% of the total geographical area, has been recorded under this category </li></ul><ul><li>as against 1110728 hectares during the previous year. There is an increase of 2.6% under this </li></ul><ul><li>Category of land as compared to the previous year. The land under other fallow land is the </li></ul><ul><li>highest in Thirunelveli district with 24.5% of the total area under this classification and ranked </li></ul><ul><li>first contributing 14.7% of the total area of the state under this category. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
  37. 37. LAND USE PATTERN IN TAMILNADU <ul><li>9. NET AREA AND GROSS AREA SOWN </li></ul><ul><li>Net area sown represents the area sown with crops during the year only once. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the 12991322 hectares of geographical area 5464376 hectares of land </li></ul><ul><li>constituting 42% was Cultivated once with various crops during the year 1999- </li></ul><ul><li>2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the total net Area sown in the State, the share of Dharmapuri district was </li></ul><ul><li>7.2% followed by Villupuram district with 6.2%. Thiruvarur district ranked first </li></ul><ul><li>contributing 72.7% of its geographical area towards this category followed by </li></ul><ul><li>Cuddalore with 62.7%, Thanjavur district with 59.8%, Perambalur with 58.4%, </li></ul><ul><li>Namakkal with 58%, Nagapatinam with 55.9% and Salem with 49.8% </li></ul><ul><li>respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>The gross area sown represents the total area cultivated under all food and non- </li></ul><ul><li>food crops including the area sown more than once. </li></ul><ul><li>The gross area sown during 1999-2000 is 6519109 Hectares as against 6627125 </li></ul><ul><li>hectares during 1998-99, registering a decrease of 1.6%. The area sown more </li></ul><ul><li>than once during 1999-2000 is 1054733 hectares as against 992611 hectares in </li></ul><ul><li>1998 99, the increase being 6.3%. The area sown more than once is 16.2% of the </li></ul><ul><li>gross area sown in the state during 1999-2000. </li></ul>Complied by S.Rengasamy, Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
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