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Superficial Heat

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Superficial Heat, Thermotherapy, Thermal agents, physiotherapy,

Superficial Heat, Thermotherapy, Thermal agents, physiotherapy,


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  • 1. Sreeraj S R PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES THERMAL AGENTS
  • 2. Sreeraj S R Specific Heat ….is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a given weight of a material by a given number of degrees Latent Heat …. is the heat energy required to change a substance from one state to another.
  • 3. Sreeraj S R Mode of Heat Transfer Conduction Convection Conversion/Radiation Evaporation
  • 4. Sreeraj S R Conduction Heat loss or gain through direct contact between materials with different temperatures Guidelines for heat transfer by conduction Greater the temperature difference faster the heat transfer Materials with high thermal conductivity Larger area of contact Rate of temperature rise decreases in proportion to tissue thickness
  • 5. Sreeraj S R Convection Transference of heat to a body by the movement of air, matter, or liquid around or past the body During heating or cooling by convection the thermal agent is in motion, so new parts of the agent at the initial treatment temperature keep coming into
  • 6. Sreeraj S R Radiation This is conversion of non thermal form of energy into Heat Transfer of energy from a material with high temperature to one with lower temperature without the need for an intervening medium or contact
  • 7. Sreeraj S R Evaporation Evaporation is a cooling process.
  • 8. Sreeraj S R Temperature has an effect on: Viscosity Nerve conduction—heat increases nerve conduction velocity; cold decreases it Blood flow—heat increases arterial and capillary blood flow; cold decreases blood flow Collagen extensibility—heat increases tendon extensibility, collagenase activity is increased; cold decreases enzyme activity Temperatures > 45–50°C or < 0°C can injure tissue
  • 9. Sreeraj S R THERMOTHERAPY
  • 10. Sreeraj S R Therapeutic Heat Superficial Heat Convective agents Conductive agents Conversive agents Fluidotherapy Hydrotherapy Hot packs Heating pads Paraffin wax bath IR Deep heat Ultrasound SWD MWD Contrast Bath
  • 11. Sreeraj S R Physiological Effects of heat • Hemodynamic effect • Neuromuscular effect • Metabolic effect • Tissue extensibility
  • 12. Sreeraj S R Physiological Effects of heat ↑ Temperature Inflammation ↑ Vasodilator (Histamine & Prostaglandin) release Vasodilatiation Cutaneous thermoreceptors Spinal cord dorsal root ganglion Smooth muscle relaxation Hemodynamic effect
  • 13. Sreeraj S R Physiological Effects of heat Neuromuscular effect •Increased NCV •Increased pain threshold •Changes in muscle strength Metabolic effect •Increased metabolic rate Tissue extensibility •Increased tissue extensibility
  • 14. Sreeraj S R Applications for heat therapy Generally used for chronic process • Decrease muscle spasms • Decrease pain • Reduction in joint stiffness, contractures
  • 15. Sreeraj S R Contraindications • Ischemia. e.g., arterial insufficiency • Haemorrhage. there is an increased arterial and capillary blood flow with heat • Impaired sensation. e.g., spinal cord injury (SCI) may predispose to burns • Inability to communicate or respond to pain. e.g., dementia • Malignancy. May increase tumour growth
  • 16. Sreeraj S R Contraindications • Acute trauma or inflammation. Diffusion across membranes is increased • Scar tissue. Elevation of temperature increases the metabolic demand of the tissue. Scar tissue has inadequate vascular supply, and is not able to provide an adequate vascular response when heated, which can lead to ischemic necrosis. • Poor thermal regulation