Sreeraj S R
PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES
THERMAL AGENTS
Sreeraj S R
Specific Heat
….is the amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of a given weight of a material by
a...
Sreeraj S R
Mode of Heat Transfer
Conduction
Convection
Conversion/Radiation
Evaporation
Sreeraj S R
Conduction
Heat loss or gain through
direct contact between
materials with different
temperatures
Guidelines f...
Sreeraj S R
Convection
Transference of heat to a
body by the movement of air,
matter, or liquid around or
past the body
Du...
Sreeraj S R
Radiation
This is conversion of
non thermal form of
energy into Heat
Transfer of energy
from a material with
h...
Sreeraj S R
Evaporation
Evaporation is a
cooling process.
Sreeraj S R
Temperature has an effect on:
Viscosity
Nerve conduction—heat increases nerve
conduction velocity; cold decrea...
Sreeraj S R
THERMOTHERAPY
Sreeraj S R
Therapeutic Heat
Superficial Heat
Convective agents Conductive agents Conversive agents
Fluidotherapy Hydrothe...
Sreeraj S R
Physiological Effects of heat
• Hemodynamic effect
• Neuromuscular effect
• Metabolic effect
• Tissue extensib...
Sreeraj S R
Physiological Effects of heat
↑ Temperature
Inflammation
↑ Vasodilator
(Histamine &
Prostaglandin)
release
Vas...
Sreeraj S R
Physiological Effects of heat
Neuromuscular effect
•Increased NCV
•Increased pain threshold
•Changes in muscle...
Sreeraj S R
Applications for heat therapy
Generally used for chronic process
• Decrease muscle spasms
• Decrease pain
• Re...
Sreeraj S R
Contraindications
• Ischemia. e.g., arterial insufficiency
• Haemorrhage. there is an increased arterial
and c...
Sreeraj S R
Contraindications
• Acute trauma or inflammation. Diffusion
across membranes is increased
• Scar tissue. Eleva...
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Superficial Heat

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Superficial Heat, Thermotherapy, Thermal agents, physiotherapy,

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Superficial Heat

  1. 1. Sreeraj S R PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES THERMAL AGENTS
  2. 2. Sreeraj S R Specific Heat ….is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a given weight of a material by a given number of degrees Latent Heat …. is the heat energy required to change a substance from one state to another.
  3. 3. Sreeraj S R Mode of Heat Transfer Conduction Convection Conversion/Radiation Evaporation
  4. 4. Sreeraj S R Conduction Heat loss or gain through direct contact between materials with different temperatures Guidelines for heat transfer by conduction Greater the temperature difference faster the heat transfer Materials with high thermal conductivity Larger area of contact Rate of temperature rise decreases in proportion to tissue thickness
  5. 5. Sreeraj S R Convection Transference of heat to a body by the movement of air, matter, or liquid around or past the body During heating or cooling by convection the thermal agent is in motion, so new parts of the agent at the initial treatment temperature keep coming into
  6. 6. Sreeraj S R Radiation This is conversion of non thermal form of energy into Heat Transfer of energy from a material with high temperature to one with lower temperature without the need for an intervening medium or contact
  7. 7. Sreeraj S R Evaporation Evaporation is a cooling process.
  8. 8. Sreeraj S R Temperature has an effect on: Viscosity Nerve conduction—heat increases nerve conduction velocity; cold decreases it Blood flow—heat increases arterial and capillary blood flow; cold decreases blood flow Collagen extensibility—heat increases tendon extensibility, collagenase activity is increased; cold decreases enzyme activity Temperatures > 45–50°C or < 0°C can injure tissue
  9. 9. Sreeraj S R THERMOTHERAPY
  10. 10. Sreeraj S R Therapeutic Heat Superficial Heat Convective agents Conductive agents Conversive agents Fluidotherapy Hydrotherapy Hot packs Heating pads Paraffin wax bath IR Deep heat Ultrasound SWD MWD Contrast Bath
  11. 11. Sreeraj S R Physiological Effects of heat • Hemodynamic effect • Neuromuscular effect • Metabolic effect • Tissue extensibility
  12. 12. Sreeraj S R Physiological Effects of heat ↑ Temperature Inflammation ↑ Vasodilator (Histamine & Prostaglandin) release Vasodilatiation Cutaneous thermoreceptors Spinal cord dorsal root ganglion Smooth muscle relaxation Hemodynamic effect
  13. 13. Sreeraj S R Physiological Effects of heat Neuromuscular effect •Increased NCV •Increased pain threshold •Changes in muscle strength Metabolic effect •Increased metabolic rate Tissue extensibility •Increased tissue extensibility
  14. 14. Sreeraj S R Applications for heat therapy Generally used for chronic process • Decrease muscle spasms • Decrease pain • Reduction in joint stiffness, contractures
  15. 15. Sreeraj S R Contraindications • Ischemia. e.g., arterial insufficiency • Haemorrhage. there is an increased arterial and capillary blood flow with heat • Impaired sensation. e.g., spinal cord injury (SCI) may predispose to burns • Inability to communicate or respond to pain. e.g., dementia • Malignancy. May increase tumour growth
  16. 16. Sreeraj S R Contraindications • Acute trauma or inflammation. Diffusion across membranes is increased • Scar tissue. Elevation of temperature increases the metabolic demand of the tissue. Scar tissue has inadequate vascular supply, and is not able to provide an adequate vascular response when heated, which can lead to ischemic necrosis. • Poor thermal regulation

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