Short wave diathermy srs

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  • Van’t Hoff’s law: any chemical reaction which is capable of being accelerated can be accelerated by heat. Direct reflex vasodilatation by stimulating cutaneous thermoreceptors , release of bradykinin, and indirectly by spinal reflex Increased Nerve Conduction, decreased conduction latency and firing rate Alter soft tissue extensibility
  • Short wave diathermy srs

    1. 1. Sreeraj S R SHORT WAVE DIATHERMY - - - - - + + + + + +
    2. 2. Sreeraj S R Dia means through Thermo means temperature /heat. Frequency of 27.12 MHz Wavelength greater than 11meter Description High-frequency electrical currents › Radio waves Pass through the tissues Cause molecular vibration Results in deep heating Capable of heating large volumes of tissues Causes both thermal and non thermal effects
    3. 3. Sreeraj S R Production
    4. 4. Sreeraj S R Production
    5. 5. Sreeraj S R Production
    6. 6. Sreeraj S R Production
    7. 7. Sreeraj S R Production
    8. 8. Sreeraj S R Effects on Tissues • Ionic motion • Dipole rotation • Molecular distortion
    9. 9. Sreeraj S R Physiological effect Effects on 1. Metabolism 2. Circulation 3. Nervous tissue 4. Muscle tissue
    10. 10. Sreeraj S R Therapeutic Effect Effects on 1. Inflammation 2. Bacterial Infection 3. Relief of pain 4. Traumatic conditions 5. Reduce healing time
    11. 11. Sreeraj S R Types of Shortwave Diathermy Induction Field Capacitive Field
    12. 12. Sreeraj S R Induction Field Diathermy • Places the patient in the electromagnetic field • Current flowing within the coil produces a rotating magnetic field • Magnetic field produces eddy currents in the tissues • Eddy currents cause friction that produce heat • Selectively heats muscle • Also referred to as: – Magnetic field diathermy
    13. 13. Sreeraj S R Capacitive Field Diathermy • Uses the patient’s tissues as a part of the circuit • The tissues’ electrical resistance produces heat • Selectively heats skin – Muscle is heated via conduction from the adipose • Also referred to as “condenser field diathermy”
    14. 14. Sreeraj S R TYPES OF ELECTRODES Flexible pads: consist of metal electrode encased in rubber and produce an electrostatic field.
    15. 15. Sreeraj S R TYPES OF ELECTRODES • Space plates: consist of a rigid metal electrode encased in a Perspex cover electrostatic field.
    16. 16. Sreeraj S R TYPES OF ELECTRODES • Coil or cable electrode consists of a wire with plugs at either end creates electromagnetic field.
    17. 17. Sreeraj S R TYPES OF ELECTRODES • The monode : flat, rigid coil encased in plastic cover electromagnetic field.
    18. 18. Sreeraj S R TYPES OF ELECTRODES • The diplode : or drum electrode, consists of a flat coil electrode encased in a Perspex cover with two wings • electromagnetic field
    19. 19. Sreeraj S R FACTORS INFLUENCE FIELD DISTRIBUTION IN S.W.D Spacing : allows the lines of force in the electrostatic field to diverge before entering the tissues. This prevents concentration of heat in the superficial tissues and ensures more heating through the part. • Spacing provided by: 1. wrapping flexible pads in towel. 2. flat felt spacing pads between pad electrode and skin 3. air when using space plates.
    20. 20. Sreeraj S R FACTORS INFLUENCE FIELD DISTRIBUTION IN S.W.D • Normal spacing even field distribution. • Increased spacing deep field concentration. • Decreased spacing superficial concentration.
    21. 21. Sreeraj S R FACTORS INFLUENCE FIELD DISTRIBUTION IN S.W.D Electrode size: if the electrodes are too small than the diameter of treated part line of force will be concentrated superficially. If the electrodes are markedly larger the line of force will be lost in the air. Ideally, the electrodes should be slightly larger than the area treated.
    22. 22. Sreeraj S R FACTORS INFLUENCE FIELD DISTRIBUTION IN S.W.D • To concentrate heat on one aspect of the part the electrode should be unequal in size (smaller one placed over the area where concentration of heat is required).
    23. 23. Sreeraj S R FACTORS INFLUENCE FIELD DISTRIBUTION IN S.W.D • You can produce concentration of heat by using equal size electrodes but with unequal spacing (25 mm over concentrated area and more than 30 mm on other electrode).
    24. 24. Sreeraj S R FACTORS INFLUENCE FIELD DISTRIBUTION IN S.W.D • Metal: metal causes the lines of force to concentrate on the metal
    25. 25. Sreeraj S R THERAPEUTIC VARIATION IN THE FIELD DISTRIBUTION • Coplanar application to treat structures on one aspect of the body. If the spacing is less than 25 mm more concentration in the superficial tissue. If spacing increases more depth achieved. • The distance between adjacent ends must be greater than the sum of skin electrode distance (A+B) otherwise the line of force will pass directly between electrodes rather than tissues.
    26. 26. Sreeraj S R THERAPEUTIC VARIATION IN THE FIELD DISTRIBUTION • Contra planar applications Two flexible pads, two space plates or flexible pad with a space plate are used. It is essential to put a cotton towel between the two limbs to absorb any perspiration.
    27. 27. Sreeraj S R THERAPEUTIC VARIATION IN THE FIELD DISTRIBUTION • Cross-fire application: • For the treatment of sinuses, space plates positioned diagonally, after half of treatment time the positions are alternate. This ensures that all aspects of the sinus membrane are heated. • Care must be taken to avoid direct placement over the eye, uterine disorders such as dysmenorrhoea.
    28. 28. Sreeraj S R THERAPEUTIC VARIATION IN THE FIELD DISTRIBUTION • Application using a coil electrode: 1. The coil wound evenly firmly 2. Pancake application
    29. 29. Sreeraj S R THERAPEUTIC VARIATION IN THE FIELD DISTRIBUTION • Application using diplode: • Adjust wings of diplode parallel to the skin of the treated area, electromagnetic field will produce.
    30. 30. Sreeraj S R Dangers 1. Burns • Concentration of electric field • Excess current • Impaired blood flow • Hypersensitive skin • Leads touching skin 2. Scalds 3. Electric shock 4. Overdose 5. Precipitation of gangrene 6. Faintness 7. Giddiness
    31. 31. Sreeraj S R Contraindications • Metal implants or metal jewelry (be aware of body piercings) • Cardiac pacemakers • Ischemic areas • Peripheral vascular disease • Perspiration and moist dressings: The water collects and concentrates the heat. • Tendency to hemorrhage, including menstruation. • Pregnancy • Fever • Sensory loss • Cancer • Deep X ray • Tumours • Unreliable patients • Areas of particular sensitivity: – Epiphyseal plates in children – The genitals – Sites of infection – The abdomen with an implanted intrauterine device (IUD) – The eyes and face – Application through the skull

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