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Laser srs


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LASER, physiotherapy

LASER, physiotherapy

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    • 1. Sreeraj S R LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
    • 2. Sreeraj S R
    • 3. Sreeraj S R Laser light waves penetrate the skin with no heating effect, no damage to skin & no side effects. Laser light directs biostimulative light energy to the body’s cells which convert into chemical energy to promote natural healing & pain relief. Optimizes the immune responses of blood & has anti-inflammatory & immunosuppressive effects.
    • 4. Sreeraj S R Characteristics • MONOCHROMATIC • COLLIMATED • COHERENT
    • 5. Sreeraj S R • 1 color – 1 wavelength • Ruby – 694 nm • HeNe – 632.8 nm • GaAlAs – 650 – 904 nm
    • 6. Sreeraj S R • LASER waves are in phase, i.e. peaks and troughs occur at the same time, Temporal Coherence • They travel in same direction, Spatial Coherence
    • 7. Sreeraj S R • As a consequence of spatial coherence LASER remain in a parallel beam • Long distance propagation
    • 8. Sreeraj S R
    • 9. Sreeraj S R
    • 10. Sreeraj S R Spontaneous Absorption This is, of course, absorption. Energy Ground level Excited level Atoms and molecules can absorb photons, making a transition from a lower level to a more excited one.
    • 11. Sreeraj S R Spontaneous Emission. When an atom in an excited state falls to a lower energy level, it emits a photon of light. Molecules typically remain excited for no longer than a few nanoseconds. Energy Ground level Excited level
    • 12. Sreeraj S R Stimulated emission Stimulated Emission.
    • 13. Sreeraj S R Stimulated Emission. The stimulated photons have unique properties: In phase with the incident photon Same wavelength as the incident photon Travel in same direction as incident photon
    • 14. Sreeraj S R Excited medium a medium has many excited molecules, one photon can become many. This is the essence of the laser.
    • 15. Sreeraj S R Production of LASER • Metastable State • Population inversion
    • 16. Sreeraj S R
    • 17. Sreeraj S R LASER Generators • Components of a generator: •Power supply – electrical power supply that can deliver up to 10,000 volts & 100’s amps •Optical resonant cavity – contains lasing medium •Lasing medium – gas, solid, liquid •Pumping device – •pumping is used to describe the process of elevating an orbiting electron to a higher, excited energy level •high voltage, photoflash lamps, radio- frequency oscillators or other lasers
    • 18. Sreeraj S R LASER Generators
    • 19. Sreeraj S R
    • 20. Sreeraj S R LASER Generators
    • 21. Sreeraj S R Types •Ruby laser •Helium neon laser •Diode laser
    • 22. Sreeraj S R The ruby laser consists of a small synthetic ruby rod made of aluminium oxide. A helical xenon flash tube, wound around it, gives an intense flash of white light. Both ends of the rode are made flat and silvered, one end being totally reflecting and the other partially transparent so that some radiation can be emitted. wavelength is 694.3 nm
    • 23. Sreeraj S R • Helium – neon lasers consist of a long tube containing helium and neon, natural gases, at low pressure surrounded by a flashgun tube. • Helium – neon lasers give radiation in the red visible region at 632.8 nm.
    • 24. Sreeraj S R These are specialized light- emitting diodes, based on semiconductor p– n junctions. They are of various kinds, involving gallium aluminium arsenide (GaAlAs).
    • 25. Sreeraj S R LASER Equipment
    • 26. Sreeraj S R LASER Probes
    • 27. Sreeraj S R Measurement of Laser Energy • Power in W • Beam area in cm² • Power Density in W/ cm² • Time in seconds • Energy in Joules • Energy density in Joules / cm² • Treatment time is ED/PD
    • 28. Sreeraj S R Treatment Techniques • Gridding Technique •Divide treatment areas into grids of square centimeters • Scanning Technique •No contact between laser tip in skin; tip is held 5-10 mm from wound • Point Application (Acupuncture point)
    • 29. Sreeraj S R Physiological & Therapeutic Effects Biostimulation – improved metabolism, increase of cell metabolism › Increases speed, quality & tensile strength of tissue repair Blood circulation & vasodilatation › Increases blood supply Increases ATP production Analgesic effect › Relieves acute/chronic pain Anti-inflammatory & anti-edematous effects › Reduces inflammation
    • 30. Sreeraj S R Physiological & Therapeutic Effects • Stimulation of wound healing – Promotes faster wound healing/clot formation – Helps generate new & healthy cells & tissue • Increase collagen production – Develops collagen & muscle tissue • Increase macrophage activity – Stimulates immune system
    • 31. Sreeraj S R
    • 32. Sreeraj S R Contraindications – Application over eyes – Cancerous growths – Pregnancy – over & around uterus – Over cardiac region – Growth plates in children – Over & around thyroid gland & endocrine glands – Patients who have been pre-treated with one or more photo sensitizers
    • 33. Sreeraj S R Application