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Basic electricity electrotherapy physiotherapy

Basic electricity electrotherapy physiotherapy

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Basic electricity Basic electricity Presentation Transcript

  • Sreeraj S R Electrotherapy Basic Electricity
  • Sreeraj S R What is electrotherapy? Medical therapy using electric currents. Also called electrotherapeutics. Electrotherapy, also electro physical agents (EPA) are any forms of treatment or assessment conducted using an electro physical agent which can be applied externally to the human body. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/electrotherapy Robertson V, Ward A, Low J, Reed A. Electrotherapy Explained. 4th edition. Elsevier; 2006. p. 2
  • Sreeraj S R Atom http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_edexcel/static_elec/staticrev1.shtml
  • Sreeraj S R Atom Electrons fill the lowest energy shells Atoms tend to have their outer shell full They may gain or loose electron to achieve this. If the atom gains an electron it is negative ion. (Cl-) If the atom loses an electron it is positive ion. (Na+) Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 2 http://198.185.178.104/iss/electricity/pages/b11.xml
  • Sreeraj S R Atom Atoms can have an electrical charge, positive or negative. This happens when an atom gains or loses electrons. The number of protons never changes in an atom. More electrons means a negative charge and fewer means a positive charge. Once an atom has an electrical charge it is called an ion. In an ion the atomic number and atomic mass do not change from the original. If an atom were to gain or lose neutrons it becomes an isotope. http://www.universetoday.com/56747/atom-structure/#ixzz2dT7JQkrm http://revisionworld.co.uk/quick-revise/5133
  • Sreeraj S R Chemical bond A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. The bond is caused by the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, between electrons and nuclei. The number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom has the effect on the reactions of that atom with others. Inert gases like argon, krypton have complete outer shell. Reactive gases are those elements are looking to complete their outer shell so they are reactive. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_bond Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 3
  • Sreeraj S R Compounds A compound is a substance formed by the union of two or more elements They can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. They have a unique and defined chemical structure; They consist of a fixed ratio of atoms Chemical compounds can be; molecular compounds held together by covalent bonds, salts held together by ionic bonds/ electrovalent, Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_compound
  • Sreeraj S R Covalent Bonds A form of chemical bonding between two atoms which is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms. A covalent bond is formed between two non-metals that have similar electro negativities. Neither atom is "strong" enough to attract electrons from the other. For stabilization, they share their electrons from outer molecular orbit with others. http://www.diffen.com/difference/Covalent_Bonds_vs_Ionic_Bonds http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~pgore/PhysicalScience/Naming-chemical-compounds.html
  • Sreeraj S R Electrovalent Bonds Also known as Ionic bond. formed from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound. occur mainly between a metallic and a non metallic atom. Non-metals (-ve ion) are "stronger" than the metal (+ve ion) and can get electrons very easily from the metal. These two opposite ions attract each other and form the ionic bond. http://www.diffen.com/difference/Covalent_Bonds_vs_Ionic_Bonds http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~pgore/PhysicalScience/Naming-chemical-compounds.html
  • Sreeraj S R Covalent Bonds vs. Electrovalent Bonds Covalent Bonds.. Electrovalent Bonds.. are formed by mutual sharing of electrons are formed by complete transfer of electrons are made up of molecules. are made up of ions. are usually liquids or gases. are hard, crystalline solids are insoluble in polar solvents like water. are usually soluble in water. are soluble in non-polar solvents like benzene or carbon tetrachloride insoluble in non-polar solvents like CI4. generally have low melting and boiling points. generally have high melting and boiling points are bad conductors of electricity. are good conductors of electricity in the molten state and in aqueous solutions but insulators in the solid state. http://www.publishyourarticles.net/knowledge-hub/science/what-is-the-difference-between-electrovalent-and- covalent-compounds.html
  • Sreeraj S R Static Electricity? A stationary electrical charge that is built up on the surface of a material After being rubbed, a plastic ruler can attract paper scraps. Ruler carries electric charge. It exerts electric force on paper The interaction between static electric charges is called electrostatics.
  • Sreeraj S R Insulators and conductors In a conductor, electric current can flow freely, in an insulator it cannot. "Conductor" implies that the outer electrons of the atoms are loosely bound and free to move through the material. Most atoms hold on to their electrons tightly and are insulators.
  • Sreeraj S R Insulators and conductors Insulators: materials that do NOT allow electrons to flow through them easily. Insulators can be easily charged by friction as the extra electrons gained CANNOT easily escape. Static Electricity ppt
  • Sreeraj S R Insulators and conductors Conductors: materials that allow electrons to flow through them easily. Conductors CANNOT be easily charged by friction as the extra electrons gained can easily escape. Static Electricity ppt
  • Sreeraj S R + + + + + metal can - - - - - ----- -- induced charges attraction repulsion Induction • The production of a charge in an uncharged body by bringing a charged object close to it. When negatively charged rod is put near a metal can... • electrons of the can are pushed away from the rod. • top of the can: positive • buttom of the can: negative • So there is attraction > repulsion Static Electricity ppt
  • Sreeraj S R Induction ----- -- paper + – + – + – + – + – + – + – + – attraction repulsion • Similarly, when charged rod is close to paper scrap... • molecules of paper align • attraction between the rod and + charge • repulsion between the rod and - charge Static Electricity ppt
  • Sreeraj S R Electric Fields They are nothing but a way of pictorially mapping the electric field around a configuration of charges. General Properties of Electric Lines of Force The lines of force or field lines 1. start from positive charges and end at negative charges. In the case of a single charge, they may start or end at infinity. 2. two field lines can never intersect each other. 3. contract longitudinally. 4. exert lateral pressure on one another. 5. are perpendicular to the surface of a charged conductor. 6. do not pass though the conductor. http://www.tutorvista.com/content/physics/physics-iv/electric-charges/electric-field-lines.php
  • Sreeraj S R Electric Fields If it is a positively charged body, then the electric lines of force are directed away from the body. If the body is negatively charged, then the lines of force are directed towards the body. http://www.tutorvista.com/content/physics/physics-iv/electric-charges/electric-field-lines.php
  • Sreeraj S R Electric Fields When two positively charged bodies are involved, the electric lines of force gives a vivid picture of mutual repulsion. In the case of two equal and opposite charges, the lines of force clearly shows mutual attraction, the lines move from +ve to -ve. http://www.tutorvista.com/content/physics/physics-iv/electric-charges/electric-field-lines.php
  • Sreeraj S R Electrical Current http://www.howequipmentworks.com/physics/electricity/basic_electricity/basic_electricity.html
  • Sreeraj S R Electrical Current Current Voltage Resistance http://www.reprise.com/host/electricity/voltage.asp
  • Sreeraj S R Current amount of electric charge passing a point in an electric circuit per unit time Current is measured in units called amperes. 6.241 × 1018 electrons, or one coulomb per second. The quantity of electricity is measured in coulombs. http://www.howequipmentworks.com/physics/electricity/basic_electricity/basic_electricity.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampere
  • Sreeraj S R In medical electricity the unit of current is in milliamperes i.e. 1/1000 of an ampere Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 12
  • Sreeraj S R Voltage potential difference across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. The unit of measurement for potential difference is "volt". http://www.howequipmentworks.com/physics/electricity/basic_electricity/basic_electricity.html
  • Sreeraj S R Resistance electrical resistance is something that “resists” the flow of electrons/current. Electrical resistance is measured in Ohms ( ). Most circuits have more than one component, called a resistor A measure of this limit on charge flow is called resistance http://www.howequipmentworks.com/physics/electricity/basic_electricity/basic_electricity.html
  • Sreeraj S R Resistance; Ohm's law Ohm's law states that the electrical current (I) flowing in a circuit is proportional to the voltage (V) and inversely proportional to the resistance (R). I = V / R Where: I = Electrical Current (Amperes) V = Voltage (Voltage) R = Resistance (Ohms) http://inspectapedia.com/electric/ElectricalDefinitions.htm#Resistance http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/EddyCurrents/Physics/currentflow.htm
  • Sreeraj S R Resistance; Ohm's law http://www.howequipmentworks.com/physics/electricity/basic_electricity/basic_electricity.html#ohm_law
  • Sreeraj S R Resistance; Ohm's law http://www.howequipmentworks.com/physics/electricity/basic_electricity/basic_electricity.html#ohm_law
  • Sreeraj S R Resistance; Ohm's law http://www.howequipmentworks.com/physics/electricity/basic_electricity/basic_electricity.html#ohm_law
  • Sreeraj S R Resistance; Ohm's law http://www.howequipmentworks.com/physics/electricity/basic_electricity/basic_electricity.html#ohm_law
  • Sreeraj S R Resistance The simplest combinations of resistors are the a) series and b) parallel http://cnx.org/content/m42356/latest/?collection=col11406/latest
  • Sreeraj S R Series Circuits A series circuit is a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a chain so the current has only one path to take. equivalent resistance of resistors in series : R = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... The current is the same through each resistor but Voltage changes on each resistor http://physics.bu.edu/py106/notes/Circuits.html http://cie-wc.edu/Series-and-Parallel-Circuits-4-11-11.pdf
  • Sreeraj S R Parallel circuits In a parallel circuit the resistors are arranged with their heads connected together, and their tails connected together. equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel : 1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3..... The current in a parallel circuit breaks up but The voltage across each resistor in parallel is the same. 1 0.2+0.0714+0.0476+0.04+0.01 = 2.7 http://cie-wc.edu/Series-and-Parallel-Circuits-4-11-11.pdf
  • Sreeraj S R Electrical Watts Watts is a measure of the amount of electricity being used - a rate of electrical power consumption. power (Watts) = current (amps) x potential difference (volts) For a current of 5 A and the potential difference of 12 V, the power is 5 × 12 = 60 W. This means that 60 J of energy is transferred per second. http://inspectapedia.com/electric/ElectricalDefinitions.htm#Watts http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa_pre_2011/electricity/mainselectrev4.shtml
  • Sreeraj S R Joule’s law When a current passes through a conductor some of its energy is converted to thermal energy. Joule’s law states that the amount of heat produced in a conductor is proportional to the square of the current in amperes (I2), the resistance in ohms (R) and the time in seconds (t) for which the current flows. i.e. Q = I2 Rt Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 12
  • Sreeraj S R Basic Electrical Components
  • Sreeraj S R Resistor A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. http://searchcio-midmarket.techtarget.com/definition/resistor http://www.mikroe.com/old/books/keu/01.htm
  • Sreeraj S R Transformers A transformer is an electrical apparatus designed to convert alternating current from one voltage to another. The functions of Transformers are; To alter the voltage of an alternating current To render the current earth free http://www.acmepowerdist.com/pdf/Page_6-16.pdf Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 30
  • Sreeraj S R Transformers, Working Transformer works on the principle of mutual induction of two coils. When current in the primary coil is changed, the flux linked to the secondary coil also changes. Consequently an EMF is induced in the secondary coil. Upadhyay D . Electrical & Electronics Engineering. Hindustan college of Science & Technology. Ppt presentation
  • Sreeraj S R Transformers; Construction The core, which provides a path for the magnetic lines of flux. The primary winding, which receives energy from the AC source. The secondary winding, which receives energy from the primary winding and delivers it to the load. The enclosure, which protects the above components from dirt, moisture, and mechanical damage. http://www.navymars.org/national/training/nmo_courses/NMO2/module2/14174_ch5.pdf http://www.emt-india.net/process/power_plants/Transformers.htm
  • Sreeraj S R Transformers; Construction Mainly Transformers have two types of construction…. CORE type: the primary and secondary windings are placed on each side of the core. The core type has two limbs SHELL type: the LV & HV windings are sandwiched between each other. shell type has three limbs. Upadhyay D . Electrical & Electronics Engineering. Hindustan college of Science & Technology. Ppt presentation
  • Sreeraj S R Transformers, Types Step-up transformer Step-down transformer http://keywon.com/wiki/index.php?title=AC_Circuits
  • Sreeraj S R Transformers, Configurations Static transformer Variable transformer Auto transformer http://keywon.com/wiki/index.php?title=AC_Circuits http://www.cybermike.net/reference/liec_book/AC/AC_9.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tapped_autotransformer.svg
  • Sreeraj S R
  • Sreeraj S R Transformers, in Earthing Using power without an isolating transformer: Touching the live terminal will result in a shock as the body completes a circuit between live and earth. Using power with an isolating transformer: Bridging between either terminal and ground is safe because there is no circuit through which the current can flow. http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/nov06/articles/crosstalk_1106.htm
  • Sreeraj S R Capacitor What is Capacitance? Capacitance is the ability of a device to store electrical energy in an electrostatic field. Or the ability of a component to store an electrical charge. The Symbol for Capacitance is “C” https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&ved=0CGIQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. hamptonhigh.ca%2Fhaas%2Fdocuments%2Fintro%2FCapacitors.ppt&ei=RgYuUpjYNcLWrQfb9IGoDw&usg=AFQjCNFzJkiINpxX A1epNOtoJ8FhQcaO8g&sig2=fUpX1eYhXN5TWWr11HrtGg
  • Sreeraj S R Capacitor Capacitance is measured in Farads (F). The Farad is too large for ordinary use so typically the Microfarad of the Pico farad are used. µF = Microfarad pF = Picofarad 1 µµµµF = 0.000,001F 1 pF = 0.000,000,000,001F https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&ved=0CGIQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. hamptonhigh.ca%2Fhaas%2Fdocuments%2Fintro%2FCapacitors.ppt&ei=RgYuUpjYNcLWrQfb9IGoDw&usg=AFQjCNFzJkiINpxX A1epNOtoJ8FhQcaO8g&sig2=fUpX1eYhXN5TWWr11HrtGg
  • Sreeraj S R Capacitor Also referred to as a Condenser It is a device for storing electric charge. Capacitors consist of two conducting surfaces separated by an insulator. http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/capacitor/cap_1.html
  • Sreeraj S R Capacitors,working When a capacitor is connected to a voltage source current will flow until the capacitor is fully charged. The capacitor is charged with an excess of electrons on one plate (- charge) and a deficiency of electrons on the other plate (+ charge) A capacitor discharges when the accumulated charge is allowed to flow off the plates. The time taken for this discharge depends upon 1. Capacitance of condenser 2. Resistance of pathway 3. Quantity of electricity Upadhyay D . Electrical & Electronics Engineering. Hindustan college of Science & Technology. Ppt presentation
  • Sreeraj S R Capacitors, electric field The EF between the plates of a charged capacitor tend to take the shortest route. They repel one another They rarely travel on straight line Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 34 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VFPt_capacitor.svg
  • Sreeraj S R Capacitors, oscillator circuit An oscillatory circuit is that of a condenser and an induction coil in low ohmic resistance. Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 35-36
  • Sreeraj S R Capacitors, oscillator circuit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tuned_circuit_animation_3.gif
  • Sreeraj S R Capacitors, Types Fixed Capacitors the capacitance cannot be changed. Variable Capacitors the capacitance can be changed.
  • Sreeraj S R Capacitors, Types Fixed Capacitors Electrolytic Electrostatic Mica Ceramic paper
  • Sreeraj S R Capacitors, Types Variable Capacitors air capacitors trimmers
  • Sreeraj S R Thermionic valves These are devices which allow electron flow in one direction only and working using heat. The cathode (filament) heated o produce space charge of electrons. The anode (plate) attracts electrons across the valve. Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 36-37
  • Sreeraj S R Thermionic valves Triode valve It is possible, using an external circuit to make the grid – ve: repel electron to stop the flow + ve: allows electron flow through valve Neutral: grid will not effect electron flow Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 36-37
  • Sreeraj S R Thermionic valves Uses: Rectification: as current flows in one direction it is possible to convert an AC to DC Amplifier: triode valve can be used as electronic amplifier Switch: triode valve can be used to braek the circuit. Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 36-37
  • Sreeraj S R Thermionic valves
  • Sreeraj S R Semiconductors They are usually metals with the addition of impurities have electrons free to conduct current n – type with excess of electrons p – type with deficiency of electrons so + ve ‘holes’ If a p- and n- type semiconductors are fused together current can only flow in n to p direction i.e. it acts as a valve Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p37
  • Sreeraj S R Semiconductors
  • Sreeraj S R Transistors Device that uses a small amount of current to control a large amount of current (Current Amplifier). They utilize a sandwich of p- and n- type semiconductor materials. Electron enters at emitter current amplified and passed across through base Electron leaves form collector Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electotherapy, Theory ans Practic. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 38-39
  • Sreeraj S R Transistors
  • Sreeraj S R Rheostat Devices used to regulate current by altering either the resistance of the circuit or the potential in part of the circuit Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 39-40
  • Sreeraj S R Rheostat Construction It consists of a coil of high resistance wire wound onto an insulating block with each turn insulated from adjacent turns. Contact is made via a strip from which insulation is removed. The contact is mounted on a sliding bar or rotation knob. Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 39-40
  • Sreeraj S R Rheostat Variable or series rheostat If all the coils of wire in rheostat are included in the circuit resistance is maximum and current lowest Used in regulating heat in apparatuses like paraffin wax baths Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 39-40
  • Sreeraj S R Rheostat Potentiometer or shunt rheostat Wired across a source of potential difference in parallel. According to ohm's law greater the PD across the a resistance the greater the current produced. When B at A no PD, so no current When B at C maximum PD as in A A current regulating mechanism Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 39-40
  • Sreeraj S R General structure of LF generators Low J, Reed A. Electrotherapy Explained, Principles and practice. 2 edition. Page 19
  • Sreeraj S R Mains supply Current for this is produced by dynamos (electrical generator) at power stations. An EMF is induced by the movement of a conductor and two magnetic field in relation to each other. Dynamos can produce either AC or DC http://aaenvironment.com/Electricity.htm Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 41-42
  • Sreeraj S R Mains supply Advantages of AC A greater voltage can be produced Possible to alter voltage with static transformers So suitable for long distance transmission Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 39-40
  • Sreeraj S R Mains supply, The grid system Residential power supplied in India is two wire 220 volts, permitted variation 6%, and maximum load 40 amperes. Frequency 50 Hz. A three phase current is generated. i.e. three coils of dynamo generate three separate current. Distribution of current via three live cables with a common neutral cable. These four cables carry current across the country. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mains_electricity_by_country Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 42-43
  • Sreeraj S R Mains supply http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electricity_grid_simple-_North_America.svg
  • Sreeraj S R Mains supply, wiring in house Distribution to customer is by one live wire and one neutral wire It passes through main fuses, meter, main switch and to various circuits in parallel. The light circuits have 5 ampere fuses for each 4 to 6 points The power circuit with stronger wiring with 15 ampere fuse for each point. Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 43
  • Sreeraj S R Fuse It is designed to be a weak point in a circuit which ‘blows’ if a current of too great intensity is passed. This causes the circuit to break It consists of a wire of low melting point. It is an safety feature. Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 47 Metal cap To mains live wire To neutral wire Glass tube Silver fuse wire Metal cap
  • Sreeraj S R Fuse In Physiotherapy department a Fuse is an essential safety feature. They are included in the department wiring and electrotherapeutic equipments If a fuse blows, the apparatus which causes the damage should be disconnected and the main supply switch off. Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 47
  • Sreeraj S R Power plug Three pin plug most common
  • Sreeraj S R Earthing of apparatus Precaution against earth shock Earthing the device casing with a low resistance wire. In the event of device casing comes in contact with exposed live wire the operator can receive a shock. However earthing the casing causes the current to leak through and causes the fuse to blow. Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 47-48
  • Sreeraj S R Electric shock A shock is a painful stimulation of sensory nerves caused by a sudden flow, cessation or variation in the current passing through the body. Severity of shock depends on the magnitude of the current and The path taken by the current. Path taken through head, neck, heart or whole body might prove fatal. Shocks are more sever with AC than DC. Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 50-54
  • Sreeraj S R Electric shock, effects A minor shock leads to fright and distress. A severe shock can lead to; Fall in BP Loss of consciousness Respiratory failure: signs of cessation of respiration, cyanosis Cardiac arrest: signs of absent/abnormal breathing, absence of pulse and fully dilated pupils Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 50-54
  • Sreeraj S R Electric shock, treatment Following minor shock Disconnect the victim from source. Switch off current. reassure the patient and allow to rest. Give cold water to drink. (avoid hot water as it can cause vasodilation and sweating leading to fall in BP) Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 50-54
  • Sreeraj S R Electric shock, treatment Following severe shock Victim is laid flat and allow easy breathing Loosen tight clothing Provide adequate ventilation If the patient is unconscious summon MO. If cessation of breathing give mouth to mouth, mouth to nose or O2 by bag and mask In the event of cardiac arrest cardiac message must be added along with above. Call for medical help immediately. Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 50-54
  • Sreeraj S R Electric shock, causes Sudden increase in current during treatment due to: Machine switched don with controls up. Sudden appearance of pulsed current with the intensity high Patient touching the machine Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 50-54
  • Sreeraj S R Electric shock, precautions The apparatus and the connections should be tested before use Controls should beat zero before switching on Provide adequate warm up for equipment if needed Instruct the patient not to touch the apparatus Service the apparatus regularly Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 50-54 Singh J. Text book of Electrotherapy. 2 edition. Jaypee. 2012. p 64
  • Sreeraj S R Earth shock When a shock is due to a connection between the live wire or earth it is known as an earth shock. Connection to live wire can occur when Wire is not properly insulated. The live wire is not disconnected when the switch is put on neutral wire Live wire touching metal casing Live wire is touched to wet thing Connection to live wire can occur when Touching any conductor connected to earth Metal casing on apparatus Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 50-54 Singh J. Text book of Electrotherapy. 2 edition. Jaypee. 2012. p 64
  • Sreeraj S R Earth shock, precautions Proper arrangement of physiotherapy department with insulating materials Proper flooring with insulating materials and kept dry Patient should not touch the apparatus Metal casing of all aparatus shold be connected to earth Use wooden furnishings Forster A, Palastanga N. Clayton’s Electrotherapy, Theory and Practice. 9th Ed. W B Saunders; 2006. p 50-54 Singh J. Text book of Electrotherapy. 2 edition. Jaypee. 2012. p 64
  • Sreeraj S R Thank You