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Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
Es2002 Intercultural Communication
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Es2002 Intercultural Communication

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  • 1. ES2002 Business Communication Intercultural Communication
  • 2. Definition of culture <ul><li>“ Culture is the coherent, learned , shared view a group of people has about life’s concerns that ranks what is important, instills attitudes about what things are appropriate, and prescribes behaviour , given that some things have more significance than others.” </li></ul>ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Source: Beamer’s & Varner’s Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace
  • 3. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Seven Years in Tibet
  • 4. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Photo by Cliff Wassman Clothing Food Behaviour Attitudes Values Beliefs Meanings Norms
  • 5. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication “ Very often the way others do things is not different out of stupidity or carelessness or incompetence or malice … Most people do what seems the right thing to do at the time … And the judgment of what is right is rooted in beliefs, values, attitudes, as well as habit, tradition, and accepted norms.” Mole (1996)
  • 6. Different cultural groups <ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic group </li></ul><ul><li>Religious group </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Profession </li></ul>ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication <ul><li>IMPORTANT </li></ul><ul><li>Statements made </li></ul><ul><li>mere generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>Norms of a culture </li></ul><ul><li>change </li></ul>
  • 7. Outline <ul><li>Fundamental cultural orientations </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Culture’s influence on written business communication </li></ul>ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication
  • 8. Fundamental cultural orientations <ul><li>How contexting and facesaving affect communication </li></ul><ul><li>How the individual is viewed in relation to the group </li></ul><ul><li>How time is perceived </li></ul><ul><li>How status is accorded </li></ul><ul><li>How decisions are made </li></ul>ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication
  • 9. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Contexting and face saving <ul><li>Low context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High reliance on verbal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less reliance on non-verbal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct, precise, and explicit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low reliance on verbal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More reliance on context, nonverbal cues, implicit information shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect and rather vague </li></ul></ul>High context – High face saving Low context – Low face saving Cultural orientations Contexting and face saving
  • 10. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Individual / group <ul><li>Collectivist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual seen as part of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of interdependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit / blame goes to the group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individualist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual takes centre stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence highly valued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A single person can earn credit / blame </li></ul></ul>Cultural orientations Individual / group
  • 11. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Time <ul><li>Polychronic-time cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time viewed as more fluid and strict schedules not observed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preset schedules are subordinate to interpersonal relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monochronic-time cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High emphasis on schedules, punctuality and promptness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedules take precedence over interpersonal relations </li></ul></ul>Cultural orientations Time
  • 12. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Status <ul><li>Ascribed by virtue of age, family background, profession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations more highly hierarchical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive use of titles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accorded based on individual achievements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations less hierarchical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Titles used only when relevant to competence </li></ul></ul>Cultural Orientations Status
  • 13. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Decision making <ul><li>Discussing points </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking group consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting organisations in negotiations </li></ul>Cultural orientations Decision making
  • 14. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Verbal communication <ul><li>Choice of words & expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation of messages </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous words </li></ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar words </li></ul><ul><li>Acronyms </li></ul><ul><li>Idioms </li></ul><ul><li>Slang </li></ul>
  • 15. Non-verbal communication <ul><li>Body language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head movements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Laughter </li></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul><ul><li>Physical space </li></ul>ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication
  • 16. Space between speakers ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Intimate Casual-personal Social-consultative Public Distance indicating degrees of intimacy Source: Goodman’s Working in a Global Environment
  • 17. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Non-verbal communication <ul><li>Tone, volume and speed </li></ul><ul><li>Turn-taking and silence </li></ul>
  • 18. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication Culture’s influence on written business communication <ul><li>In most English- speaking countries – preferred writing style direct, clear and concise </li></ul><ul><li>In many oriental cultures – preferred writing style indirect </li></ul>In Japan – kishotenketsu organization Ki – the small talk Sho – raising the subject Ten – rolling the subject Ketsu – ending it beautifully
  • 19. ES2002 Business Communication: Intercultural Communication <ul><li>Mechanics and format also differ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How dates are written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How names are written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How addresses are written </li></ul></ul>Culture’s influence on written business communication

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