Intel ’ s x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, Pentium Motorola ’ s 680x0: 68000, 68010, 68020,68030,6040
versatility 多用途的 : any number of applications for PC
Presented by J.BHARATHI MCA 3rd SEM
• The embedded system is a combination of computer hardware,software additional electrical & mechanical parts• A computer is used in such devices primarily as a means to simplifythe system design and to provide flexibility.• Embedded systems employ the use of a RTOS (Real-TimeOperating System).
“ An embedded system can be defined as those control systems which aredesigned either by microprocessor or microcontroller for a specific tasks. ”OR“ An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware &software, either fixed in capability or programmable, that is specificallydesigned for a particular kind of application device. ”
COMPONENTS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMHardware processorTimersInterrupt controllerI/O devicesMemories etc
CLASSIFICATION OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM The classification of embedded systems are three types and they are Small scale embedded systems Medium scale embedded systems Sophisticated embedded systems
Small scale embedded systems:In the small scale embedded systems use single 8bit or 16bit microcontrollersLittle hardware and software complexityUsually “C” is used for developing these system
Medium scale embedded systems:In the medium scale embedded systems use single or few 16 or 32bit microcontrollersTools RTOS,debugger
Sophisticated embedded system:In this EM use Enormous hardware and software complexityWhich may need Scalable processor or configurable processor and hardware units
Some other examples:Physically, embedded systems range fromportable devices such as digital watches andMP3 players, to large stationary installationslike traffic lights, factory controllers, or thesystems controlling nuclear power plants.Complexity varies from low, with a singlemicrocontroller chip, to very high with multipleunits, peripherals and networks mounted insidea large chassis or enclosure.
Digital clockMoving message display DVD player Traffic Light
• Real time/reactive operation• Small size, low weight• Safe and reliable• Harsh environment• Cost sensitivity
• End product utility• System safety and reliability• Controlling physical systems• Power management
• CPU: Central Processing Unit• I/O: Input /Output• Bus: Address bus & Data bus• Memory: RAM & ROM• Timer• Interrupt
General-purpose microprocessor• CPU for Computers• No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself• Example--Intel’s x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, Pentium Data Bus Many chips on mother CPU board General- Purpose Serial Micro- RAM ROM I/O Timer COM processor Port Port Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System
Microprocessor v/sMicroprocessor Microcontroller Microcontroller• CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, • CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer I/O, timer are separate are all on a single chip• designer can decide on the • fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, amount of ROM, RAM and I/O I/O ports ports. • for applications in which cost,• expensive power and space are critical• general-purpose • single-purpose• Ex. 8085,8086 mp, Motorola • Ex. 8051, PIC mc, Motorola 6800, Intel’s 8086, etc. MC’s, Phillips, etc.
The 8051 Microcontroller :• The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970’s.• The 8051 family characteristics: ○ The 8051 family characteristics: ○ 4K Bytes ROM ○ 128 Bytes RAM ○ two timer/counters (16 bit) ○ A serial port ○ 32 input/output port ○ Interrupt controller
IC 8051 Daily Applications Digital clockMoving message display 7 segment display Traffic Light
Applications APPLICATIONS IN VARIOUS FIELDS 3% 10% 23% 23% - Communication 18% - Electronics 13% - Automobile 13% 13% - Aerospace 11% - Industries 10% - Military 9% - Medical 11% 3% - Others 9% 13% 18%Source: ESP DEC 2002
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGESEMBEDDED SYSTEMSDesign and Efficiency The central processing core in embedded systems is generally less complicated, making it easier to maintain. The limited function required of embedded systems allows them to be designed to most efficiently perform their functions.
Cost The streamlined make-up of most embedded systems allows their parts to be smaller less expensive to produce. SCADE Model-based Code Gen Download Handbooks and White Papers
Accessibility Embedded systems are difficult to service because they are inside another machine, so a greater effort is made to carefully develop them. However, if something does go wrong with certain embedded systems they can be too inaccessible to repair. This concern is sometimes addressed in the design stage, such as by programming an embedded system so that it will not affect related systems negatively when malfunctioning.
•Maintenance Embedded systems are easier to maintain because the supplied power is embedded in the system and does not require remote maintenance.Redundancies Embedded systems do not involve the redundant programming and maintenance involved in other system models.
• More and more produced processors are used in embedded devices• How would you like to live in a house that recognizes your fingerprints and opens the front door automatically?• A fridge that checks your food supplies and places orders ; or intelligent lights and air conditioners that adjust their settings automatically according to the light and heat available at various times of the day.
What about a microwave oven that can send a message to your PDA saying that the cake you kept to bake is done? These are all possible in the near future.and the Blue tooth technology for communication. And they will also be connected to the Internet in most cases.Think a mobile in the form of a ring or an earring? This can soon be a reality. IBM is already working on the prototype of a mobile phone that can be worn as jewellery. The components of the phone will be distributed among different pieces of jewellery like earring, necklace, ring and bracelet.
Conclusion A computer which is integrated into another system. Embedded systems are part of a bigger system. In short an embedded system works for a predefined task. On the whole a hardware chip programmed for a dedicated task results in an embedded system. As integrated circuits get continuously cheaper, more capable and power efficient, complexity of chip designs are constantly growing. This is illustrated by new design approaches such as multi-core technologies. As there is no foreseeable end to this development of embedded system.