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Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
Software Architecture and Project Management
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Software Architecture and Project Management

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  • Hi Sreeja. You need to add a slide that states that the content of this presentation comes directly from my book, "Enterprise Patterns and MDA". Ila and I are delighted that you are using our work, but we must insist on a reference to the original text. Thank you in advance for your cooperation in this matter. Jim Arlow, author of, "Enterprise Patterns and MDA".
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  • 1. Software Architecture and Project ManagementArchetype and Archetype Patterns Prepared by SREEJA RAJESH
  • 2. Module II• Archetypes and Archetype Patterns• Model Driven Architecture with Archetype Patterns.• Literate Modeling, Archetype Pattern.• Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern,• Product Archetype Pattern,• Quantity Archetype Pattern,• Rule Archetype Pattern.
  • 3. Party Archetype and Archetype Patterns Party Archetype The Party archetype pattern describes how to represent essential information about people and organizations. We use Party as a general term for a person or an organization such as a business . The Party archetype represents an identifiable, addressable unit that may have a legal status and that normally has autonomous control over (at least some of) its actions. Usually, the Party archetype captures essential information about a person or an organization, but it is merely a representation of that person or organization within a software system.
  • 4. Party Archetype and Archetype Patterns Party Archetype
  • 5. Party Archetype and Archetype Patterns Party Archetype The information maintained by the Party Archetype include: Unique Identifier Name Address Registered identifiers(passports,identity cards) Preferences Any other information that your company needs
  • 6. Party Archetype and Archetype Patterns PartyIdentifier PartyIdentifier archetype represents a unique identifier for a Party. UniqueIdentifier UniqueIdentifier archetype represents an identifier that is unique within a given context.
  • 7. Party Archetype and Archetype Patterns PartyIdentifier The characteristics of PartyIdentifier include: It must be unique across your whole business. It should usually be an alphanumeric string It must not be null. It must be created when a new Party object is saved to persistent storage (such as a database). It must not be changed. It must have no significance.
  • 8. Party Archetype and Archetype Patterns PartyRole & PartyRelationship how to represent relationships between Parties and the roles the Parties play in those relationships PartyRoleIdentifier: how to uniquely identify a PartyRole. N-ary Relationships: how to represent a relationship between three or more Parties
  • 9. Party Archetype and Archetype Patterns PartyRoleType & PartyRelationshipType how to represent different types of PartyRoles and PartyRelationships Managing PartyRoles and PartyRelationships how to manage complex networks of PartyRelationships
  • 10. Party Archetype and Archetype Patterns PartyRoleConstraint how to constrain the types of PartyRoles that a particular type of Party can play. PartyRelationshipConstraint how to constrain the types of PartyRoles that can act as the client and supplier sides of a specific PartyRelationshipType
  • 11. Party Archetype and Archetype Patterns Responsibility how to describe a particular activity that a PartyRoleType may be expected to perform AssignedResponsibility how to capture the fact that a particular Responsibility has been assigned to a particular PartyRole
  • 12. Party Archetype and Archetype Patterns Capabilities how to describe model the facts about what a Party is capable of doing. PartyRelationship archetype pattern how to use this pattern effectively.
  • 13. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern Customer relationship management archetype pattern (CRM) CRM is about actively managing the relationships between your business and your customers, in order to understand and increase customer value, motivation, and loyalty. CRM is about recognizing and treating the customer as an individual. known as relationship marketing because the marketing activity is based on an established relationship to a known customer.
  • 14. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern Goals of CRM Assess the business value of the customer Increase the business value of the customer Increase customer satisfaction Gain and maintain customer loyalty Motivate customers to repeat business Attract new customers Understand which customers to keep and which to lose Save money by streamlining customer interactions
  • 15. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern Unified View of customer All CRM is predicated on having a unified view of the customer that includes: Customer information (name, address etc). Customer needs (preferably anticipating these needs!) Customer preferences. Customer value to the business Customer buying patterns (behaviors) Customer communications with the business
  • 16. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern Customer What is a Customer? Should you represent it as a type of Party? Should you represent it as a role that a Party plays? Customer Archetype how to represent the PartyRole that a Party may play on the purchasing side of a sales process
  • 17. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern Customer as type of PartyRole
  • 18. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern CommunicationRouting how to represent the handover of a Communication between CustomerServiceRepresentatives
  • 19. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern CustomerServiceCase how to capture all of the communications about a specific topic related to a specific Customer CustomerServiceCaseIdentifier how to uniquely identify a CustomerServiceCase
  • 20. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern CustomerCommunicationManager how to represent the business function of managing Customer Communications as a set of CustomerServiceCases Communication how to capture details of a communication between two PartyRoles as a type of PartyRelationship
  • 21. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern CustomerCommunicationManager
  • 22. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern Managing Customer Communication Knowing who you are communicating with, even if the Customer is represented indirectly by an agent Maintaining a record of all Communications Making the Communication history available to Parties authorized to interact with the Customer Generating Actions based on Customer Communications Tracking Actions generated from Customer Communications Monitoring the Outcomes of Actions generated by Customer Communications
  • 23. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern CommunicationThread how to capture a sequence of Communications about a particular topic CustomerAgent how to represent the role of someone who acts on behalf of a CustomerServiceCase
  • 24. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern CustomerServiceRepresentative How to represent the role played by someone who acts on behalf of the customer services department
  • 25. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern Hierarchical tree of Communication
  • 26. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern Action how to represent an action that is taken as the result of a Communication Outcome how to represent the actual or possible result of an Action
  • 27. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Archetype Pattern Actions & Outcomes
  • 28. Product Archetype Pattern Product Archetype Pattern All businesses make money by selling some product, either goods or services. The Product archetype pattern provides a way to model goods and services effectively. Products can take a number of different basic forms, and the Product archetype pattern has to accommodate all of them.
  • 29. Product Archetype Pattern Three Broad Categories of Product Unique things  Artisan-produced products tend to be unique, with a one-to-one correspondence between a catalog entry and the artifact itself. Identical things  Mass-produced products are a one-to-many correspondence between a catalog entry and a set of identical artifacts. Identifiable things.  things that are similar but individually identifiable (e.g., a car of a particular make)
  • 30. Product Archetype Pattern Product Archetype Pattern Pleomorphs If your business system needs to deal with only unique things, you may find it more appropriate to use a specifically optimized Product archetype pattern pleomorph called UniqueProduct. If your business system needs to handle only the special case of identical things, it may be more appropriate to use a specifically optimized Product archetype pattern pleomorph called IdenticalProduct.
  • 31. Product Archetype Pattern Product Archetype Pattern
  • 32. Product Archetype Pattern Product Archetype Pattern
  • 33. Product Archetype Pattern Product Archetype Pattern ProductCatalog : contains descriptions for one or more ProductTypes. A description is shared by many ProductInstances, each of which has its own unique identifier and may have optional features. When you go into a shop to buy one of these products, the ProductType represents the information the salesperson gives you verbally or in a catalog or leaflet, and the ProductInstance represents the actual thing you walk out the door with.
  • 34. Product Archetype Pattern ProductType & ProductInstance ProductType archetype describes the common properties of a set of goods or services. • For example, the name "Epson Stylus C80" and its associated specification describe a type of printer. This is a ProductType. ProductInstance archetype represents a specific instance of a ProductType • There are many specific instances of this printer, these are represented by ProductInstances.
  • 35. Product Archetype Pattern ProductType & ProductInstance
  • 36. Product Archetype Pattern ProductType & ProductInstance For each ProductInstance, there is exactly one ProductType that describes the common properties of the set of similar instances.
  • 37. Product Archetype Pattern ProductType & ProductInstance Roles Manufacturer Seller Customer perspective perspective perspective ProductType What you What you advertise in What you browse specify a catalog for sale in a catalog What you sell What you order ProductInstance What you What you hold in What you receive manufacture Inventory What you deliver
  • 38. Product Archetype Pattern Uniquely identifying goods and services
  • 39. Product Archetype Pattern Create your own identifier Use a GTIN data structure Use an ISBN
  • 40. Product Archetype Pattern GTIN Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) is an identifier for trade items developed by GS1 comprising among others of the former European Article Number (EAN) International and Uniform Code Council. Such identifiers are used to look up product information in a database (often by inputting the number through a bar code scanner pointed at an actual product) which may belong to a retailer, manufacturer, collector, researcher, or other entity. The uniqueness and universality of the identifier is useful in establishing which product in one database corresponds to which product in another database, especially across organizational boundaries.
  • 41. Product Archetype Pattern GTIN Currently, GTIN is used exclusively within bar codes, but it could also be used in other data carriers such as radio frequency identification (RFID). The GTIN is only a term and does not impact any existing standards, nor does it place any additional requirements on scanning hardware.
  • 42. Product Archetype Pattern GTIN The family of data structures comprising GTIN include: • GTIN-12 (UPC-A): this is a 12-digit number used primarily in North America • GTIN-8 (EAN/UCC-8): this is an 8-digit number used predominately outside of North America • GTIN-13 (EAN/UCC-13): this is a 13-digit number used predominately outside of North America • GTIN-14 (EAN/UCC-14 or ITF-14): this is a 14-digit number used to identify trade items at variouspackaging levels
  • 43. Product Archetype Pattern Advantages offered by GTIN approach GTINs are internationally recognized standard identifiers. This system creates globally unique identifiers. The identifiers may be used in all business and public sectors. The identifiers include a check digit. This gives them a degree of robustness.
  • 44. Product Archetype Pattern Advantages offered by GTIN approach The identifiers may be easily encoded in a standard way into a bar code symbol and should be compatible with emerging tagging technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID). There are now services that allow you to look up a bar code symbol to find out information about the owning company and its products.
  • 45. Product Archetype Pattern ISBN For books, you may obtain a unique International Standard Book Number (ISBN) as defined in ISO 2108. The identifier is preceded by the letters ISBN and is a ten-digit number that is divided into four parts of variable length. These parts must be separated clearly by hyphens or spaces.
  • 46. Product Archetype Pattern ISBN
  • 47. Product Archetype Pattern ISBN ISBN Part Semantics Group identifier Identifies a grouping of publishers by geographic or language area, e.g., the English language grouping (groups 0 and 1) includes the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and so on; Switzerland is covered by French language group 2, German language group 3 Publisher identifier Refers to a particular publisher within a group Title identifier Refers to a specific edition of a title published by the Publisher Check Digit Used to ensure data integrity. Value is from 0 to X (representing 10)
  • 48. Product Archetype Pattern Serial number The SerialNumber archetype represents a unique identifier for a specific instance of a product (a ProductInstance). For services, the SerialNumber identifies a specific delivery of a service and usually relates to some record of that delivery an ISBN
  • 49. Product Archetype Pattern Serial number
  • 50. Product Archetype Pattern Batch The Batch archetype describes a set of ProductInstances of a specific ProductType that are all to be tracked together, usually for quality control purposes. A Batch is important when manufacturing products. On the selling side, batchIdentifiers provide a means of communicating information from manufacturer to retailer to consumer, typically about safety or quality control issues.
  • 51. Product Archetype Pattern Serial number and Batch
  • 52. Product Archetype Pattern Packages A common business practice is to sell selections of products grouped together as a unit. These selections are often known as packages. An example is a vacation package, where a number of different travel-related products are sold as a unit.
  • 53. Product Archetype Pattern PackageType and PackageInstance The PackageType archetype specifies a set of component ProductTypes and rules about how these may be combined to create PackageInstances. A PackageType is a kind of ProductType. The PackageInstance archetype represents a collection of one or more ProductInstances sold together to increase the business benefit generated by the sale. A PackageInstance is a kind of ProductInstance.
  • 54. Product Archetype Pattern PackageType and PackageInstance Each PackageInstance has an associated PackageType that contains rules about what combinations of ProductTypes the PackageInstance can contain.
  • 55. Product Archetype Pattern Package
  • 56. Product Archetype Pattern PackageType References a set of component ProductTypes that comprise all the possible starter, main course, and dessert ProductTypes. Contains a rule that states that a PackageInstance can contain exactly one starter, one main course, and one dessert. In other words, the PackageInstance can contain a ProductInstance of one of the ProductTypes in each of the starter, main course, and dessert ProductSets.
  • 57. Product Archetype Pattern Package Specification Process defines a Package Type
  • 58. Product Archetype Pattern Package Specification Process Is a highly iterative and creative business process that requires detailed negotiations between the marketing, business strategy, stock control, and legal forces within the business. Depending on the nature of the ProductTypes involved, there may also be an operational factor or product combination constraints to consider.
  • 59. Product Archetype Pattern Package Specification Process
  • 60. Product Archetype Pattern Package Specification Process Once a PackageType has been defined by the package specification process, specific PackageInstances are created by a package configuration process. This can take one of two forms. 1. The business assembles one or more PackageInstances based on the PackageType and offers these for sale. The customer is offered a PackageInstance with a predetermined configuration.
  • 61. Product Archetype Pattern Package Specification Process 2. The customer is allowed to construct a PackageInstance at the point of sale based on the rules defined in the PackageType and possibly constrained by the availability of package components.
  • 62. Product Archetype Pattern Product Relationship The ProductRelationship archetype represents a fixed relationship between ProductTypes that is not a packaging or containment relationship.
  • 63. Product Archetype Pattern Product Relationship
  • 64. Product Archetype Pattern Up-Selling When you want to purchase a product, you are sometimes offered an upgrade to a higher specification product, possibly at a reduced price. This activity, known as up-selling. is an important way for businesses to maximize both the business benefit and the customer satisfaction generated from each sale. ProductRelationship UpgradableTo captures the possibility of an upgrade to a higher specification ProductType.
  • 65. Product Archetype Pattern Cross-Selling Occurs when you choose a product and are then offered a compatible product, possibly at a reduced price. We capture the possibility of cross-selling with the ProductRelationship ComplementedBy. When up-selling and cross-selling are practiced with integrity, they can generate advantages for both the buyer and the seller.
  • 66. Product Archetype Pattern Price The Price archetype represents the amount of money that must be paid in order to purchase a good or service. The essence of our model of pricing is that each ProductType may have one or more Prices, and each Price has an associated RuleSet that defines the preconditions for the availability of that Price. For example, you want to get Price X, you must first satisfy RuleSet Y.
  • 67. Product Archetype Pattern PackageType Pricing case Example A single, fixed price A can of soup in a supermarket A reserve (minimum) price and a An item for sale on an auction site higher price determined at the point such as eBay of sale A price that shows some periodicity Seasonal rates for hotel accommodation Multiple prices that depend on the CD prices that may be reduced if application of business rules you are a club member (our local CD shop does this) Multiple prices that depend on the An airline ticket application of business rules and that show some time dependence
  • 68. Product Archetype Pattern Price Reductions A price reduction that applies to any instance of a ProductType is modeled as one of the ProductTypes Prices and may have preconditions. Individual ProductInstances may also have an ad hoc Price applied that overrides all the other possible Prices. for example, a price reduction for a shop-soiled item. An ad hoc Price is modeled as an ArbitraryPrice.
  • 69. Product Archetype Pattern Price Reductions The ArbitraryPrice archetype represents an ad hoc Price applied to a specific ProductInstance that overrides all other possible Prices. Finally, price reductions may be applied as Discounts to a whole Order rather than to individual ProductTypes or ProductInstances.
  • 70. Product Archetype Pattern Package Pricing The PricingStrategy archetype that determines how a Price is calculated for a PackageType PricingStrategy. ASSIGNED P=x AGGREGATED P = ( i=1 to n ) pi
  • 71. Product Archetype Pattern Services A service represents a process or activity that is offered for sale. In fact, only in inventory management is there any difference between goods and services that makes a difference from the modeling perspective. Example: haircut from barbershop
  • 72. Product Archetype Pattern ServiceType A ServiceType archetype is a kind of ProductType that represents a type of service. Each ServiceType may optionally have two attributes startOfPeriodOfOperation endOfPeriodOfOperation
  • 73. Product Archetype Pattern ServiceInstance A ServiceInstance archetype represents an instance or execution of a ServiceType delivered to one or more Parties. ServiceInstances have an actual start and end as well as an optional scheduledStart and sceduledEnd for performance monitoring purposes.
  • 74. Product Archetype Pattern ServiceDeliveryStatus A ServiceDeliveryStatus archetype records the status of the delivery of a particular ServiceInstance This can take one of the values shown SCHEDULED The ServiceInstance has been scheduled for delivery EXECUTING The ServiceInstance is in the process of delivery CANCELLED The ServiceInstance has been cancelled COMPLETED The delivery of the ServiceInstance has been completed
  • 75. Product Archetype Pattern ServiceDeliveryStatus
  • 76. Quantity Archetype Pattern Quantity Archetype Pattern A quantity is an amount of something measured according to some standard of measurement. Another way to say this is that a quantity of something is a number expressed in a particular metric. A metric is a standard of measurement. The metric always has a name (e.g., kilogram) and often has a standard symbol (e.g., kg).
  • 77. Quantity Archetype Pattern Money and Currency In the business environment, Money is one of the most important types of Quantities. Currency is one of the most important types of Metrics. The Money archetype represents an amount of a specific Currency. This Currency is accepted in one or more Locales. The Locale archetype represents a general notion of place, location, or context.
  • 78. Quantity Archetype Pattern Currency There are two subclasses of Currency  ISOCurrency  NonISOCurrency The ISOCurrency archetype represents a type of Currency whose name, alphabeticCode, and numericCode are defined in ISO 4217. The NonISOCurrency archetype represents a type of Currency that is not defined in ISO 4217.
  • 79. Quantity Archetype Pattern ISO 4217 ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
  • 80. Quantity Archetype Pattern Money and Currency
  • 81. Quantity Archetype Pattern ExchangeRate and CurrencyConverter ExchangeRate: how to represent the price of one type of money relative to another ExchangeRateType: how to represent a category of ExchangeRates CurrencyConverter: how to represent the function of converting Money in one Currency into an equivalent amount of another Currency
  • 82. Quantity Archetype Pattern Payment Payment: how to represent Money paid by one Party to another PaymentMethod: how to represent the medium by which a Payment may be made Cash: how to represent a Payment made in a physical amount of a Currency Check: how to represent a bill of exchange drawn on a bank and payable on demand
  • 83. Quantity Archetype Pattern Payment PaymentCard: how to represent a physical token such as a plastic card that authorizes the Party identified on it to charge the cost of goods or services to an account  CreditCard: how to represent a PaymentCard that comes with a line of credit  DebitCard: how to represent a PaymentCard where Payments are immediately debited from a source account
  • 84. Rule Archetype Pattern Rule Archetype Pattern Rule pattern is to give you a concrete basis for understanding and working with the various kinds of rules you will encounter in business analysis and system development. Use to implement simple rules-based systems.
  • 85. Rule Archetype Pattern Rules Rules are constraints. The typical dictionary definition of a rule is:  A code or principle that governs or constrains action or behavior (i.e., a constraint on an action)  An established or normal quality or condition of things (i.e., a constraint on the state of something) So some rules are simple statements of fact about the state of something, while others may be used explicitly to trigger actions. These two aspects of rules are of equal importance.
  • 86. Rule Archetype Pattern Business Rule A business rule is a constraint on the operation of the business. A business system rule is a constraint on the operation of the software systems of the business.
  • 87. Rule Archetype Pattern Business Rule A business rule is a constraint on the operation of the business. A business system rule is a constraint on the operation of the software systems of the business.
  • 88. Rule Archetype Pattern Business Rule A business rule may constraint the business in two fundamentally different ways. 1. It may constrain the structure of the business. For example, relationship between various subunits of the organization, such as marketing and manufacturing. 2. It may constrain the operation of the business. For example, sequence of actions in business workflows such as order processing.
  • 89. Rule Archetype Pattern Business Rule Business rules are pervasive and exist at all levels of the organization. Business rules form a hierarchy from the very general to the very specific. This hierarchy is itself subject to the constraint that all of its rules must be consistent with each other.
  • 90. Rule Archetype Pattern Business System Rules Business system rules are specific constraints on the operation of the software systems of the business. They are derived from business rules via a software engineering process.
  • 91. Rule Archetype Pattern Business System Rules Organizations that have many legacy software systems can be particularly prone to the problem where the systems themselves constrain the activities of the whole business.
  • 92. Rule Archetype Pattern Business System Rules
  • 93. Rule Archetype Pattern Rules and Business Processes A business process is a sequence of business activities that, when executed, is designed to lead to some business benefit Rules can affect business processes in two ways. 1. They can embody information about the state of the business. 2. They can conditionally trigger business activities based on that information.
  • 94. Rule Archetype Pattern Business Process The business process of selling an insurance policy to a customer. This process can be summarized as: if customerAge >= minimumAge then sellPolicy() The process requires three rules for its operation. Two of these rules just embody information, while the third rule triggers a business activity.
  • 95. Rule Archetype Pattern Business Process The three rules are listed in the table: ID Rule Type Semantics 1 customerAge = 17 Information A fact about the customer 2 minimumAge = 18 Information A fact about the business (here, the circumstances under which it is prepared to do business) 3 if customerAge >= minimumAge then Activity A rule that triggers a sellPolicy() business activity
  • 96. Rule Archetype Pattern Physical Location of Rules Business system rules can exist in three places: 1. In the source code 2. As database triggers 3. As explicit rules managed and manipulated by a rules engine
  • 97. Rule Archetype Pattern Advantages & Disadvantages of Physical Location of Rules Location Advantages Disadvantages Source Applications have good Rules are very hard to change, and it is code performance expensive to make the change Rules are generally not reusable across applications Applications are inflexible Database Rules are more accessible Rules are coupled to data triggers to change Rules are not reusable across data sets Applications are more Not all rules can be encoded in this way flexible
  • 98. Rule Archetype Pattern Advantages & Disadvantages of Physical Location of Rules Location Advantages Disadvantages Explicit Rules are completely Applications may not perform as well as rules accessible to change, and they would with hard-coded rules. This managed it is easy and inexpensive depends on the rules engine by a rules to make the change engine Rules are made explicit and so are open to inspection and review Rules are separate from applications and data Applications are very flexible

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