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Dairy farming activities Dairy farming activities Document Transcript

  • Dairy Farming ActivitiesScience Centres: Freshwater and Estuaries, TeKūwahaDairy farms operate to maximise milk production.Milk productionDairy farms are either seasonal (spring-autumn) or town supply (year round) operations. Expansion of the dairyindustry over the last 20-30 years is largely due to the rapid conversion of dry stock and forestry land to dairying aswell as the intensification of farming methods that has led to an increase in stocking rates (cows per hectare).During the milking season, cows are usually milked twice a day. During milking, animal waste (dairy effluent) thataccumulates in the milking shed and yard is washed down with high pressure hoses and collected in oxidation ponds.This effluent may also contain other elements, such as spilled milk, soil, animal feed, detergents, and other chemicals(i.e., residue from animal health products such as drenches and antibiotics). Dairy effluent contains organic andinorganic nutrients (especially nitrogen and phosphorous) and contaminants (e.g., pathogens and sediment ), whichall have the potential to impact on water quality and mahingakai if not disposed of correctly.Dairy effluent cannot be discharged to water directly and needs to be disposed of either by:1. Settling effluent in an oxidation pond, then spreading onto land.2. Irrigating dairy shed effluent directly onto land.Soil and pasture managementThe greatest on-farm contribution of nutrients and pathogens into waterways comes from animal faecal matter andurine. Animals with open access to waterways or that cross streams are especially likely to increase nutrients andpathogens into a stream. During times of heavy rain, waste can wash into waterways via surface runoff frompaddocks or tracks and roads. Waterways become especially prone to increased nutrients from faecal matter andfertilisers when there are no fences or riparian vegetation, which exclude stock from waterways and absorb excessnutrients in the runoff.Increasing the number of cows per hectare (overstocking) to maximise production may have detrimental effects onsoil structure (compaction, pugging, and trampling damage), drainage, and productivity, especially when soils areprone to flooding and erosion around waterways, which increases runoff of sediment and associated nutrients. Whenapplying fertilisers, a nutrient budget may be used to calculate the impact of nutrient use and flows within a farm (asfertiliser, effluent, supplements, or transfer by animals). The type of fertilisers used and the grasses and crops grownwill also influence overall productivity and environmental impacts.The application of herbicides to control weeds (ragwort, thistles, and gorse) is common on all farms (dairy, dry stock,or arable). Excess spray residue accumulates and binds to sediment particles which may end up in waterways via
  • runoff or by directly spraying around waterways. The toxicity of these chemical contaminants depends on the typeand quantity that are applied.Water take (irrigation and abstraction)Some farms rely on water take or abstraction for irrigation of pasture and crops. Irrigation systems may be permanentor semi-permanent, including pop-up systems, fixed above ground, drip and micro systems, and pivot or laterallymoving machines.Irrigated water should be applied to match the needs of the pasture and crops grown, otherwise any excess will belost to groundwater. Irrigation may increase the risk of fertiliser runoff or nutrient leaching which can lead to thesubsequent contamination of stream water, in particular nitrate leaching. However, the most damaging effectof irrigation can be taking too much water and not leaving enough for mahingakai habitat. Pesticides and herbicidesin waterways are often also associated with cropping or horticultural activity.Farm management and animal healthKeeping good records enables well-informed decisions to be made during the year. Time of calving, shearing,addressing and preventing animal health issues, proper hygiene around sheds, waste disposal, and disease controlall contribute to and reduce environmental risks.Hot spots that are likely to contain concentrations of chemicals and effluent, and therefore require carefulconsideration/control measures, include:Chemical spray storage sheds.Chemical spray equipment wash down areas.Bulk fuel storage.Uncontrolled dumping or land filling of chemical containers or other waste products.Offal pits for animal carcasses and farm waste.Silage pits.Animals crossing streams.Runoff of faecal matter from tracks and roads into streams.Dipping and drenching yards.DAIRY FARMING FOR SMALL FARMER1. Why do Dairy Farming ?
  • 1.1 Dairying is an important source of subsidiary income to small/marginalfarmers and agricultural labourers. The manure from animals provides a goodsource of organic matter for improving soil fertility and crop yields. The gobergas from the dung is used as fuel for domestic purposes as also for runningengines for drawing water from well. The surplus fodder and agricultural by-products are gainfully utilised for feeding the animals. Almost all draughtpower for farm operations and transportation is supplied by bullocks. Sinceagriculture is mostly seasonal, there is a possibility of finding employmentthroughout the year for many persons through dairy farming. Thus, dairy alsoprovides employment throughout the year. The main beneficiaries of dairyprogrammes are small/marginal farmers and landless labourers. A farmer canearn a gross surplus of about Rs. 12,000 per year from a unit consisting of 2milking buffaloes. The capital investment required for purchase of 2 buffaloesis Rs. 18,223/-. Even after paying a sum of Rs. 4294/- per annum towardsrepayment of the loan and interest the farmer can earn a net surplus of Rs.6000 - 9000/- approximately per year. (For details see model schemeenclosed). Even more profits can be earned depending upon the breed ofanimal, managerial skills and marketing potential.1.2 According to World Bank estimates about 75 per cent of Indias 940 millionpeople are in 5.87 million villages, cultivating over 145 million hectares ofcropland. Average farm size is about 1.66 hectares. Among 70 million ruralhouseholds, 42 per cent operate upto 2 hectares and 37 per cent are landlesshouseholds. These landless and small farmers have in their possession 53per cent of the animals and produce 51 per cent of the milk. Thus,small/marginal farmers and land less agricultural labourers play a veryimportant role in milk production of the country. Dairy farming can also betaken up as a main occupation around big urban centres where the demandfor milk is high.2. Scope for Dairy Farming and its National Importance.2.1 The total milk production in the country for the year 2001-02 wasestimated at 84.6 million metric tonnes. At this production, the per capitaavailability was to be 226 grams per day against the minimum requirement of250 grams per day as recommended by ICMR. Thus, there is a tremendousscope/potential for increasing the milk production. The population of breedingcows and buffaloes in milk over 3 years of age was 62.6 million and 42.4million, respectively (1992 census)
  • 2.2 Central and State Governments are giving considerable financialassistance for creating infrastructure facilities for milk production. The ninethplan outlay on Animal Husbandry and Dairying was Rs. 2345 crores.3. Financial Assistance Available from Banks/NABARD for DairyFarming.3.1 NABARD is an apex institution for all matters relating to policy, planningand operation in the field of agricultural credit. It serves as an apex refinancingagency for the institutions providing investment and production credit. Itpromotes development through formulation and appraisal of projects througha well organised Technical Services Department at the Head Office andTechnical Cells at each of the Regional Offices.3.2 Loan from banks with refinance facility from NABARD is available forstarting dairy farming. For obtaining bank loan, the farmers should apply to thenearest branch of a commercial or co-operative Bank in their area in theprescribed application form which is available in the branches of financingbanks. The Technical Officer attached to or the Manager of the bank canhelp/give guidance to the farmers in preparing the project report to obtainbank loan.3.3 For dairy schemes with very large outlays, detailed reports will have to beprepared. The items of finance would include capital asset items such aspurchase of milch animals, construction of sheds, purchase of equipmentsetc. The feeding cost during the initial period of one/two months is capitalisedand given as term loan. Facilities such as cost of land development, fencing,digging of well, commissioning of diesel engine/pumpset, electricityconnections, essential servants quarters, godown, transport vehicle, milkprocessing facilities etc. can be considered for loan. Cost of land is notconsidered for loan. However, if land is purchased for setting up a dairy farm,its cost can be treated as partys margin upto 10% of the total cost of project.4. Scheme Formulation for bank loan.4.1 A Scheme can be prepared by a beneficiary after consulting localtechnical persons of State animal husbandry department, DRDA, SLPP etc.,dairy co-operative society/union/federation/commercial dairy farmers. Ifpossible, the beneficiaries should also visit progressive dairy farmers andgovernment/military/agricultural university dairy farm in the vicinity anddiscuss the profitability of dairy farming. A good practical training and
  • experience in dairy farming will be highly desirable. The dairy co-operativesocieties established in the villages as a result of efforts by the DairyDevelopment Department of State Government and National DairyDevelopment Board would provide all supporting facilities particularlymarketing of fluid milk. Nearness of dairy farm to such a society, veterinary aidcentre, artificial insemination centre should be ensured. There is a gooddemand for milk, if the dairy farm is located near urban centre.4.2 The scheme should include information on land, livestock markets,availability of water, feeds, fodders, veterinary aid, breeding facilities,marketing aspects, training facilities, experience of the farmer and the type ofassistance available from State Government, dairy society/union/federation.4.3 The scheme should also include information on the number of and typesof animals to be purchased, their breeds, production performance, cost andother relevant input and output costs with their description. Based on this, thetotal cost of the project, margin money to be provided by the beneficiary,requirement of bank loan, estimated annual expenditure, income, profit andloss statement, repayment period, etc. can be worked out and shown in theProject report. A format developed for formulation of dairy developmentschemes is given as Annexure I.5. Scrutiny of Schemes by banks.The scheme so formulated should be submitted to the nearest branch of bank.The banks officers can assist in preparation of the scheme for filling in theprescribed application form. The bank will then examine the scheme for itstechnical feasibility and economic viability.(A) Technical Feasibility - this would briefly include -1. Nearness of the selected area to veterinary, breeding and milk collection centre and the financing banks branch.2. Availability of good quality animals in nearby livestock market. The distribution of important breeds of cattle and buffaloes are given in Annexure II. The reproductive and productive performance of cattle and buffalo breeds is given in AnnexureIII.3. Availability of training facilities.4. Availability of good grazing ground/lands.5. Green/dry fodder, concentrate feed, medicines etc.
  • 6. Availability of veterinary aid/breeding centres and milk marketing facilities near the scheme area.(B) Economic Viability - this would briefly include -1. Unit Cost - The average unit cost of dairy animals for some of the States is given in Annexure IV.2. Input cost for feeds and fodders, veterinary aid, breeding of animals, insurance, labour and other overheads.3. Output costs i.e. sale price of milk, manure, gunny bags, male/female calves, other miscellaneous items etc.4. Income-expenditure statement and annual gross surplus.5. Cash flow analysis.6. Repayment schedule (i.e. repayment of principal loan amount and interest).Other documents such as loan application forms, security aspects, marginmoney requirements etc. are also examined. A field visit to the scheme area isundertaken for conducting a techno-economic feasibility study for appraisal ofthe scheme. Model economics for a two animal unit and mini dairy unit withten buffaloes are given in Annexure V and VI.6. Sanction of Bank Loan and its Disbursement.After ensuring technical feasibility and economic viability, the scheme issanctioned by the bank. The loan is disbursed in kind in 2 to 3 stages againstcreation of specific assets such as construction of sheds, purchase ofequipments and machinery, purchase of animals and recurring cost onpurchase of feeds/fodders for the initial period of one/two months. The enduse of the fund is verified and constant follow-up is done by the bank.7. Lending terms - General7.1 Unit CostEach Regional Office (RO) of NABARD has constituted a State Level UnitCost Committee under the Chairmanship of RO-in-charges and with themembers from developmental agencies, commercial banks and cooperativebanks to review the unit cost of various investments once in six months. Thesame is circulated among the banks for their guidance. These costs are only
  • indicative in nature and banks are free to finance any amount depending uponthe availability of assets.7.2 Margin MoneyNABARD had defined farmers into three different categories and wheresubsidy is not available the minimum down payment as shown below iscollected from the beneficiaries.Sr.No. Category of Farmer Level of predevelopment Beneficiarys return to resources Contribution(a) Small Farmers Upto Rs.11000 5%(b) Medium Farmers Rs.11001 - Rs.19250 10%(c) Large Farmers Above Rs. 19251 15%`7.3 Interest RateAs per the RBI guidelines the present rate of interest to the ultimatebeneficiary financed by various agencies are as under :No. Loan Amount CBs and RRBs SLDB/SCB(a) Upto and inclusive of 12% As determined by Rs.25000 SCB/SLDB subject to minimum 12%(b) Over Rs. 25000 and 13.5% -do- uptoRs. 2 lakhs(c) Over Rs. 2.0 lakhs As determined by the -do- banks7.4 SecuritySecurity will be as per NABARD/RBI guidelines issued from time to time.7.5 Repayment Period of LoanRepayment period depends upon the gross surplus in the scheme. The loanswill be repaid in suitable monthly/quarterly instalments usually within a periodof about 5 years. In case of commercial schemes it may be extended upto 6-7years depending on cash flow analysis.
  • 7.6 InsuranceThe animals may be insured annually or on long term master policy, whereever it is applicable. The present rate of insurance premium for scheme andnon scheme animals are 2.25% and 4.0% respectively.8. Package of Common Management Practices Recommended for DairyFarmersModern and well established scientific principles, practices and skills shouldbe used to obtain maximum economic benefits from dairy farming. Some ofthe major norms and recommended practices are as follows :I. Housing:1. Construct shed on dry, properly raised ground.2. Avoid water-logging, marshy and heavy rainfall areas.3. The walls of the sheds should be 1.5 to 2 meters high.4. The walls should be plastered to make them damp proof.5. The roof should be 3-4 metres high.6. The cattle shed should be well ventilated.7. The floor should be pucca/hard, even non-slippery impervious, well sloped (3 cm per metre) and properly drained to remain dry and clean.8. Provide 0.25 metre broad, pucca drain at the rear of the standing space.9. A standing space of 2 x 1.05 metre for each animal is needed.10. The manger space should be 1.05 metre with front height of 0.5 metre and depth of 0.25 metre.11. The corners in mangers, troughs, drains and walls should be rounded for easy cleaning.12. Provide 5-10 sq. metre loaf space for each animal.13. Provide proper shade and cool drinking water in summer.14. In winter keep animals indoor during night and rain.15. Provide individual bedding daily.16. Maintain sanitary condition around shed.17. Control external parasites (ticks, flies etc.) by spraying the pens, sheds with Malathion or Copper sulphate solution.18. Drain urine into collection pits and then to the field through irrigation channels.
  • 19. Dispose of dung and urine properly. A gobar gas plant will be an ideal way. Where gobar gas plant is not constructed, convert the dung alongwith bedding material and other farm wastes into compost.20. Give adequate space for the animals. (The housing space requirement of crossbred cattle in various categories/age-groups is given in Annexure-VII).II. Selection of Animal :1. Immediately after release of the loan purchase the stock from a reliable breeder or from nearest livestock market.2. Select healthy, high yielding animals with the help of banks technical officer, veterinary/animal husbandry officer of State government/ ZillaParishad, etc.3. Purchase freshly calved animals in their second/third lactation.4. Before purchasing, ascertain actual milk yield by milking the animal three times consecutively.5. Identify the newly purchased animal by giving suitable identification mark (ear tagging or tattooing).6. Vaccinate the newly purchased animal against disease.7. Keep the newly purchased animal under observation for a period of about two weeks and then mix with the general herd.8. Purchase a minimum economical unit of two milch animals.9. Purchase the second animal/second batch after 5-6 months from the purchase of first animal.10. As buffaloes are seasonal calvers purchase them during July to February.11. As far as possible purchase the second animal when the first animal is in its late stage of lactation and is about to become dry, thereby maintaining continuity in milk production vis-a- vis income. This will ensure availability of adequate funds for maintaining the dry animals.12. Follow judicious culling and replacement of animals in a herd.13. Cull the old animals after 6-7 lactations.III. Feeding of Milch Animals1. Feed the animals with best feeds and fodders. (Feeding schedule is given in Anneuxre VIII).2. Give adequate green fodder in the ration.3. As far as possible, grow green fodder on your land wherever available.
  • 4. Cut the fodder at the right stage of their growth.5. Chaff roughage before feeding.6. Crush the grains and concentrates.7. The oil cakes should be flaky and crumbly.8. Moisten the concentrate mixture before feeding.9. Provide adequate vitamins and minerals. Provide salt licks besides addition of mineral mixture to the concentrate ration.10. Provide adequate and clean water.11. Give adequate exercise to the animals. Buffaloes should be taken for wallowing daily. In case this is not possible sprinkle sufficient water more particularly during summer months.12. To estimate the daily feed requirement remember that the animals consume about 2.5 to 3.0 percent of their body weight on dry matter basis.IV. Milking of Animals1. Milk the animals two to three times a day.2. Milk at fixed times.3. Milk in one sitting within eight minutes.4. As far as possible, milking should be done by the same person regularly.5. Milk the animal in a clean place.6. Wash the udder and teat with antiseptic lotions/luke-warm water and dry before milking.7. Milker should be free from any contagious diseases and should wash his hands with antiseptic lotion before each milking.8. Milking should be done with full hands, quickly and completely followed by stripping.9. Sick cows/buffaloes should be milked at the end to prevent spread of infection.V. Protection against Diseases1. Be on the alert for signs of illness such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behaviour.2. Consult the nearest veterinary aid centre for help if illness is suspected.3. Protect the animals against common diseases.4. In case of outbreak of contagious disease, immediately segregate the sick, in-contact and the healthy animals and take necessary
  • disease control measures. (Vaccination schedule is given in Annexure IX).5. Conduct periodic tests for Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Johnes disease, Mastitis etc.6. Deworm the animals regularly.7. Examine the faeces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the animals with suitable drugs.8. Wash the animals from time to time to promote sanitation.VI. Breeding Care1. Observe the animal closely and keep specific record of its coming in heat, duration of heat, insemination, conception and calving.2. Breed the animals in time.3. The onset of oestrus will be within 60 to 80 days after calving.4. Timely breeding will help achieving conception within 2 to 3 months of calving.5. Breed the animals when it is in peak heat period (i.e. 12 to 24 hours of heat).6. Use high quality semen preferably frozen semen of proven sires/bulls.VII. Care during PregnancyGive special attention to pregnant cows two months before calving byproviding adequate space, feed, water etc.VIII. Marketing of Milk1. Marketing milk immediately after it is drawn keeping the time between production and marketing of the milk to the minimum.2. Use clean utensils and handle milk in hygienic way.3. Wash milk pails/cans/utensils thoroughly with detergent and finally rinse with chloride solution.4. Avoid too much agitation of milk during transit.5. Transport the milk during cool hours of the day.IX. Care of Calves1. Take care of new born calf.2. Treat/disinfect the navel cord with tincutre of iodine as soon as it is cut with a sharp knife.
  • 3. Feed colostrum to calf.4. Assist the calf to suckle if it is too weak to suckle on its own within 30 minutes of calving.5. In case it is desired to wean the calf immediately after birth, then feed the colostrum in bucket.6. Keep the calf separately from birth till two months of age in a dry clean and well ventilated place.7. Protect the calves against extreme weather conditions, particularly during the first two months.8. Group the calves according to their size.9. Vaccinate calves.10. Dehorn the calves around 4 to 5 days of age for easy management when they grow.11. Dispose of extra calves not to be reared/maintained for any specific purpose as early as possible, particularly the male calves.12. The female calves should be properly reared.Annexure IFORMAT FOR SUBMISSION OF SCHEMES1. GENERALi) Name of the sponsoring bankii) Address of the controlling ofice sponsoring the schemeiii) Nature and objectives of the proposed schemeiv) Details of proposed investmentsS.No Investment No. Of units(a)(b)(c)v) Specification of the scheme area (Name of District & Block/s)S.No. District Blockvi) Names of the financing banks branches:
  • S.No. Name of the Branch/District(a)(b)(c)vii) Status of beneficiary/ies: (indidivual/Partnership/Company/Corporation/Co-operative Society /Others)viii) In case of area based schemes, coverage of borrowers in weakersections (landless labourers, small, medium & large farmers as per NABARDs norms, SC/ST, etc.)ix) Details of borrowers profile (Not applicable to area based schemes)(a) Capability(b) Experience(c) Financial Soundness(d) Technical/Other special Qualificaitons(e) Technical/Managerial Staff and adequacy thereof2. TECHNICAL ASPECTS :a) Location, Land and Land Development :i) Location details of the projectii) Total Area of land and its costiii) Site mapiv) Particulars of land development, fencing, gates, etc.b) Civil Structures :Detailed cost estimates along with measurements of vaious civil structure- Sheds- Store room- Milk room- Quarters, etc.c) Equipment/Plant and Machinery :i) Chaff cutterii) Silo pitiii) Milking machineiv) Feed grinder and mixer
  • v) Milking pails/milk cansvi) Biogas plantvii) Bulk coolersviii)Equipment for manufacture of productsix) Truck/van (price quotations for the above equipments)d) Housing :i) Type of housingii) Area requirement- Adults- Heifers (1-3 years)- Calves (less than 1 year)e) Animals :i) Proposed speciesii) Proposed breediii) Source of purchaseiv) Place of purchasev) Distance (kms.)vi) Cost of animal (Rs.)f) Production parameters :i) Order of lactationii) Milk yield (ltrs. per day)iii) Lactation daysiv) Dry daysv) Conception ratevi) Mortality(%) - Adults - Young stockg) Herd projection (with all assumptions) :h) Feeding :i) Source of fodder and feed - Green fodder - Dry fodder - Concentrates
  • ii) Fodder crop rotations - Kharif - Rabi - Summeriii) Fodder cultivation expensesiv) Requirement and costs :Quantity required (kg./day) Cost(Rs. / Kg) Lactation Dry Period Young StockGreen FodderDry FodderConcentratesi) Breeding Facilities :i) Source :ii) Location :iii) Distance (km.) :iv) Availability of semen :v) Availability of staff :vi) Expenditure per animal/yearj) Veterinary Aid :i) Sourceii) Locationiii) Distance (km.)iv) Availability of staffv) Types of facilities availablevi) If own arrangements are made -a) Employed a veterinary doctor/stockman/consultantb) Periodicity of visitc) Amount paid/visit (Rs.)vii)Expenditure per animal per year (Rs.)k) Electricity :i) Sourceii) Approval from SEBiii) Connected load
  • iv) Problems of power failurev) Arrangements for generatorl) Water :i) Sourceii) Quality of wateriii) Abvailability of sufficient quantity for drinking, cleaning nad fodderproductioniv) If investment has to be made, type of strucutre, design and costm) Marketing of milk :i) Source of salesii) Place of disposaliii) Distance (km.)iv) Pricerealised - (Rs. per liter of milk)v) Basis of paymentvi) Periodicity of paymentn) Marketing of other products :i) Animal - age - place of sale - price expectedii) Manure - Qty./animal Price/unit (Rs.)iii) Empty gunny bags - Number - Cost/bag (Rs.)o) Beneficiarys experience :p) Comments on technical feasibility :q) Government restrictions, if any :3. FINANCIAL ASPECTS :i) Unit Cost :Sr.No Name of the Physical units Unit cost with Whether
  • Investment and component wise approved by specification break-up (Rs.) state level unit cost committee TotalIi) Down payment/margin/subsidy(Indicate source & extent of subsidy):iii) Year-wise physical & financial programme :Year Invest- Physical Unit Total Margin/ Bank Refinance loan1 Ment Units Cost Outlay Subsidy Assistance (Rs.) 2 3 (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) 7 4 5 6 8TotalIv) Financial viability (comment on the cash flow projection on a farmmodel/unitand enclose the same.)Particulars :a) Internal Rate of Return (IRR) :b) Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) :c) Net Present Worth (NPW) :v) Financial position of the borrowers (to be furnished in case ofcorporate bodies/partnership firms)a) Profitability Ratio :i) GP Ratioii) NP Ratiob) Debt Equity Ratio :c) Whether Income Tax & other tax obligations are paid uptodate :d) Whether audit is upto date (enclose copies of audited financial statementsfor the last three years)vi) Lending Terms :i) Rate of Interest :ii) Grace Period :iii) Repayment Period :iv) Nature of Security :v) Availability of Government guarantee wherever necessary :4. INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES :
  • a) Availability of technical staff with bank/implementingauthority for monitoringb) Details of -i) technical guidanceii) training facilitiesiii) Govt support/extention supportc) Tie-up arrangements with marketing agencies for loan recoveryd) Insurance -- Type of policy- Periodicity- Rate of premiume) Whether any subsidy is available, if so amount per unitf) Arrangements for supply of green fodder and cattle feedANNEXURE IICattle and Buffalo Breeds Important Characteristics/DescriptionSr.No Name Habitat/Main Breeding Assembling Areas of Remark. Breed State Tract Centres demand s Districts1 2 3 4 5 6 7A) CATTLE (INDIGENOU S)1 Amrithmah Erstwhile Mysore Tumkur and Erstwhile Karnataka and Draught al State now part of Chitradurg Mysore State adjoining area breed Karnataka2 Dangi Maharashtra and Ahmednagar, Weekly Rocky ghat Draught Gujarat Khandesh, markets in areas with breed Raigad, Nasik, Ahmednagar, heavy rainfall Thane, Surat Nasik, Thane and West Khandesh district3 Denoi Andhra Pradesh Medak, Weekly cattle Bidar and Draught Karnataka and Nizambad, markets, Jatras adjoining purposse Maharashtra Mahboobnaga and fairs in districts breed r, Adilabad Bidar and Gulbarga, adjoining Bidar, districts Osmanabad, Nanded4 Gir Gir Hills and Junagarh, _ Gujarat, Dairy
  • forest of South Also Rajasthan, purpose Kathiawar maintained by Maharashtra breed NDRI, Bangalore5 Hallikar Karnataka Tumkur, Dodbalapur, Dharwar, Draught Hassan & Chickballapur, North Kanara, breed Mysore Harikar, Bellary (KT) Devargudda, Anantur&Chitt Chikkuvalli, ur (A.P.), Karuvalli, Coimbatore Chittavadgi North Arcot, (T.N.) North Salem (T.M.) Arcot (T.N.) Hindupur, Somaghatta, Anantpur (A.P.)6 Hariana Haryana and Rohtak, Cattle fairs at Throughout Dual Delhi, Punjab, Hissar, Jehazgarh, the country purpose Rajasthan Gurgaon, Mahim and breed Karnal, Bhadurgarh Patiala, (Rohtak dist.) Sangrur, Hansi&Bhiwani Jaipur, (Hissar dist.) Jodhpur, Alwar, Bharatpur Western districts7 Kangayam Tamil Nadu Coimbatore Avanashi, Southern Draught Tirppur, Districts of breed Kannauram, Tamil Nadu Madurai Athicombu8 Kankrej Gujarat Ahmedabad, Ahmedabad, Rajasthan, Banaskantha Radhanpur Maharashtra9 Khillari Maharashtra Solapur, Southern Draught Kolhapur, Districts of breed Satara Maharashtra and adjoining districts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka10 Krishna Maharashtra, Watersheds of Ichalkaranji Valley Andhra Pradesh, Krishna and (Kolhapur), Karnataka adjoining Chincahli areas of A.P. (Gulbarga) and KT11 Malvi Madhya Pradesh Guna, Vidisha, Agar (Shajapur) Draught
  • RaisenSehora Singaj (Nimar) purpose , Ujjain, Sehore&Ashta Indore, (Sehore) Dewas, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Mandsaur, Jhabus&Dhar Rajasthan Jhalwar and Karimnagar Kotah (A.P.)12 Nagori or Rajasthan Jodhpur NagaurParbats Rajasthan, Draught Nagauri &Nagaur ar (Nagpur), Haryana, Uttar purpose Balotra Pradesh (Barmer), Puskar (Ajmer), Hissar, Hansi (Haryana State)13 Ongole Andhra Pradesh Ongole, Available in - Dual Guntur, Ongole tract of Purpose Narasaraopet, Andhra Bapatla and Pradesh Nellore14 Rathi Rajasthan Alwar, Alwar, Rewari - - Bharatpur, (Gurgaon), Jaipur Pushkar - Dairy (Ajmer) breed15 Sahiwal Punjab, Haryana, Sahiwal Jullundar, - Dairy Delhi, U.P., (erstwhile Gurdaspur, breed Bihar, M.P., W.B. Montgomery) Amritsar, Kapurthala, Ferozepur (Punjab), NDRI, Karnal, Hissar, AnhoraDurg (M.P), Lucknow, Meerut, Bihar, W.B.16 Red Sindhi Pakisatan All - - - Dairy parts of India breed17 Siri Sikkim, Bhutan Darjeeling Hill Darjeeling - Dual Tract (Brought by purpose dealers)18 Tharparkar Pakisatn (sind) Umarkot, Balotra - Dairy Naukot, (Jodhpur), breed DhoroNaroCh Puskar (Ajmer), or Gujarat State
  • B) CATTLE (EXOTIC)1 Brown Switzerland - India, - Dairy breed Swiss Pakisatan& other Asian countries2 Holstein Holland Province of Through out - Dairy breed Friesian North Holland the country and West (crossbreds) Friesland3 Jersy British Isles Island of Crossbreds - Dairy breed Jersey available in all states/U.TsB) BUFFALOES1 Bhadawari Uttar Bah Tehsil in Agra Local markets - Dairy Breed Pradesh, Adjoining areas of in Breeding Madhya Gwalior areas (Agra, Pradesh Kanpur, Etawah, Jalaun, Jhansi)2 Jaffarabadi Gujarat Kathiawar and Honreli Breeding areas - Dairy breed of Saurashtra3 Mehsani Gujarat Mehsana, Banaskantha, Ahmedabad, - Dairy breed Sabarkantha tract in Mehsana and Gujarat other places of breeding4 Murrah Haryana, Rohtak, Hissar, Karnal, Rohtak, - Dairy Breed Uttar Jind, Gurgaon, Western Bahadurgarh, Pradesh, parts of Uttar Pradesh Delhi, Punjab Nabha and Patiala Jahanzgarh, Mahim, Hissar, Bhiwani, Hansi, Rewari, Ferozpur, Jirka, Nangloi, Narela5 Nagpuri Maharashtra, Wardha, Nagpur Vidarbha area - Dual Andhra Yeotmal, Adilabad, and of Maharashtra purpose Pradesh adjoining parts and breed Adilabaddistrict of A.P.6 Nili Ravi Punjab Ferozepur Ferozpur - Dairy breed (MontogomeryPakisatan) District of Punjab
  • 7 Surti Gujarat Kheda, Vadodara Through out - Dairy breed Gujarat (Charottar tract)ANNEXURE - IIIReproductive and Productive Parameters (Traits) in Indian Cattle and BuffaloesSr.No Name of the Age at Calving Lactation Lactation Dry Milk breed first interval yield length period yield calving kg/day (months) (kg.) (days) (days) during (months) lactat- ion1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8i) Cattlea) Indian breeds1 Dangi 54 17 600 300 210 2.02 Deogir 48 15 1,500 300 150 5.03 Deoni 53 14 810 270 150 3.04 Gir 48 16 1,350 270 210 5.05 Gaolao 46 16 600 300 180 2.06 Hallikar 46 20 600 300 300 2.07 Hariana 58 13 1,200 240 150 5.08 Kangayam 44 16 600 240 240 2.59 Kankrej 48 17 1,800 360 150 5.010 Khilari 52 16 240 240 240 1.011 Ongole 40 19 630 210 360 3.012 Rathi 40 19 1,815 330 240 5.513 Red Sindhi 42 14 1,620 270 150 6.014 Sahiwal 40 14 1,620 270 150 6.015 Tharparkar 50 14 1,620 270 150 6.0
  • 16 Umblachery 46 17 360 240 270 1.517 Non-descript 60 19 405 270 300 1.5B) Crossbred Cattle (BosindicusFxBostaurus M)1 HxF 34 14 2,970 330 90 9.02 H x BS 29 15 2,805 330 120 8.53 HxJ 33 13 2,850 300 90 9.54 GxJ 25 13 2,640 330 60 8.05 GxF 25 13 2,160 270 120 8.06 RS x F 29 12 2,295 270 90 8.57 RS x RD 28 12 2,160 270 90 8.08 RS x J 29 12 1,500 300 90 5.09 RxJ 32 12 2,700 300 60 9.010 TxF 33 13 2,550 300 90 8.511 SxF 33 14 2,400 300 120 8.0C) Buffaloes1 Bhadawari 50 15 1,080 270 180 4.02 Murrah 42 16 1,800 300 180 6.03 Nili-Ravi 54 16 1,950 300 180 6.54 Surti 44 16 1,765 330 150 5.55 Mehsani 50 14 1,620 270 150 6.06 Jaffarabadi 50 14 1,620 270 150 6.07 Pandharpuri 56 14 1,350 270 150 5.08 Marathwadi 50 14 1,015 270 150 3.59 Nagpuri 50 14 1,350 270 150 5.010 Dharwari 50 14 1,350 270 150 5.011 Non-descript 50 16 540 270 210 2.0
  • Key : H = Hariana S = Sahiwal RS = Red SindhiG = Gir T = Tharparkar L = Non-descriptR = Rathi F = Friesian BS = Brown SwissRD = Red dane J = JerseyAnnexure - IVUnit cost of cows and buffaloes Approvedby NABARD in some of the major States in IndiaSr.N State Cows Buffaloeso Unit Breed Yield Unit Breed Yiel Cost cost d (Rs.) (litre (Rs.) (litre s/ s / day) day)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 81 Andhra 6,000 Crossbred 6 7,500 Graded 6 Pradesh Murrah 7500 Crossbred 8 1000 8 0 Graded 9500 Crossbred 10 Murrah - -2 Assam 10,00 Crossbred 7 8,500 Graded 7 0 Murrah3 Bihar 13,00 Crossbred 10 9,000 Graded 7-8 0 Murrah 6,000 Indigenous 5-6 7,000 Local 5-6 (improved)4 Gujarat i) 14,00 Jersey X 8-9 i) 13,50 Surti 5.5 0 0 ii) 16,00 H.F.X 9- ii) 13,00 Mehsani 6 0 10 0 iii 14,00 Jaffarabadi 6
  • ) 05 Karnataka i) 7,300 Crossbred 6 i) 6,600 Graded 5 Surti ii) 9,700 Crossbred 8 ii) 7,800 Graded 6 Murrah iii 10,90 Crossbred 9 iii) 9,000 Pandarpuri 7 ) 0 iv 12,10 Crossbred 10 iv) 11,00 Pure 8 ) 0 0 Mehsani6 Madhya i) 9,500 Jersey X i) 7,000 Graded 6 Pradesh Murrah ii) 6,500 Gir/Tharparkr/Sah 8 ii) 8,250 Graded 7 iwal Murrah 7 iii) 6,000 Nagpuri 57 Maharashtra i) 11,20 Crossbred 6 i) 7,000 GMB/Mehs 7 0 ani ii) 14,00 Crossbred 10 ii) 8,000 GMB/Mehs 8 0 ani iii 8,400 Tharparkar/ 6-7 iii 6,000 Surti/ 6 ) Gir/Hariana ) Jaffarbadi to iv 7,000 Nagpuri/ 7 ) Dharwari 9,500 v) 5,000 Pandharpur 5 i vi 6,000 6 )8 West Bengal i) 9,500 Crossbred 6 - - - ii) 12,00 Crossbred 8 - - - 09 Orissa i) 6,000 Crossbred 6 6,300 Graded 6 Murrah ii) 7,000 -do- 7 iii 8,000 -do- 8
  • )10 Punjab/Hary i) 2,700 Indigenous 5 ana ii) 7,950 Crossbred(J) 9 i) 7,450 Murrah 7 8,900 -do-(HF) 10 ii) 6,500 Graded 6 Murrah11 Rajasthan i) 10,40 -do- 8 11,20 Graded 7 0 0 Murrah ii) 11,70 -do- 9 9,000 Surti 6 0 iii 13,00 -do- 10 ) 012 Uttar 10,00 Crossbred 10 11,00 Graded 8 Pradesh 0 0 Murrah13 Kerala 6,000 Crossbred 6 7,200 Graded 6- Murrah 6.5 8,000 Crossbred 814 Himachal 6,600 Crossbred 8 9,000 Graded 6 Murrah15 Tamil Nadu 8,250 Crossbred 6 9,800 Graded 6 MurrahAnnexure VEconomics of two animal unit (buffaloes)Project at a Glance1 Unit Size : 2 Animals2 Breed : Graded Murrah3 State : Karnataka4 Unit Cost (Rs.) : 18,2235 Bank Loan (Rs.) : 15,4006 Margin Money (Rs.) : 2,823
  • 7 Repayment period : 58 Interest rate (%) : 129 BCR at 15% DF : 1.50:110 NPW at 15% DF (Rs.) : 29,18711 IRR(%) : >50%MODEL PROJECT FOR TWO ANIMAL UNIT(BUFFALOES)A INVESTMENT COSTSr.No. Items Specifications Phy units Unit Cost Total Cost (Rs. /Unit) (Rs.)1 Cost of animals 2 8,200 16,4002 Insurance 2 689 1,3783 Conc. Feed (4.5 135 Kg 1 3.3 446 kg/day/animal for 30 days)4 Total cost 18,2235 Margin money Say Rs. 2,733 (15% of total cost) 27236 Bank laon (85% of Say Rs. 15490 total cost) 15500B TECHNO ECONOMIC PARAMETERSi) No.ofmilch animals 2ii) Cost of milch animals 8,200iii) Lactation period (days) 280iv) Dry period (days) 150v) Milk yield (lts./day) 7vi) Sale price of milk (Rs./lt) 7.75
  • vii) Sale of manure/animal/year (Rs.) 300viii) Insurance premium for five years 8.4 (%)ix) Veterinary aid/animal/year (Rs.) 150x) Labour (Rs.) Family labourxi) Cost of electricity & water 100 (Rs./animal)xii) Interest rate (%) 12xiii Repayment period (years) 5xiv) Income from sale of gunny bags 100 20 bags/tonne @ Rs. 5/bagxv) Feeding scheduleS.No. Type of fodder/feed Price (Rs./kg) (Quantity in kg/day) Lactation Dry Period Perioda) Green fodder 0.2 25 25b) Dry fodder 0.5 55c) Concentrate 3.3 4.5 1xvi) Animals will be purchased in twobatches at an interval of 5 - 6 monthsxvii) It is assumed that the expenditure on calfrearing will nullify the sale value of calf / hiefer.xviii) Closing stock value (Rs. per animal) 4100C LACTATION CHARTSr.No Particulars Years I II III IV Vi) Lactation Days
  • a) First batch 250 280 250 210 210b) Second batch 180 210 210 210 210 Total 430 490 460 420 420ii) Dry Daysa) First batch 110 80 110 150 150b) Second batch - 150 150 150 150 Total 110 230 260 300 300Annexure - V (Contd.)D CASH FLOW ANALYSISSr.No. Particulars Years I II III IV VI Costs:1 Capital cost* 17,7772 Recurring costa) Feeding during lactation period Green fodder 2,150 2,450 2,300 2,100 2,100 Dry fodder 1,075 1,225 1,150 1,050 1,050 Concentrate 6,386 7,277 6,831 6,237 6,237 Total 9,611 10,952 10,281 9,387 9,387b) Feeding during dry period Green fodder 550 1,150 1,300 1,500 1,500 Dry fodder 275 575 575 750 750 Concentrate 363 759 858 990 990 Total 1,188 2,484 2,733 3,240 3,240
  • c) Veterinary aid & 225 300 300 300 300 breeding coverd) Cost of electricity & 150 200 200 200 200 water Total 28,951 13,936 13,514 13,127 13,127II BENEFITSa) Sale of milk 23,328 26,583 24,955 22,785 22,785b) Sale of Gunny bags 205 232 218 200 200c) Sale of manure 450 600 600 600 600d) Closing stock value 8,200 Total 23,982 27,414 25,773 23,585 31,785III DF @15% 0.870 0.756 0.658 0.572 0.497IV DISCOUNTED 25,175 10,537 8,886 7,505 6,526 58,630 COSTS AT 15%V DISCOUNTED 20,854 20,729 16,946 13,485 15,803 87,817 BENEFITS AT 15%VI NPW @ 15% 29,187VII BCR @ 15% 1.50:1VIII DF @ 50% 0.667 0.444 0.296 0.198 0.132IX NET BENEFITS -4,969 13,479 12,259 10,458 18,658X DISCOUNTED NET -3,313 5,990 3,632 2,066 2,457 10,833 BENEFITS AT 50%XI IRR >50%* excluding the capitalised expenditure on concentrated feedE REPAYMENT SCHEDULEBank Loan (Rs) - 15500Interest Rate (%) - 12
  • Capital recovery factor - 0.277Year Income Expenses Gross Equated Net surplus surplus annual instalmentI 23,982 10,728 13,254 4,294 8,961II 27,414 13,936 13,479 4,294 9,185III 25,773 13,514 12,259 4,294 7,966IV 23,585 13,127 10,458 4,294 6,165V 23,585 13,127 10,458 4,294 6,165Annexure VIEconomics of a mini DAIRY unitTEN ANIMAL UNIT ( BUFFALOES)PROJECT AT A GLANCE1 Unit size : 10 animals2 Breed : Graded Murrah3 State : Karnataka4 Unit cost (Rs) : 155,0305 Bank loan (Rs) : 131,7006 Margin money (Rs) : 23,3307 Repayment period (yrs) : 58 Interest rate (%) : 13.59 BCR at 15% DF : 1.53:110 NPW at 15% DF(Rs) : 154,40311 IRR (%) : >50MODEL PROJECT FOR TEN ANIMAL UNIT (BUFFALOES)A INVESTMENT COST
  • S.No. Items Specifications Phy.units Unit Cost Total Cost (Rs./unit) (Rs.)1 Cost of animals 10 8,200 8,2002 Transportation cost 10 300 3,000 of animals3 Cost of construction Sq.ft. 650 55 35,750 of shed4 Cost of Store cum Sq.ft. 200 100 20,000 office5 Equipments (chaff 10 500 5,000 cutter, milking pails, cans, technicians6 Insurance 10 328 3,2807 Fodder raising 2 3,000 6,000 expenses @ Rs.3000/acre8 Total cost 155,0309 Margin money Say 23255 (15% of total cost) 2333010 Bank loan (85% of Say 131776 total cost) 131700ANNEXURE VI (contd)B TECHNO ECONOMIC PARAMETERSi Animals will be purchased in two batches at an interval of 5-6 monthsii Second/Third lactation animals within 30 days of calving will be purchased in first yeariii No. of acres of irrigated land for fodder 2 production considered in the project. Green fodder will be produced on the farm. Fodder production expenses is considered in the cash flow analysis. During first year only two seasons are considered.
  • iv In the first year the fodder production expenses 3,000 are capitalised for one season (Rs. per acre per season) and manure is utilised for fodder productionv It is assumed that the expenditure on calf rearing will nullify the income realised from its sale. However, the heifer will be retained on the farm and the old animals will be sold out.vi No. of milch animals 10vii Cost of milch animals 8,200viii Transportation cost (Rs. per milch animal 300 including followers)ix Civil structures: a) Shed (sft. per milch animal) 65 b) Store and office (sft) 200x Cost of construction 55 a) Shed (Rs. per sft) 100 b) Store and officexi Cost of equipment (Rs per milch animals) 500xii Lactation period (days) 280xiii Dry period (days) 150xiv Milk yield (lts/day) 7xv Sale price of milk (Rs/lt) 7.75xvi Income from sale of gunny bags (20 bags/tonne 100 @ Rs.5/bag)xvii Expenditure on dry fodder for dry and lactation 5 period requirement (kg/day) 0.5 Cost (Rs/kg)xviii Expenditure on concentrates 4.5 a) Requirement (kg/day) 1
  • Lactation period 3.3 Dry period b) Cost (Rs/kg)xix Veterinary aid/animal/year (Rs) 150xx Labour (Rs./month) 900xxi Insurance premium (%) 4xxii Cost of electricity, water & other overheads 200 (Rs/animal)xxiii Depreciation(%) 5 a) Sheds 10 b) Equipmentxxiv Value of closing stock 4,100xxv Interest rate(%) 13.5xxvi Repayment period (years) 5ANNEXURE VI (Contd.)C. Lactation ChartS.No Particulars I II Years IV V IIII Lactation Daysa) First batch 1,250 1,400 1,250 1,050 1,050b) Second batch 900 1,050 1,050 1,050 1,050 Total 2,150 2,450 2,300 2,100 2,100II Dry daysa) First batch 550 400 550 750 750 Second batch - 750 750 750 750
  • Total 550 1,150 1,300 1,500 1,500D CASH FLOW ANALYSISSr.No Particulars I II Year IV IV IIII Costs1 Capital cost* 145,7502 Recurring costa) Green fodder 12,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 raising expensesb) Feeding during lactation period Dry fodder 5,375 6,125 5,750 5,250 5,250 Concentrate 31,928 36,383 34,155 31,185 31,185 Total 37,303 42,508 39,905 36,435 36,435c) Feeding during dry period Dry Fodder 1,375 2,875 3,250 3,750 3,750 Concentrate 1,815 3,795 4,290 4,950 4,950 Total 3,190 6,670 7,540 8,700 8,700d) Veterinary aid & 1,125 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 breeding covere) Cost of electricity 1,500 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 & waterf) Insurance 3,280 3,280 3,280 3,280 3,280g) Labour cost 10,800 10,800 10,800 10,800 10,800 Total 188,868 52,678 50,945 49,503 48,635II BENEFITSa) Sale of milk 116,637 132,912 124,775 113,925 113,925b) Sale of Gunny 1,023 1,218 1,165 1,095 1,095
  • bagsc) Depreciated - 26,813 value of shedsd) Depreciated 2,500 value of equipmentse) Closing stock 41,000 value Total 117,660 134,130 125,940 115,020 185,333III DF @ 15% 0.87 0.76 0.66 0.57 0.50IV DISCOUNTED 164,233 39,832 33,497 28,303 24,180 290,045 COSTS AT 15%V DISCOUNTED 102,313 101,422 82,808 65,763 92,143 444,448 BENEFITS AT 15%VI NPW @ 15% 154,403VII BCR @ 15% 1.53:1VIII DF @ 50% 0.667 0.444 0.296 0.198 0.132IX NET BENEFITS -71,208 81,453 74,995 65,518 136,698X DISCOUNTED 47,472 36,201 22,221 12,942 18,001 41,893 NET BENEFITS AT 50%XI IRR >50* excludes the capitalised cost for fodder raising for three months andinsurance for one yearE REPAYMENT SCHEDULE:Bank Loan (Rs) - 131700Interest rate(%) - 13.5Capital recovery factor - 0.287(inRs.)
  • Year Income Expenses Gross Equated Net surplus surplus annual installmentI 117,660 33,838 83,823 37,798 46,025II 134,130 52,678 81,453 37,798 43,655III 125,940 50,945 74,995 37,798 47,197IV 115,020 49,503 65,518 37,798 27,720V 115,020 48,635 66,385 37,798 28,587Annexure - VIIHousing Space Requirements for Crossbred cattleAge-group Manger Space (mtr.) Standing or covered Open area (sq.mtr.) Space(sq.mtr.)4-6 months 0.2-0.3 0.8-1.0 3.0-4.06-12 months 0.3-0.4 1.2-1.6 5.0-6.01-2 years 0.4-0.5 1.6-1.8 6.0-8.0Cows 0.8-1.0 1.8-2.0 11.0-12.0Pregnant cows 1.0-1.2 8.5-10.0 15.0-20.0Bulls* 1.0-1.2 9.0-11.0 20.0-22.0*To be housed individuallyAnnexure - VIIIFeeding Schedules for Dairy Animals(Quantity in Kgs.)S.No. Type of animal Feeding Green Dry Fodder Concentrate during Fodder1 2 3 4 5 6(A) CROSSBRED COW
  • a) 6 to 7 litres milk per day Lactation days 20 to 25 5 to 6 3.0 to 3.5 Dry days 15 to 20 6 to 7 0.5 to 1.0b) 8 to 10 litres milk per Lactation days 25 to 30 4 to 5 4.0 to 4.5 day Dry days 20 to 25 6 to 7 0.5 to 1.0(B) BUFFALOESa) Murrah (7 to 8 litres Lactation days 25 to 30 4 to 5 3.5 to 4.0 milk per day) Dry days 20 to 25 5 to 6 0.5 to 1.0b) Mehasana (6 to 7 litres Lactation days 15 to 20 4 to 5 3.0 to 3.5 milk per day) Dry days 10 to 15 5 to 6 0.5 to 1.0c) Surti (5 to 6 litrs milk Lactation days 10 to 15 4 to 5 2.5 to 3.0 per day) Dry days 5 to 10 5 to 6 0.5 to 1.0Annexure - IXProgramme for vaccination of farm animals against contagious diseasesSr. Name of disease Type of vaccine Type of Duration Remarks vaccinatio ofNo n immunit. y1 2 3 4 5 61 Anthrax (Gorhi) Spore vaccine Once in an One - year season premonsoo n vaccination2 Black Quarter (Sujab) Killed vaccine - do - - do - -3 HaemorrhagicSepticaemi Ocladjuvant - do - - do - - a (Galghotu) vaccine4 Brucellosis (Contagious Cotton strain 19 At about 6 3 or 4 To be abortion) (live bacteria) months of calvings done only age in infected herds
  • 5 Foot and Mouth disease Polyvalent tissue At about 6 One After (Muhkhar) culture vaccine months of season vaccinatio age with n repeat booster vaccinatio dose 4 n every months year in later Oct./Nov.6 Rinderpest (Mata) Lapinisedavianise At about 6 Life long It is better d vaccine for months of to repeat exotic and age after 3 to crossbred catte, 4 years caprinised vaccine for zebu cattle.. IntroductionDairying is an important source of subsidiary income to small/marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. Themanure from animals provides a good source of organic matter for improving soil fertility and crop yields. The gobargas from the dung is used as fuel for domestic purposes as also for running engines for drawing water from well. Thesurplus fodder and agricultural by-products are gainfully utilised for feeding the animals. Almost all draught power forfarm operations and transportation is supplied by bullocks. Since agriculture is mostly seasonal, there is a possibilityof finding employment throughout the year for many persons through dairy farming. Thus, dairy also providesemployment throughout the year. The main beneficiaries of dairy programmes are small/marginal farmers andlandless labourers.2. Scope for Dairy Farming and its National Importance.The total milk production in the country for the year 2008-09 was estimated at 108.5 million metric tonnes and thedemand is expected to be 180 million tonnes by 2020. To achieve this demand annual growth rate in milk productionhas to be increased from the present 2.5 % to 5% . Thus, there is a tremendous scope/potential for increasing themilk production through profitable dairy farming.3.Financial Assistance Available from Banks/NABARD for Dairy Farming.3.1. Loan from banks with refinance facility from NABARD is available for starting dairy farming.For obtaining bank loan, the farmers should apply to the nearest branch of a commercial bank, regional rural bank orco-operative bank in their area in the prescribed application form which is available in the branches of financingbanks.3.2. For dairy schemes with very large outlays, detailed project reports will have to be prepared.The items of finance would include capital asset items such as purchase of milch animals, construction of sheds,purchase of equipments etc. The feeding cost during the initial period of one/two months is capitalised and given asterm loan. Cost towards land development, fencing, digging of well, commissioning of diesel engine/pumpset,electricity connections, essential servants quarters, godown, transport vehicle, milk processing facilities etc. can beconsidered for loan. Cost of land is not considered for loan.4.Scheme Formulation for bank loan4.1 A Scheme can be prepared by a beneficiary after consulting local technical persons of State AnimalHusbandry Department, DRDA, Dairy Co-operative Society / Union / Federation / commercial dairy farmers. Ifpossible, the beneficiaries should also visit progressive dairy farms and government / military / agricultural universitydairy farms in the vicinity and discuss the profitability of dairy farming. A good practical training and experience indairy farming will be highly desirable. The dairy co-operative societies, if existing in the villages would provide allsupporting facilities particularly for marketing of fluid milk. Nearness of dairy farm to such a society, veterinary aidcentre, artificial insemination centre should be ensured. There is a good demand for milk, if the dairy farm is locatednear urban centre.
  • 4.2 The scheme should include information on land, livestock markets,availability of water, feeds, fodder,veterinary aid, breeding facilities, marketing aspects, training facilities, experience of the farmer and the type ofassistance available from State Government, dairy society/union/federation.4.3 The scheme should also include information on the number and types of animals to be purchased, theirbreed, production performance, cost and other relevant input and output costs with their description. Basedon this, the total cost of the project, margin money to be provided by the beneficiary, requirement of bank loan,estimated annual expenditure, income, profit and loss statement, repayment period, etc. can be worked out andshown in the Project report. A format developed for formulation of project report for a dairy farm is given as AnnexureI.5.Scrutiny of Schemes by banks.The scheme so formulated should be submitted to the nearest branch of the bank. The banks officer can assist inpreparation of the scheme or filling in the prescribed application form. The bank will then examine the scheme for itstechnical feasibility and economic viability.(A) Technical Feasibility - this would briefly include -1. Nearness of the selected area to veterinary, breeding and milk collection centre and the financing banks branch.2. Availability of good quality animals in nearby livestock market3. Availability of training facilities.4.Availability of good grazing ground/lands.5.Availability of Green/dry fodder, concentrate feed, medicines etc.6.Availability of veterinary aid / breeding centres and milk marketing facilities near the scheme area.(B) Economic Viability - this would briefly include -1. Unit Cost2. Input cost for feed and fodder, veterinary aid, breeding of animals, insurance, labour and other overheads.3.Output costs i.e. sale price of milk, manure, gunny bags, male/female calves, other miscellaneous items etc.4.Income-expenditure statement and annual gross surplus.5.Cash flow analysis.6. Repayment schedule (i.e. repayment of principal loan amount and interest).Other documents such as loan application form, security aspects, margin money requirements etc. are alsoexamined. A field visit to the scheme area is undertaken for conducting a techno-economic feasibility study forappraisal of the scheme.6.Sanction of Bank Loan and its Disbursement.After ensuring technical feasibility and economic viability, the scheme is sanctioned by the bank. The loan isdisbursed in kind in 2 to 3 stages against creation of specific assets such as construction of sheds, purchase ofequipments and machinery, purchase of animals and recurring cost on purchase of feeds/fodders for the initial periodof one/two months. The end use of the funds is verified and constant follow-up is done by the bank.7.Lending terms - General7.1OutlayOutlay of the project depends on the local conditions, unit size and the components included in the project. Prevailingmarket prices may be considered to arrive at the outlay.7.2 Margin Money:Margin depends on the category of the borrowers and range from 5 to 25%.7.3 Interest Rate for ultimate borrower :Banks are free to decide the rates of interest within the overall guidelines. However, for working out the financialviability and bankability of the model projects we have assumed the rate of interest as 12 % p.a.7.4 SecuritySecurity will be as per NABARD/RBI guidelines issued from time to time.7.5 Repayment period of loanRepayment period depends upon the gross surplus in the scheme. The loan will be repaid in suitablemonthly/quarterly instalments usually within a period of five to seven years.
  • 7.6InsuranceThe animals and capital assets may be insured annually or on long term master policy, where ever it is applicable.A model project with 10 buffaloes is given as Annexure II. This is indicative and the applicable input and output costsas also the parameters observed at the field level may be incorporated. Annexure I FORMAT FOR PROJECT REPORT PREPARATION - DAIRY FARM1. GENERALi) Nature and objectives of the proposed schemeii) Details of proposed investmentsiii) Specification of the project areaiv) Name of the financing bank branchv) Status of beneficiary:(individual/Partnership/Company/Corporation/Co-operative Society / Others)vi) Details of borrowers profile(a) Capability(b) Experience(c) Financial Soundness(d) Technical/Other special Qualifications(e) Technical/Managerial Staff and adequacy thereof2. TECHNICAL ASPECTS :a) Location, Land and Land Development :i) Location details of the projectii) Total Area of land and its costiii) Site mapiv) Particulars of land development, fencing, gates, etc.b) Civil Structures :Detailed cost estimates along with measurements of various civil structures- Sheds- Store room- Milk room- Quarters, etc.c) Equipment/Plant and Machinery :i) Chaff cutterii) Silo pitiii) Milking machineiv) Feed grinder and mixerv) Milking pails/milk cansvi) Biogas plantvii) Bulk coolersviii)Equipment for manufacture of productsix) Truck/van (price quotations for the above equipments)d) Housing :i) Type of housingii) Area requirement- Adults- Heifers (1-3 years)- Calves (less than 1 year)e) Animals :i) Proposed speciesii) Proposed breediii) Source of purchaseiv) Place of purchasev) Distance (km.)
  • vi) Cost of animal (Rs.)f) Production parameters :i) Order of lactationii) Milk yield (ltrs. per day)iii) Lactation daysiv) Dry daysv) Conception ratevi) Mortality(%)- Adults- Young stockg) Herd projection (with all assumptions) :h) Feeding :i) Source of fodder and feed - Green fodder- Dry fodder- Concentratesii) Fodder crop rotations- Kharif- Rabi- Summeriii) Fodder cultivation expensesiv) Requirement and costs :Quantity required (kg./day) Cost(Rs. / Kg) Lactation Dry Period Young StockGreen FodderDry FodderConcentratesi) Breeding Facilities :i) Source :ii) Location :iii) Distance (km.) :iv) Availability of semen :v) Availability of staff :vi) Expenditure per animal/yearj) Veterinary Aid :i) Sourceii) Locationiii) Distance (km.)iv) Availability of labour and other staffv) Types of facilities availablevi) If own arrangements are made -a) Employed a veterinary doctor/stockman/consultantb) Periodicity of visitc) Amount paid/visit (Rs.)vii)Expenditure per animal per year (Rs.)k) Electricity :i) Sourceii) Approval from SEBiii) Connected loadiv) Problems of power failurev) Arrangements for generatorl) Water :i) Source
  • ii) Quality of wateriii) Availability of sufficient quantity for drinking, cleaning and fodder productioniv) If investment has to be made, type of structure, design and costm) Marketing of milk :i) Source of salesii) Place of disposaliii) Distance (km.)iv) Price realised - (Rs. per liter of milk)v) Basis of paymentvi) Periodicity of paymentn) Marketing of other products :i) Animal - age- place of sale- price expectedii) Manure - Qty./animalPrice/unit (Rs.)iii) Empty gunny bags- Number- Cost/bag (Rs.)o) Beneficiarys experience :p) Comments on technical feasibility :q) Government restrictions, if any :3. FINANCIAL ASPECTS :i) Project Cost Sr. Item Physical Unit and Specification Cost (Rs.) No. Capital Costs Total Capital Costs(A) Recurring Costs Total Recurring Costs (B) Total Project Cost (A+B)ii) Down payment/margin/subsidy (Indicate source & extent of subsidy):iii) Financial viability (comment on the cash flow projection on a farm model/unit and enclose the same.)Particulars :a) Internal Rate of Return (IRR) :b) Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) :c) Net Present Worth (NPW) :iv) Financial position of the borrowers (to be furnished in case of corporate bodies/partnership firms)a) Profitability Ratio :i) GP Ratioii) NP Ratiob) Debt Equity Ratio :c) Whether Income Tax & other tax obligations are paid upto date :
  • d) Whether audit is upto date (enclose copies of audited financial statements for the last three years)v) Lending Terms :i) Rate of Interest :ii) Grace Period :iii) Repayment Period :iv) Nature of Security :v) Availability of Government guarantee wherever necessary :4. INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES :a) Availability of technical staff with bank/implementing authority for monitoringb) Details of -i) technical guidanceii) training facilitiesiii) Govt. support /extension supportc) Tie-up arrangements with marketing agencies for loan recoveryd) Insurance -- Type of policy- Periodicity- Rate of premiume) Whether any subsidy is available, if so amount per unitf) Arrangements for supply of green fodder and cattle feed Model Unit Cost and Economics of a 10 Buffalo UnitA. Project Cost Rs.Cost of milch animals including transportation cost : 330000Cost of construction of shed for adult animals : 60000Cost of construction of shed for calves : 20000Cost of chaff cutter : 50000Cost of equipment : 10000Capital cost : 470000Cost of concentrate feed for first batch for first month : 4800Cost of fodder cultivation in 2 acres : 9000Insurance of first batch of milch animals : 16000Recurring cost : 29800Total cost : 499800or say : 500000Margin (15%) : 75000Bank Loan : 425000B. Techno economic parametersType of Animal : Graded Murrah BuffaloNo. of Animals : 10Cost of Animal (Rs./animal) : 32000Transportation Cost/Animal : 1000Average Milk Yield (litre/day) : 8Floor space (sqft) per adult animal : 60Floor space (sqft) per calf : 20Cost of construction per sqft (Rs.) : 100Cost of chaff cutter (power operated) (Rs.) : 50000
  • Cost of equipment per animal (Rs.) : 1000Cost of fodder cultivation (Rs./acre/season) : 4500Insurance premium (% per annum) : 5Veterinary aid/animal/ year (Rs.) : 250Cost of concentrate feed (Rs./kg) : 8Cost of dry fodder (Rs./kg) : 1.50No. of labourers : 1Salary of labourer per month (Rs.) : 3000Cost of electricity and water/animal/year (Rs.) : 150Margin (%) : 15Rate of interest (%) : 12Repayment period (years) : 7Selling price of milk/litre (Rs./kg) : 16.50Sale price of gunny bags (Rs. per bag) : 10Lactation days : 270Dry days : 150 Freshly calved animals in 1st or 2nd lactation are purchased in two batches of five animals each at an interval of 5 to 6 months. Cost of rearing calves not considered as it will be nullified by their sale value or retention value. Fodder cultivation considered in two acres and working capital for one crop / season considered. Two crops considered per year.Manure utilised for fodder cultivation.Feeding Schedule Per Day Lactation Dry Price (Rs.) Qty. (kg) Cost Per Day Qty. (kg) Cost Per Day (Rs.) (Rs.)Concentrate Feed 8.00 4 32.00 1 8.00Green Fodder Home grown 25 0.00 20 0.00Dry Fodder 1.50 4 6.00 5 7.50Total 38.00 15.50Lactation Chart Years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Lactation Days 2100 2425 2425 2425 2200 2425 2425Dry Days 625 1225 1225 1425 1450 1225 1075Gunny Bags available for sale 171 208 208 196 195 200 195C. Economics Particulars Years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Sale of Milk 277200 320100 320100 293700 290400 320100 320100Sale of Gunny bags 1710 2080 2080 1960 1950 2000 1950Total 278910 322180 322180 295660 292350 322100 322050
  • Cost of feeding during lactation 79800 92150 92150 84550 83600 92150 92150Cost of feeding during dry period 9690 18990 18990 22090 22480 18990 16660Cost of fodder cultivation 18000 18000 18000 18000 18000 18000 18000Veterinary aid and breeding charges 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500Labour charges 36000 36000 36000 36000 36000 36000 36000Electricity and misc. charges 750 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500Insurance charges 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000 16000Total 162740 185140 185140 180640 180080 185140 182810Surplus 145970 137040 137040 115020 112270 136960 139240D. Calculation of BCR and IRR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7Capital Costs 470000Recurring Cost 162740 185140 185140 180640 180080 185140 182810Total Costs 632740 185140 185140 180640 180080 185140 182810Benefit 278910 322180 322180 295660 292350 322100 322050Net Benefit -353830 137040 137040 115020 112270 136960 139240PW Costs @ 15% 1153513PW Benefits @ 15% 1272701NPW 119187.8B.C. Ratio 1.10 : 1I.R.R. (%) 28.66E. Repayment schedule Year Loan Outstanding Gross Surplus Interest Principal Total Repayment Surplus 1 425000 145970 51000 51200 102200 43770 2 373800 137040 44856 51044 95900 41140 3 322756 137040 38731 57169 95900 41140 4 265587 115020 31870 48630 80500 34520 5 216957 112270 26035 52565 78600 33670 6 164392 136960 19727 76173 95900 41060 7 88219 139240 10586 88219 98805 40435
  • Introduction, Background, Planning and Housing Gordon King, Department of Animal & Poultry Science, University of Guelph Perhaps 11,000 or 12,000 years ago humans first domesticated small ruminants as a convenient means of meeting immediate needs for food and eventually with additional contributions toward clothing and transport. Exploitation of animals for dairy purposes was a much later innovation. Mammalian females usually produce only sufficient milk for their own offspring and resist actively whenever others attempt to obtain some. Somewhere back in antiquity farmers found they could obtain small amounts of milkfrom lactating females after natural suckling stimulated the "milk-let-down" reflex.Animal domestication and selection progressed to the point where the sight, smell andsound of the young animal was sufficient to initiate this reflex in a few and later inmore females. Throughout most of human history, however, dairy products remainedrare and expensive, available only during very limited seasons of the year as asecondary output from dual-purpose animals.We now know that the "milk-let-down"reflex is a conditioned response thatfarmers have exploited since at least thetime of the Sumarianculture (circa 3,000 BCE). Over aconsiderable period and through aprocess of gradual adaptation andselection, more females were conditionedto let-down milk in response to a variety
  • of auditory sounds and tactile sensations, eventually even in the absence of theiryoung. Thus, we now have breeds of cattle, buffalo, goats and sheep in which the let-down reflex requires only the mildest environmental stimuli. This behavioral changeoccurred in conjunction with selection for greater production so dairy breeds nowyield much more milk than would be necessary for nutrition of their offspring. Dairyproducts eventually became a staple food in many cultures, providing opportunity foran additional livestock commodity and the future development of specializedproduction systems.The major breeds of dairy cattle found on specialized dairy farms throughout much ofthe world are Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Gurnsey, Jersey and Holstein, with the latterpredominating in many regions. Background information on these and many otherbreeds is available from the Department of Animal Science at Oklahoma StateUniversity.World Milk Production, 1996 Metric tonnes x 106Cow milk 472Buffalo milk 51Goat milk 10Sheep milk 7.5Camel milk 1.3Very small quantities from mares & yaks.FAOSTAT Database, 1996.General Management Planning For Dairy HerdsAs pointed out in the section covering Animals and Environments, all living organismsreceive and can respond to stimuli. Anything other than the very mildest of stimuliresults in responses in the recipient animal. In most instances even a mild stimulus
  • produces stress and provokes a physiological response. Animals usually adapt toalmost all stress and maintain internal body conditions within normal ranges. Highmilk production, like world class athletic performance, demands near maximumfunction from all body systems. Such intense activity would undoubtedly besomewhat stressful. However, human competitors seem to derive more gratificationthan suffering from their exertions. Certainly, human attitudes and responses shouldnot be directly translated into animal terms but we have no factual basis to equatehigh performance by any livestock with discomfort or abuse. Perhaps an appropriategoal for both athletic trainers and individuals supervising high producing animalswould be to devise programs that prevent stress from becoming distress. On dairyfarms this implies appropriate housing, feeding, milking, mating and diseaseprevention procedures.A large proportion of the production depressing problems encountered in dairy herdsresult from management deficiencies. Many of these can be avoided through soundplanning and conscientious attention to detail but this will not happen if just left tochance. The initial step in planning a new or reorganizing an existing livestockenterprise should be the establishment of a production goal that is set high enough toprovide challenge, but low enough to be achievable. Whenever herds produce forcommercial markets, this goal should represent the projected value of output thatwould be sufficient to exceed all predicted fixed and variable operating costs likely tobe incurred through operation of the unit and to provide a reasonable profit. Once thisis decided herd operators should consult with their veterinarians and other advisors todevise an entire series of specific objectives, covering each step in the productionprocess, that must be attained to have reasonable expectations of meeting the outputgoal. These should include projected age at first calving, average productivity forfemales in various age groups, acceptable somatic cell counts, desirable reproductiveperformance and the replacement rate. Other more specific objectives might be tokeep the percentage of females with clinical or subclinical mastitis, prolongedpostpartum acyclicity, reproductive problems, dystocia or other clinical diseasesbelow a reasonable number. Through this process a series of acceptable minimumstandards can be described for each phase of the operation. These represent the bestcurrent estimates of where output returns will be affected so they may no longer coverinput costs, indicating corrective actions are necessary.The adoption of a positive animal identification method and a simple butcomprehensive recording system are important components of the planning exercise.Current resources must be examined to determine if these are adequate or requireadditional supplementation to provide a reasonable expectation of reaching the output
  • goal. Existing stock must be of sufficient quantity and quality to produce theanticipated yield or replacements must be procured. The physical facility should alsobe assessed to determine if this is sufficient in its present form or if modifications areneeded to allow efficient production. Attention must be given to available labor,deciding whether the current staff are qualified and adequate.Once the resources have been evaluated and judged acceptable in their existing ormodified form, a specific operating system can be formulated. Attention must be paidto all aspects of animal related activities such as selection, feeding, mating, parturitionand disease prevention. The nutrition program should cover both the quantity andquality of feed for animals of various ages and production stages in conjunction withregular monitoring through condition scoring. Procedures for disease prevention,sanitation and monitoring udder health, estrous detection, mating, fertility monitoring,pregnancy checking and parturition must be detailed with specific responsibilitiesassigned to individuals who are held accountable for performance. A series ofmeaningful but achievable production-related bonuses provide excellent incentives tomotivate both managers and animal attendants to do their best at all timesA Generalized Dairy Production SequenceA complete dairy production sequence involves a number of stages including:i) heifers growing to reach sexual maturityii) mating and conception to initiate pregnancyiii) progression through gestationiv) parturition which initiates lactation
  • v) the actual lactation during which the cow is rematedvi) a dry period to prepare for thenext lactationThe main goal of any dairy herd is toproduce milk as conveniently andeconomically as possible. Since thebovine gestation period is ninemonths long and cows require apostpartum recovery period ofseveral months before initiatinganother pregnancy, it is convenient toplan around a yearly calving interval.Ideally, cows would lactate for aboutten months followed by a two monthdry period, as illustrated in the accompanying figure. They should be rematedsuccessfully during the first third of lactation, progress through another gestation andcalve again to initiate another lactation. However, even with reasonable management,a substantial number of animals fail to conceive as anticipated so calving intervalsexceed twelve months. Failure to achieve a twelve month calving interval is notdisastrous since almost all improved dairy cows produce reasonable quantities of milkfor longer than ten months. Thus, although daily yields are considerably below peakamounts, they still return something over feed and maintenance costs. The actualcalving interval for most herds with reasonable standards of management will usuallyrange between 12.5 and 15 mo. Once the interval extends beyond this duration, mostcows in the herd spend too much time in the lower portions of the lactation curvewhere the margin over feed costs is minimal or even negative. Also, in such instances,the average milk and offspring production per day of herd life is lower.Dairy farmers seek consistently for methods to improve production efficiency (milkper unit of feed or per hectare of land cultivated) since, with high efficiency, thenutrients used for maintenance constitute a smaller proportion of the total intake. Thisrequires close attention to the composition of diet for each production group, plus themethod and frequency of feeding. Various procedures exist which are reported toenhance milk production (see following table). Each must be evaluated forconvenience, cost effectiveness and effect on animals and animal attendants beforeany are adopted.
  • Production Enhancing Procedure % increase in yield Proper prestimulation (40 - 60") 5 - 10 Stripping 6-9 Three times milking 12 - 20 Four times milking 15 - 25 Extended lighting 5 - 10 rbST 5 - 20 Rumensin 5 - 10Dairy producers should establish an operational plan for each phase that, if exercisedproperly, provides a reasonable chance of achieving the production goals. Thisinvolves: 1. assigning specific responsibilities to individuals for each key area and insuring the people understand their duties and that they will be held accountable for performance. 2. formulating a set of minimally acceptable standards 3. initiating a performance monitoring system 4. deciding how frequently the performance will be evaluated 5. generating a mechanism for initiating corrective action as necessarySuggestions for minimally acceptable standards (herd goals):Production: sufficient size and maturity to breed by 15 mo of age first calving, 24 - 25.5 mo of age standards for each lactation age (individual preferences) breeding and replacement policies (individual preferences)Milking:
  • routine (must match facility) drying off procedure (individual preferences) sampling for somatic-cell-counts (< 200,000)Health: - work with DVM with particular attention to sanitation vaccinations routine examinations udder health mortality, birth to first calving < 5% cow mortality < 2%Reproduction: mean interval to first AI, < 75 days estrus detection rate, 55 to 90 days, > 75% of eligible cows return detection rate, 15 to 30 days post mating, > 75% pregnancy rate to first AI, 50% services per pregnancy, < 2 calving interval, < 14 mo days open, < 135View a typical life history for a dairy cow.Housing for Dairy CattleThe only absolutely essential inputsnecessary for dairying are a lactatingfemale and some sort of container to holdher milk. In practice, however, therequirements are almost alwayssubstantially more elaborate.Some climates allow almost totally pasturebased dairying with little or no need forshelter. In semi-arid, tropical regions it isonly necessary to provide protection fromsevere solar radiation or, occasionally,
  • from flooding during rainy seasons. In contrast, most of Canada, like many othertemperate climate regions, experiences severe winter cold. Thus, dairy cattle may beallowed to graze on pasture during late spring, summer and part of the fall, but arethen confined during the colder months. Although this mixture of grazing andconfinement is still common, some herds are confined totally throughout the entireyear.Because natural conditions seldom maintain cattle within their comfortzones throughout all seasons of the year., shelters are usually necessary to protectanimals from inclement weather. Appropriate confinement facilities protect both theanimals and animal attendants from temperature extremes and potentially hazardousconditions. To accomplish this all animal holding units should provide for supervisionand ease of handling during at all times, including feeding, milking, breeding,parturition and health protection activities. In addition, any confinement facility mustbe constructed and operated to meet the legal requirements for preservation of productquality and to ensure that animals are always treated humanely.The current economic conditions in many regions compel livestock producers toreduce production expenses wherever possible. Since conventional dairybarnsrepresent substantial fixed cost for there initial construction, for carrying chargesand for depreciation, dairy operators who intend to replace existing or add additionalfacilities seek for less expensive alternatives. In temperate climate regions most newconstructions are now modified pole, arched steel or fabric covered enclosures ratherthan the traditional barn with extensive feed storage and handling space built above aheavily reinforced livestock stable. Confinement housing can be in tie stallbarns where neck chains or collars restrain each cow in her own space for most or allof the day and night. Alternately, cows might be housed in free stall barns or loosehousing units where animals can move about in the passage or exercise areas andenter into comfort stalls or resting areas whenever they choose.Advantages and Disadvantages of Tie Stall HousingAdvantages Disadvantagescleaner cows tying and untying difficultiesindividual attention for all animals reduced opportunity for exercisereadily mechanized labor intensive if not mechanizedcomfortable for most chores stooping to milk
  • economical and practical, particularly for smaller less opportunity for choice, more criticism fromherds animal welfare groupsAdvantages and Disadvantages of Free Stall HousingAdvantages Disadvantageseconomical operating costs expensive construction costsreadily mechanized less individual attentionanimals exercised regularly more competitionsome flexibility in organizing different dirtier cows if improperly designed or operatedmanagement-feeding groupsMost livestock constraint facilities are built for the convenience of human operatorsrather than for the benefit of animals under their care. Free-stall housing for dairycattle can be an exception, allowing the animal occupants choice to move freelybetween resting, feeding and watering areas. Particular consideration must be given tothe milking area; footing; manger and watering space; stall construction, size andbedding material; manure handling and facilities for moving animals. Attention toproper design, construction and daily operation should provide a minimal stressenvironment for healthy, clean and productive cows. Check out the DairyManagement Factsheet from the University of Alberta for additional ideas on free-stall design and bedding.Additional housing, either combined with or separated from the primary facility forkeeping the milking cows, is necessary for females at calving time, for young calves(either indoor or outdoor), for growing heifers and for dry cows. Again these unitsmust be suited to the climatic conditions prevalent in the region so they protectanimals from extremes of both heat and cold.Special precautions must be afforded to very young calves since they do not yet havefunctional rumens so do not generate the large amounts of body hear fromfermentation that are typical of older ruminants. Thus, some form of specializedhousing is necessary to protect them from severe cold or drafts. Various indoor andoutdoor systems are available.
  • Regardless of the age or production stage, the principal objective of all housing shouldbe the comfort or well-being of the animals. Comfort affects directly the feed intake,fertility, longevity, health and production of each animal. Farmers who neglectanimals or fail to provide housing conditions that satisfy sound animal welfareconsiderations cannot operate effectively and should find some other employment.Click here to obtain more information on feeding, health and reproduction in dairyherds.