Dairy farming activities

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Dairy farming activities

  1. 1. Dairy Farming ActivitiesScience Centres: Freshwater and Estuaries, TeKūwahaDairy farms operate to maximise milk production.Milk productionDairy farms are either seasonal (spring-autumn) or town supply (year round) operations. Expansion of the dairyindustry over the last 20-30 years is largely due to the rapid conversion of dry stock and forestry land to dairying aswell as the intensification of farming methods that has led to an increase in stocking rates (cows per hectare).During the milking season, cows are usually milked twice a day. During milking, animal waste (dairy effluent) thataccumulates in the milking shed and yard is washed down with high pressure hoses and collected in oxidation ponds.This effluent may also contain other elements, such as spilled milk, soil, animal feed, detergents, and other chemicals(i.e., residue from animal health products such as drenches and antibiotics). Dairy effluent contains organic andinorganic nutrients (especially nitrogen and phosphorous) and contaminants (e.g., pathogens and sediment ), whichall have the potential to impact on water quality and mahingakai if not disposed of correctly.Dairy effluent cannot be discharged to water directly and needs to be disposed of either by:1. Settling effluent in an oxidation pond, then spreading onto land.2. Irrigating dairy shed effluent directly onto land.Soil and pasture managementThe greatest on-farm contribution of nutrients and pathogens into waterways comes from animal faecal matter andurine. Animals with open access to waterways or that cross streams are especially likely to increase nutrients andpathogens into a stream. During times of heavy rain, waste can wash into waterways via surface runoff frompaddocks or tracks and roads. Waterways become especially prone to increased nutrients from faecal matter andfertilisers when there are no fences or riparian vegetation, which exclude stock from waterways and absorb excessnutrients in the runoff.Increasing the number of cows per hectare (overstocking) to maximise production may have detrimental effects onsoil structure (compaction, pugging, and trampling damage), drainage, and productivity, especially when soils areprone to flooding and erosion around waterways, which increases runoff of sediment and associated nutrients. Whenapplying fertilisers, a nutrient budget may be used to calculate the impact of nutrient use and flows within a farm (asfertiliser, effluent, supplements, or transfer by animals). The type of fertilisers used and the grasses and crops grownwill also influence overall productivity and environmental impacts.The application of herbicides to control weeds (ragwort, thistles, and gorse) is common on all farms (dairy, dry stock,or arable). Excess spray residue accumulates and binds to sediment particles which may end up in waterways via
  2. 2. runoff or by directly spraying around waterways. The toxicity of these chemical contaminants depends on the typeand quantity that are applied.Water take (irrigation and abstraction)Some farms rely on water take or abstraction for irrigation of pasture and crops. Irrigation systems may be permanentor semi-permanent, including pop-up systems, fixed above ground, drip and micro systems, and pivot or laterallymoving machines.Irrigated water should be applied to match the needs of the pasture and crops grown, otherwise any excess will belost to groundwater. Irrigation may increase the risk of fertiliser runoff or nutrient leaching which can lead to thesubsequent contamination of stream water, in particular nitrate leaching. However, the most damaging effectof irrigation can be taking too much water and not leaving enough for mahingakai habitat. Pesticides and herbicidesin waterways are often also associated with cropping or horticultural activity.Farm management and animal healthKeeping good records enables well-informed decisions to be made during the year. Time of calving, shearing,addressing and preventing animal health issues, proper hygiene around sheds, waste disposal, and disease controlall contribute to and reduce environmental risks.Hot spots that are likely to contain concentrations of chemicals and effluent, and therefore require carefulconsideration/control measures, include:Chemical spray storage sheds.Chemical spray equipment wash down areas.Bulk fuel storage.Uncontrolled dumping or land filling of chemical containers or other waste products.Offal pits for animal carcasses and farm waste.Silage pits.Animals crossing streams.Runoff of faecal matter from tracks and roads into streams.Dipping and drenching yards.DAIRY FARMING FOR SMALL FARMER1. Why do Dairy Farming ?
  3. 3. 1.1 Dairying is an important source of subsidiary income to small/marginalfarmers and agricultural labourers. The manure from animals provides a goodsource of organic matter for improving soil fertility and crop yields. The gobergas from the dung is used as fuel for domestic purposes as also for runningengines for drawing water from well. The surplus fodder and agricultural by-products are gainfully utilised for feeding the animals. Almost all draughtpower for farm operations and transportation is supplied by bullocks. Sinceagriculture is mostly seasonal, there is a possibility of finding employmentthroughout the year for many persons through dairy farming. Thus, dairy alsoprovides employment throughout the year. The main beneficiaries of dairyprogrammes are small/marginal farmers and landless labourers. A farmer canearn a gross surplus of about Rs. 12,000 per year from a unit consisting of 2milking buffaloes. The capital investment required for purchase of 2 buffaloesis Rs. 18,223/-. Even after paying a sum of Rs. 4294/- per annum towardsrepayment of the loan and interest the farmer can earn a net surplus of Rs.6000 - 9000/- approximately per year. (For details see model schemeenclosed). Even more profits can be earned depending upon the breed ofanimal, managerial skills and marketing potential.1.2 According to World Bank estimates about 75 per cent of Indias 940 millionpeople are in 5.87 million villages, cultivating over 145 million hectares ofcropland. Average farm size is about 1.66 hectares. Among 70 million ruralhouseholds, 42 per cent operate upto 2 hectares and 37 per cent are landlesshouseholds. These landless and small farmers have in their possession 53per cent of the animals and produce 51 per cent of the milk. Thus,small/marginal farmers and land less agricultural labourers play a veryimportant role in milk production of the country. Dairy farming can also betaken up as a main occupation around big urban centres where the demandfor milk is high.2. Scope for Dairy Farming and its National Importance.2.1 The total milk production in the country for the year 2001-02 wasestimated at 84.6 million metric tonnes. At this production, the per capitaavailability was to be 226 grams per day against the minimum requirement of250 grams per day as recommended by ICMR. Thus, there is a tremendousscope/potential for increasing the milk production. The population of breedingcows and buffaloes in milk over 3 years of age was 62.6 million and 42.4million, respectively (1992 census)
  4. 4. 2.2 Central and State Governments are giving considerable financialassistance for creating infrastructure facilities for milk production. The ninethplan outlay on Animal Husbandry and Dairying was Rs. 2345 crores.3. Financial Assistance Available from Banks/NABARD for DairyFarming.3.1 NABARD is an apex institution for all matters relating to policy, planningand operation in the field of agricultural credit. It serves as an apex refinancingagency for the institutions providing investment and production credit. Itpromotes development through formulation and appraisal of projects througha well organised Technical Services Department at the Head Office andTechnical Cells at each of the Regional Offices.3.2 Loan from banks with refinance facility from NABARD is available forstarting dairy farming. For obtaining bank loan, the farmers should apply to thenearest branch of a commercial or co-operative Bank in their area in theprescribed application form which is available in the branches of financingbanks. The Technical Officer attached to or the Manager of the bank canhelp/give guidance to the farmers in preparing the project report to obtainbank loan.3.3 For dairy schemes with very large outlays, detailed reports will have to beprepared. The items of finance would include capital asset items such aspurchase of milch animals, construction of sheds, purchase of equipmentsetc. The feeding cost during the initial period of one/two months is capitalisedand given as term loan. Facilities such as cost of land development, fencing,digging of well, commissioning of diesel engine/pumpset, electricityconnections, essential servants quarters, godown, transport vehicle, milkprocessing facilities etc. can be considered for loan. Cost of land is notconsidered for loan. However, if land is purchased for setting up a dairy farm,its cost can be treated as partys margin upto 10% of the total cost of project.4. Scheme Formulation for bank loan.4.1 A Scheme can be prepared by a beneficiary after consulting localtechnical persons of State animal husbandry department, DRDA, SLPP etc.,dairy co-operative society/union/federation/commercial dairy farmers. Ifpossible, the beneficiaries should also visit progressive dairy farmers andgovernment/military/agricultural university dairy farm in the vicinity anddiscuss the profitability of dairy farming. A good practical training and
  5. 5. experience in dairy farming will be highly desirable. The dairy co-operativesocieties established in the villages as a result of efforts by the DairyDevelopment Department of State Government and National DairyDevelopment Board would provide all supporting facilities particularlymarketing of fluid milk. Nearness of dairy farm to such a society, veterinary aidcentre, artificial insemination centre should be ensured. There is a gooddemand for milk, if the dairy farm is located near urban centre.4.2 The scheme should include information on land, livestock markets,availability of water, feeds, fodders, veterinary aid, breeding facilities,marketing aspects, training facilities, experience of the farmer and the type ofassistance available from State Government, dairy society/union/federation.4.3 The scheme should also include information on the number of and typesof animals to be purchased, their breeds, production performance, cost andother relevant input and output costs with their description. Based on this, thetotal cost of the project, margin money to be provided by the beneficiary,requirement of bank loan, estimated annual expenditure, income, profit andloss statement, repayment period, etc. can be worked out and shown in theProject report. A format developed for formulation of dairy developmentschemes is given as Annexure I.5. Scrutiny of Schemes by banks.The scheme so formulated should be submitted to the nearest branch of bank.The banks officers can assist in preparation of the scheme for filling in theprescribed application form. The bank will then examine the scheme for itstechnical feasibility and economic viability.(A) Technical Feasibility - this would briefly include -1. Nearness of the selected area to veterinary, breeding and milk collection centre and the financing banks branch.2. Availability of good quality animals in nearby livestock market. The distribution of important breeds of cattle and buffaloes are given in Annexure II. The reproductive and productive performance of cattle and buffalo breeds is given in AnnexureIII.3. Availability of training facilities.4. Availability of good grazing ground/lands.5. Green/dry fodder, concentrate feed, medicines etc.
  6. 6. 6. Availability of veterinary aid/breeding centres and milk marketing facilities near the scheme area.(B) Economic Viability - this would briefly include -1. Unit Cost - The average unit cost of dairy animals for some of the States is given in Annexure IV.2. Input cost for feeds and fodders, veterinary aid, breeding of animals, insurance, labour and other overheads.3. Output costs i.e. sale price of milk, manure, gunny bags, male/female calves, other miscellaneous items etc.4. Income-expenditure statement and annual gross surplus.5. Cash flow analysis.6. Repayment schedule (i.e. repayment of principal loan amount and interest).Other documents such as loan application forms, security aspects, marginmoney requirements etc. are also examined. A field visit to the scheme area isundertaken for conducting a techno-economic feasibility study for appraisal ofthe scheme. Model economics for a two animal unit and mini dairy unit withten buffaloes are given in Annexure V and VI.6. Sanction of Bank Loan and its Disbursement.After ensuring technical feasibility and economic viability, the scheme issanctioned by the bank. The loan is disbursed in kind in 2 to 3 stages againstcreation of specific assets such as construction of sheds, purchase ofequipments and machinery, purchase of animals and recurring cost onpurchase of feeds/fodders for the initial period of one/two months. The enduse of the fund is verified and constant follow-up is done by the bank.7. Lending terms - General7.1 Unit CostEach Regional Office (RO) of NABARD has constituted a State Level UnitCost Committee under the Chairmanship of RO-in-charges and with themembers from developmental agencies, commercial banks and cooperativebanks to review the unit cost of various investments once in six months. Thesame is circulated among the banks for their guidance. These costs are only
  7. 7. indicative in nature and banks are free to finance any amount depending uponthe availability of assets.7.2 Margin MoneyNABARD had defined farmers into three different categories and wheresubsidy is not available the minimum down payment as shown below iscollected from the beneficiaries.Sr.No. Category of Farmer Level of predevelopment Beneficiarys return to resources Contribution(a) Small Farmers Upto Rs.11000 5%(b) Medium Farmers Rs.11001 - Rs.19250 10%(c) Large Farmers Above Rs. 19251 15%`7.3 Interest RateAs per the RBI guidelines the present rate of interest to the ultimatebeneficiary financed by various agencies are as under :No. Loan Amount CBs and RRBs SLDB/SCB(a) Upto and inclusive of 12% As determined by Rs.25000 SCB/SLDB subject to minimum 12%(b) Over Rs. 25000 and 13.5% -do- uptoRs. 2 lakhs(c) Over Rs. 2.0 lakhs As determined by the -do- banks7.4 SecuritySecurity will be as per NABARD/RBI guidelines issued from time to time.7.5 Repayment Period of LoanRepayment period depends upon the gross surplus in the scheme. The loanswill be repaid in suitable monthly/quarterly instalments usually within a periodof about 5 years. In case of commercial schemes it may be extended upto 6-7years depending on cash flow analysis.
  8. 8. 7.6 InsuranceThe animals may be insured annually or on long term master policy, whereever it is applicable. The present rate of insurance premium for scheme andnon scheme animals are 2.25% and 4.0% respectively.8. Package of Common Management Practices Recommended for DairyFarmersModern and well established scientific principles, practices and skills shouldbe used to obtain maximum economic benefits from dairy farming. Some ofthe major norms and recommended practices are as follows :I. Housing:1. Construct shed on dry, properly raised ground.2. Avoid water-logging, marshy and heavy rainfall areas.3. The walls of the sheds should be 1.5 to 2 meters high.4. The walls should be plastered to make them damp proof.5. The roof should be 3-4 metres high.6. The cattle shed should be well ventilated.7. The floor should be pucca/hard, even non-slippery impervious, well sloped (3 cm per metre) and properly drained to remain dry and clean.8. Provide 0.25 metre broad, pucca drain at the rear of the standing space.9. A standing space of 2 x 1.05 metre for each animal is needed.10. The manger space should be 1.05 metre with front height of 0.5 metre and depth of 0.25 metre.11. The corners in mangers, troughs, drains and walls should be rounded for easy cleaning.12. Provide 5-10 sq. metre loaf space for each animal.13. Provide proper shade and cool drinking water in summer.14. In winter keep animals indoor during night and rain.15. Provide individual bedding daily.16. Maintain sanitary condition around shed.17. Control external parasites (ticks, flies etc.) by spraying the pens, sheds with Malathion or Copper sulphate solution.18. Drain urine into collection pits and then to the field through irrigation channels.
  9. 9. 19. Dispose of dung and urine properly. A gobar gas plant will be an ideal way. Where gobar gas plant is not constructed, convert the dung alongwith bedding material and other farm wastes into compost.20. Give adequate space for the animals. (The housing space requirement of crossbred cattle in various categories/age-groups is given in Annexure-VII).II. Selection of Animal :1. Immediately after release of the loan purchase the stock from a reliable breeder or from nearest livestock market.2. Select healthy, high yielding animals with the help of banks technical officer, veterinary/animal husbandry officer of State government/ ZillaParishad, etc.3. Purchase freshly calved animals in their second/third lactation.4. Before purchasing, ascertain actual milk yield by milking the animal three times consecutively.5. Identify the newly purchased animal by giving suitable identification mark (ear tagging or tattooing).6. Vaccinate the newly purchased animal against disease.7. Keep the newly purchased animal under observation for a period of about two weeks and then mix with the general herd.8. Purchase a minimum economical unit of two milch animals.9. Purchase the second animal/second batch after 5-6 months from the purchase of first animal.10. As buffaloes are seasonal calvers purchase them during July to February.11. As far as possible purchase the second animal when the first animal is in its late stage of lactation and is about to become dry, thereby maintaining continuity in milk production vis-a- vis income. This will ensure availability of adequate funds for maintaining the dry animals.12. Follow judicious culling and replacement of animals in a herd.13. Cull the old animals after 6-7 lactations.III. Feeding of Milch Animals1. Feed the animals with best feeds and fodders. (Feeding schedule is given in Anneuxre VIII).2. Give adequate green fodder in the ration.3. As far as possible, grow green fodder on your land wherever available.
  10. 10. 4. Cut the fodder at the right stage of their growth.5. Chaff roughage before feeding.6. Crush the grains and concentrates.7. The oil cakes should be flaky and crumbly.8. Moisten the concentrate mixture before feeding.9. Provide adequate vitamins and minerals. Provide salt licks besides addition of mineral mixture to the concentrate ration.10. Provide adequate and clean water.11. Give adequate exercise to the animals. Buffaloes should be taken for wallowing daily. In case this is not possible sprinkle sufficient water more particularly during summer months.12. To estimate the daily feed requirement remember that the animals consume about 2.5 to 3.0 percent of their body weight on dry matter basis.IV. Milking of Animals1. Milk the animals two to three times a day.2. Milk at fixed times.3. Milk in one sitting within eight minutes.4. As far as possible, milking should be done by the same person regularly.5. Milk the animal in a clean place.6. Wash the udder and teat with antiseptic lotions/luke-warm water and dry before milking.7. Milker should be free from any contagious diseases and should wash his hands with antiseptic lotion before each milking.8. Milking should be done with full hands, quickly and completely followed by stripping.9. Sick cows/buffaloes should be milked at the end to prevent spread of infection.V. Protection against Diseases1. Be on the alert for signs of illness such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behaviour.2. Consult the nearest veterinary aid centre for help if illness is suspected.3. Protect the animals against common diseases.4. In case of outbreak of contagious disease, immediately segregate the sick, in-contact and the healthy animals and take necessary
  11. 11. disease control measures. (Vaccination schedule is given in Annexure IX).5. Conduct periodic tests for Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Johnes disease, Mastitis etc.6. Deworm the animals regularly.7. Examine the faeces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the animals with suitable drugs.8. Wash the animals from time to time to promote sanitation.VI. Breeding Care1. Observe the animal closely and keep specific record of its coming in heat, duration of heat, insemination, conception and calving.2. Breed the animals in time.3. The onset of oestrus will be within 60 to 80 days after calving.4. Timely breeding will help achieving conception within 2 to 3 months of calving.5. Breed the animals when it is in peak heat period (i.e. 12 to 24 hours of heat).6. Use high quality semen preferably frozen semen of proven sires/bulls.VII. Care during PregnancyGive special attention to pregnant cows two months before calving byproviding adequate space, feed, water etc.VIII. Marketing of Milk1. Marketing milk immediately after it is drawn keeping the time between production and marketing of the milk to the minimum.2. Use clean utensils and handle milk in hygienic way.3. Wash milk pails/cans/utensils thoroughly with detergent and finally rinse with chloride solution.4. Avoid too much agitation of milk during transit.5. Transport the milk during cool hours of the day.IX. Care of Calves1. Take care of new born calf.2. Treat/disinfect the navel cord with tincutre of iodine as soon as it is cut with a sharp knife.
  12. 12. 3. Feed colostrum to calf.4. Assist the calf to suckle if it is too weak to suckle on its own within 30 minutes of calving.5. In case it is desired to wean the calf immediately after birth, then feed the colostrum in bucket.6. Keep the calf separately from birth till two months of age in a dry clean and well ventilated place.7. Protect the calves against extreme weather conditions, particularly during the first two months.8. Group the calves according to their size.9. Vaccinate calves.10. Dehorn the calves around 4 to 5 days of age for easy management when they grow.11. Dispose of extra calves not to be reared/maintained for any specific purpose as early as possible, particularly the male calves.12. The female calves should be properly reared.Annexure IFORMAT FOR SUBMISSION OF SCHEMES1. GENERALi) Name of the sponsoring bankii) Address of the controlling ofice sponsoring the schemeiii) Nature and objectives of the proposed schemeiv) Details of proposed investmentsS.No Investment No. Of units(a)(b)(c)v) Specification of the scheme area (Name of District & Block/s)S.No. District Blockvi) Names of the financing banks branches:
  13. 13. S.No. Name of the Branch/District(a)(b)(c)vii) Status of beneficiary/ies: (indidivual/Partnership/Company/Corporation/Co-operative Society /Others)viii) In case of area based schemes, coverage of borrowers in weakersections (landless labourers, small, medium & large farmers as per NABARDs norms, SC/ST, etc.)ix) Details of borrowers profile (Not applicable to area based schemes)(a) Capability(b) Experience(c) Financial Soundness(d) Technical/Other special Qualificaitons(e) Technical/Managerial Staff and adequacy thereof2. TECHNICAL ASPECTS :a) Location, Land and Land Development :i) Location details of the projectii) Total Area of land and its costiii) Site mapiv) Particulars of land development, fencing, gates, etc.b) Civil Structures :Detailed cost estimates along with measurements of vaious civil structure- Sheds- Store room- Milk room- Quarters, etc.c) Equipment/Plant and Machinery :i) Chaff cutterii) Silo pitiii) Milking machineiv) Feed grinder and mixer
  14. 14. v) Milking pails/milk cansvi) Biogas plantvii) Bulk coolersviii)Equipment for manufacture of productsix) Truck/van (price quotations for the above equipments)d) Housing :i) Type of housingii) Area requirement- Adults- Heifers (1-3 years)- Calves (less than 1 year)e) Animals :i) Proposed speciesii) Proposed breediii) Source of purchaseiv) Place of purchasev) Distance (kms.)vi) Cost of animal (Rs.)f) Production parameters :i) Order of lactationii) Milk yield (ltrs. per day)iii) Lactation daysiv) Dry daysv) Conception ratevi) Mortality(%) - Adults - Young stockg) Herd projection (with all assumptions) :h) Feeding :i) Source of fodder and feed - Green fodder - Dry fodder - Concentrates
  15. 15. ii) Fodder crop rotations - Kharif - Rabi - Summeriii) Fodder cultivation expensesiv) Requirement and costs :Quantity required (kg./day) Cost(Rs. / Kg) Lactation Dry Period Young StockGreen FodderDry FodderConcentratesi) Breeding Facilities :i) Source :ii) Location :iii) Distance (km.) :iv) Availability of semen :v) Availability of staff :vi) Expenditure per animal/yearj) Veterinary Aid :i) Sourceii) Locationiii) Distance (km.)iv) Availability of staffv) Types of facilities availablevi) If own arrangements are made -a) Employed a veterinary doctor/stockman/consultantb) Periodicity of visitc) Amount paid/visit (Rs.)vii)Expenditure per animal per year (Rs.)k) Electricity :i) Sourceii) Approval from SEBiii) Connected load
  16. 16. iv) Problems of power failurev) Arrangements for generatorl) Water :i) Sourceii) Quality of wateriii) Abvailability of sufficient quantity for drinking, cleaning nad fodderproductioniv) If investment has to be made, type of strucutre, design and costm) Marketing of milk :i) Source of salesii) Place of disposaliii) Distance (km.)iv) Pricerealised - (Rs. per liter of milk)v) Basis of paymentvi) Periodicity of paymentn) Marketing of other products :i) Animal - age - place of sale - price expectedii) Manure - Qty./animal Price/unit (Rs.)iii) Empty gunny bags - Number - Cost/bag (Rs.)o) Beneficiarys experience :p) Comments on technical feasibility :q) Government restrictions, if any :3. FINANCIAL ASPECTS :i) Unit Cost :Sr.No Name of the Physical units Unit cost with Whether
  17. 17. Investment and component wise approved by specification break-up (Rs.) state level unit cost committee TotalIi) Down payment/margin/subsidy(Indicate source & extent of subsidy):iii) Year-wise physical & financial programme :Year Invest- Physical Unit Total Margin/ Bank Refinance loan1 Ment Units Cost Outlay Subsidy Assistance (Rs.) 2 3 (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) 7 4 5 6 8TotalIv) Financial viability (comment on the cash flow projection on a farmmodel/unitand enclose the same.)Particulars :a) Internal Rate of Return (IRR) :b) Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) :c) Net Present Worth (NPW) :v) Financial position of the borrowers (to be furnished in case ofcorporate bodies/partnership firms)a) Profitability Ratio :i) GP Ratioii) NP Ratiob) Debt Equity Ratio :c) Whether Income Tax & other tax obligations are paid uptodate :d) Whether audit is upto date (enclose copies of audited financial statementsfor the last three years)vi) Lending Terms :i) Rate of Interest :ii) Grace Period :iii) Repayment Period :iv) Nature of Security :v) Availability of Government guarantee wherever necessary :4. INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES :
  18. 18. a) Availability of technical staff with bank/implementingauthority for monitoringb) Details of -i) technical guidanceii) training facilitiesiii) Govt support/extention supportc) Tie-up arrangements with marketing agencies for loan recoveryd) Insurance -- Type of policy- Periodicity- Rate of premiume) Whether any subsidy is available, if so amount per unitf) Arrangements for supply of green fodder and cattle feedANNEXURE IICattle and Buffalo Breeds Important Characteristics/DescriptionSr.No Name Habitat/Main Breeding Assembling Areas of Remark. Breed State Tract Centres demand s Districts1 2 3 4 5 6 7A) CATTLE (INDIGENOU S)1 Amrithmah Erstwhile Mysore Tumkur and Erstwhile Karnataka and Draught al State now part of Chitradurg Mysore State adjoining area breed Karnataka2 Dangi Maharashtra and Ahmednagar, Weekly Rocky ghat Draught Gujarat Khandesh, markets in areas with breed Raigad, Nasik, Ahmednagar, heavy rainfall Thane, Surat Nasik, Thane and West Khandesh district3 Denoi Andhra Pradesh Medak, Weekly cattle Bidar and Draught Karnataka and Nizambad, markets, Jatras adjoining purposse Maharashtra Mahboobnaga and fairs in districts breed r, Adilabad Bidar and Gulbarga, adjoining Bidar, districts Osmanabad, Nanded4 Gir Gir Hills and Junagarh, _ Gujarat, Dairy
  19. 19. forest of South Also Rajasthan, purpose Kathiawar maintained by Maharashtra breed NDRI, Bangalore5 Hallikar Karnataka Tumkur, Dodbalapur, Dharwar, Draught Hassan & Chickballapur, North Kanara, breed Mysore Harikar, Bellary (KT) Devargudda, Anantur&Chitt Chikkuvalli, ur (A.P.), Karuvalli, Coimbatore Chittavadgi North Arcot, (T.N.) North Salem (T.M.) Arcot (T.N.) Hindupur, Somaghatta, Anantpur (A.P.)6 Hariana Haryana and Rohtak, Cattle fairs at Throughout Dual Delhi, Punjab, Hissar, Jehazgarh, the country purpose Rajasthan Gurgaon, Mahim and breed Karnal, Bhadurgarh Patiala, (Rohtak dist.) Sangrur, Hansi&Bhiwani Jaipur, (Hissar dist.) Jodhpur, Alwar, Bharatpur Western districts7 Kangayam Tamil Nadu Coimbatore Avanashi, Southern Draught Tirppur, Districts of breed Kannauram, Tamil Nadu Madurai Athicombu8 Kankrej Gujarat Ahmedabad, Ahmedabad, Rajasthan, Banaskantha Radhanpur Maharashtra9 Khillari Maharashtra Solapur, Southern Draught Kolhapur, Districts of breed Satara Maharashtra and adjoining districts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka10 Krishna Maharashtra, Watersheds of Ichalkaranji Valley Andhra Pradesh, Krishna and (Kolhapur), Karnataka adjoining Chincahli areas of A.P. (Gulbarga) and KT11 Malvi Madhya Pradesh Guna, Vidisha, Agar (Shajapur) Draught
  20. 20. RaisenSehora Singaj (Nimar) purpose , Ujjain, Sehore&Ashta Indore, (Sehore) Dewas, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Mandsaur, Jhabus&Dhar Rajasthan Jhalwar and Karimnagar Kotah (A.P.)12 Nagori or Rajasthan Jodhpur NagaurParbats Rajasthan, Draught Nagauri &Nagaur ar (Nagpur), Haryana, Uttar purpose Balotra Pradesh (Barmer), Puskar (Ajmer), Hissar, Hansi (Haryana State)13 Ongole Andhra Pradesh Ongole, Available in - Dual Guntur, Ongole tract of Purpose Narasaraopet, Andhra Bapatla and Pradesh Nellore14 Rathi Rajasthan Alwar, Alwar, Rewari - - Bharatpur, (Gurgaon), Jaipur Pushkar - Dairy (Ajmer) breed15 Sahiwal Punjab, Haryana, Sahiwal Jullundar, - Dairy Delhi, U.P., (erstwhile Gurdaspur, breed Bihar, M.P., W.B. Montgomery) Amritsar, Kapurthala, Ferozepur (Punjab), NDRI, Karnal, Hissar, AnhoraDurg (M.P), Lucknow, Meerut, Bihar, W.B.16 Red Sindhi Pakisatan All - - - Dairy parts of India breed17 Siri Sikkim, Bhutan Darjeeling Hill Darjeeling - Dual Tract (Brought by purpose dealers)18 Tharparkar Pakisatn (sind) Umarkot, Balotra - Dairy Naukot, (Jodhpur), breed DhoroNaroCh Puskar (Ajmer), or Gujarat State
  21. 21. B) CATTLE (EXOTIC)1 Brown Switzerland - India, - Dairy breed Swiss Pakisatan& other Asian countries2 Holstein Holland Province of Through out - Dairy breed Friesian North Holland the country and West (crossbreds) Friesland3 Jersy British Isles Island of Crossbreds - Dairy breed Jersey available in all states/U.TsB) BUFFALOES1 Bhadawari Uttar Bah Tehsil in Agra Local markets - Dairy Breed Pradesh, Adjoining areas of in Breeding Madhya Gwalior areas (Agra, Pradesh Kanpur, Etawah, Jalaun, Jhansi)2 Jaffarabadi Gujarat Kathiawar and Honreli Breeding areas - Dairy breed of Saurashtra3 Mehsani Gujarat Mehsana, Banaskantha, Ahmedabad, - Dairy breed Sabarkantha tract in Mehsana and Gujarat other places of breeding4 Murrah Haryana, Rohtak, Hissar, Karnal, Rohtak, - Dairy Breed Uttar Jind, Gurgaon, Western Bahadurgarh, Pradesh, parts of Uttar Pradesh Delhi, Punjab Nabha and Patiala Jahanzgarh, Mahim, Hissar, Bhiwani, Hansi, Rewari, Ferozpur, Jirka, Nangloi, Narela5 Nagpuri Maharashtra, Wardha, Nagpur Vidarbha area - Dual Andhra Yeotmal, Adilabad, and of Maharashtra purpose Pradesh adjoining parts and breed Adilabaddistrict of A.P.6 Nili Ravi Punjab Ferozepur Ferozpur - Dairy breed (MontogomeryPakisatan) District of Punjab
  22. 22. 7 Surti Gujarat Kheda, Vadodara Through out - Dairy breed Gujarat (Charottar tract)ANNEXURE - IIIReproductive and Productive Parameters (Traits) in Indian Cattle and BuffaloesSr.No Name of the Age at Calving Lactation Lactation Dry Milk breed first interval yield length period yield calving kg/day (months) (kg.) (days) (days) during (months) lactat- ion1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8i) Cattlea) Indian breeds1 Dangi 54 17 600 300 210 2.02 Deogir 48 15 1,500 300 150 5.03 Deoni 53 14 810 270 150 3.04 Gir 48 16 1,350 270 210 5.05 Gaolao 46 16 600 300 180 2.06 Hallikar 46 20 600 300 300 2.07 Hariana 58 13 1,200 240 150 5.08 Kangayam 44 16 600 240 240 2.59 Kankrej 48 17 1,800 360 150 5.010 Khilari 52 16 240 240 240 1.011 Ongole 40 19 630 210 360 3.012 Rathi 40 19 1,815 330 240 5.513 Red Sindhi 42 14 1,620 270 150 6.014 Sahiwal 40 14 1,620 270 150 6.015 Tharparkar 50 14 1,620 270 150 6.0
  23. 23. 16 Umblachery 46 17 360 240 270 1.517 Non-descript 60 19 405 270 300 1.5B) Crossbred Cattle (BosindicusFxBostaurus M)1 HxF 34 14 2,970 330 90 9.02 H x BS 29 15 2,805 330 120 8.53 HxJ 33 13 2,850 300 90 9.54 GxJ 25 13 2,640 330 60 8.05 GxF 25 13 2,160 270 120 8.06 RS x F 29 12 2,295 270 90 8.57 RS x RD 28 12 2,160 270 90 8.08 RS x J 29 12 1,500 300 90 5.09 RxJ 32 12 2,700 300 60 9.010 TxF 33 13 2,550 300 90 8.511 SxF 33 14 2,400 300 120 8.0C) Buffaloes1 Bhadawari 50 15 1,080 270 180 4.02 Murrah 42 16 1,800 300 180 6.03 Nili-Ravi 54 16 1,950 300 180 6.54 Surti 44 16 1,765 330 150 5.55 Mehsani 50 14 1,620 270 150 6.06 Jaffarabadi 50 14 1,620 270 150 6.07 Pandharpuri 56 14 1,350 270 150 5.08 Marathwadi 50 14 1,015 270 150 3.59 Nagpuri 50 14 1,350 270 150 5.010 Dharwari 50 14 1,350 270 150 5.011 Non-descript 50 16 540 270 210 2.0
  24. 24. Key : H = Hariana S = Sahiwal RS = Red SindhiG = Gir T = Tharparkar L = Non-descriptR = Rathi F = Friesian BS = Brown SwissRD = Red dane J = JerseyAnnexure - IVUnit cost of cows and buffaloes Approvedby NABARD in some of the major States in IndiaSr.N State Cows Buffaloeso Unit Breed Yield Unit Breed Yiel Cost cost d (Rs.) (litre (Rs.) (litre s/ s / day) day)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 81 Andhra 6,000 Crossbred 6 7,500 Graded 6 Pradesh Murrah 7500 Crossbred 8 1000 8 0 Graded 9500 Crossbred 10 Murrah - -2 Assam 10,00 Crossbred 7 8,500 Graded 7 0 Murrah3 Bihar 13,00 Crossbred 10 9,000 Graded 7-8 0 Murrah 6,000 Indigenous 5-6 7,000 Local 5-6 (improved)4 Gujarat i) 14,00 Jersey X 8-9 i) 13,50 Surti 5.5 0 0 ii) 16,00 H.F.X 9- ii) 13,00 Mehsani 6 0 10 0 iii 14,00 Jaffarabadi 6
  25. 25. ) 05 Karnataka i) 7,300 Crossbred 6 i) 6,600 Graded 5 Surti ii) 9,700 Crossbred 8 ii) 7,800 Graded 6 Murrah iii 10,90 Crossbred 9 iii) 9,000 Pandarpuri 7 ) 0 iv 12,10 Crossbred 10 iv) 11,00 Pure 8 ) 0 0 Mehsani6 Madhya i) 9,500 Jersey X i) 7,000 Graded 6 Pradesh Murrah ii) 6,500 Gir/Tharparkr/Sah 8 ii) 8,250 Graded 7 iwal Murrah 7 iii) 6,000 Nagpuri 57 Maharashtra i) 11,20 Crossbred 6 i) 7,000 GMB/Mehs 7 0 ani ii) 14,00 Crossbred 10 ii) 8,000 GMB/Mehs 8 0 ani iii 8,400 Tharparkar/ 6-7 iii 6,000 Surti/ 6 ) Gir/Hariana ) Jaffarbadi to iv 7,000 Nagpuri/ 7 ) Dharwari 9,500 v) 5,000 Pandharpur 5 i vi 6,000 6 )8 West Bengal i) 9,500 Crossbred 6 - - - ii) 12,00 Crossbred 8 - - - 09 Orissa i) 6,000 Crossbred 6 6,300 Graded 6 Murrah ii) 7,000 -do- 7 iii 8,000 -do- 8
  26. 26. )10 Punjab/Hary i) 2,700 Indigenous 5 ana ii) 7,950 Crossbred(J) 9 i) 7,450 Murrah 7 8,900 -do-(HF) 10 ii) 6,500 Graded 6 Murrah11 Rajasthan i) 10,40 -do- 8 11,20 Graded 7 0 0 Murrah ii) 11,70 -do- 9 9,000 Surti 6 0 iii 13,00 -do- 10 ) 012 Uttar 10,00 Crossbred 10 11,00 Graded 8 Pradesh 0 0 Murrah13 Kerala 6,000 Crossbred 6 7,200 Graded 6- Murrah 6.5 8,000 Crossbred 814 Himachal 6,600 Crossbred 8 9,000 Graded 6 Murrah15 Tamil Nadu 8,250 Crossbred 6 9,800 Graded 6 MurrahAnnexure VEconomics of two animal unit (buffaloes)Project at a Glance1 Unit Size : 2 Animals2 Breed : Graded Murrah3 State : Karnataka4 Unit Cost (Rs.) : 18,2235 Bank Loan (Rs.) : 15,4006 Margin Money (Rs.) : 2,823
  27. 27. 7 Repayment period : 58 Interest rate (%) : 129 BCR at 15% DF : 1.50:110 NPW at 15% DF (Rs.) : 29,18711 IRR(%) : >50%MODEL PROJECT FOR TWO ANIMAL UNIT(BUFFALOES)A INVESTMENT COSTSr.No. Items Specifications Phy units Unit Cost Total Cost (Rs. /Unit) (Rs.)1 Cost of animals 2 8,200 16,4002 Insurance 2 689 1,3783 Conc. Feed (4.5 135 Kg 1 3.3 446 kg/day/animal for 30 days)4 Total cost 18,2235 Margin money Say Rs. 2,733 (15% of total cost) 27236 Bank laon (85% of Say Rs. 15490 total cost) 15500B TECHNO ECONOMIC PARAMETERSi) No.ofmilch animals 2ii) Cost of milch animals 8,200iii) Lactation period (days) 280iv) Dry period (days) 150v) Milk yield (lts./day) 7vi) Sale price of milk (Rs./lt) 7.75
  28. 28. vii) Sale of manure/animal/year (Rs.) 300viii) Insurance premium for five years 8.4 (%)ix) Veterinary aid/animal/year (Rs.) 150x) Labour (Rs.) Family labourxi) Cost of electricity & water 100 (Rs./animal)xii) Interest rate (%) 12xiii Repayment period (years) 5xiv) Income from sale of gunny bags 100 20 bags/tonne @ Rs. 5/bagxv) Feeding scheduleS.No. Type of fodder/feed Price (Rs./kg) (Quantity in kg/day) Lactation Dry Period Perioda) Green fodder 0.2 25 25b) Dry fodder 0.5 55c) Concentrate 3.3 4.5 1xvi) Animals will be purchased in twobatches at an interval of 5 - 6 monthsxvii) It is assumed that the expenditure on calfrearing will nullify the sale value of calf / hiefer.xviii) Closing stock value (Rs. per animal) 4100C LACTATION CHARTSr.No Particulars Years I II III IV Vi) Lactation Days
  29. 29. a) First batch 250 280 250 210 210b) Second batch 180 210 210 210 210 Total 430 490 460 420 420ii) Dry Daysa) First batch 110 80 110 150 150b) Second batch - 150 150 150 150 Total 110 230 260 300 300Annexure - V (Contd.)D CASH FLOW ANALYSISSr.No. Particulars Years I II III IV VI Costs:1 Capital cost* 17,7772 Recurring costa) Feeding during lactation period Green fodder 2,150 2,450 2,300 2,100 2,100 Dry fodder 1,075 1,225 1,150 1,050 1,050 Concentrate 6,386 7,277 6,831 6,237 6,237 Total 9,611 10,952 10,281 9,387 9,387b) Feeding during dry period Green fodder 550 1,150 1,300 1,500 1,500 Dry fodder 275 575 575 750 750 Concentrate 363 759 858 990 990 Total 1,188 2,484 2,733 3,240 3,240
  30. 30. c) Veterinary aid & 225 300 300 300 300 breeding coverd) Cost of electricity & 150 200 200 200 200 water Total 28,951 13,936 13,514 13,127 13,127II BENEFITSa) Sale of milk 23,328 26,583 24,955 22,785 22,785b) Sale of Gunny bags 205 232 218 200 200c) Sale of manure 450 600 600 600 600d) Closing stock value 8,200 Total 23,982 27,414 25,773 23,585 31,785III DF @15% 0.870 0.756 0.658 0.572 0.497IV DISCOUNTED 25,175 10,537 8,886 7,505 6,526 58,630 COSTS AT 15%V DISCOUNTED 20,854 20,729 16,946 13,485 15,803 87,817 BENEFITS AT 15%VI NPW @ 15% 29,187VII BCR @ 15% 1.50:1VIII DF @ 50% 0.667 0.444 0.296 0.198 0.132IX NET BENEFITS -4,969 13,479 12,259 10,458 18,658X DISCOUNTED NET -3,313 5,990 3,632 2,066 2,457 10,833 BENEFITS AT 50%XI IRR >50%* excluding the capitalised expenditure on concentrated feedE REPAYMENT SCHEDULEBank Loan (Rs) - 15500Interest Rate (%) - 12
  31. 31. Capital recovery factor - 0.277Year Income Expenses Gross Equated Net surplus surplus annual instalmentI 23,982 10,728 13,254 4,294 8,961II 27,414 13,936 13,479 4,294 9,185III 25,773 13,514 12,259 4,294 7,966IV 23,585 13,127 10,458 4,294 6,165V 23,585 13,127 10,458 4,294 6,165Annexure VIEconomics of a mini DAIRY unitTEN ANIMAL UNIT ( BUFFALOES)PROJECT AT A GLANCE1 Unit size : 10 animals2 Breed : Graded Murrah3 State : Karnataka4 Unit cost (Rs) : 155,0305 Bank loan (Rs) : 131,7006 Margin money (Rs) : 23,3307 Repayment period (yrs) : 58 Interest rate (%) : 13.59 BCR at 15% DF : 1.53:110 NPW at 15% DF(Rs) : 154,40311 IRR (%) : >50MODEL PROJECT FOR TEN ANIMAL UNIT (BUFFALOES)A INVESTMENT COST
  32. 32. S.No. Items Specifications Phy.units Unit Cost Total Cost (Rs./unit) (Rs.)1 Cost of animals 10 8,200 8,2002 Transportation cost 10 300 3,000 of animals3 Cost of construction Sq.ft. 650 55 35,750 of shed4 Cost of Store cum Sq.ft. 200 100 20,000 office5 Equipments (chaff 10 500 5,000 cutter, milking pails, cans, technicians6 Insurance 10 328 3,2807 Fodder raising 2 3,000 6,000 expenses @ Rs.3000/acre8 Total cost 155,0309 Margin money Say 23255 (15% of total cost) 2333010 Bank loan (85% of Say 131776 total cost) 131700ANNEXURE VI (contd)B TECHNO ECONOMIC PARAMETERSi Animals will be purchased in two batches at an interval of 5-6 monthsii Second/Third lactation animals within 30 days of calving will be purchased in first yeariii No. of acres of irrigated land for fodder 2 production considered in the project. Green fodder will be produced on the farm. Fodder production expenses is considered in the cash flow analysis. During first year only two seasons are considered.
  33. 33. iv In the first year the fodder production expenses 3,000 are capitalised for one season (Rs. per acre per season) and manure is utilised for fodder productionv It is assumed that the expenditure on calf rearing will nullify the income realised from its sale. However, the heifer will be retained on the farm and the old animals will be sold out.vi No. of milch animals 10vii Cost of milch animals 8,200viii Transportation cost (Rs. per milch animal 300 including followers)ix Civil structures: a) Shed (sft. per milch animal) 65 b) Store and office (sft) 200x Cost of construction 55 a) Shed (Rs. per sft) 100 b) Store and officexi Cost of equipment (Rs per milch animals) 500xii Lactation period (days) 280xiii Dry period (days) 150xiv Milk yield (lts/day) 7xv Sale price of milk (Rs/lt) 7.75xvi Income from sale of gunny bags (20 bags/tonne 100 @ Rs.5/bag)xvii Expenditure on dry fodder for dry and lactation 5 period requirement (kg/day) 0.5 Cost (Rs/kg)xviii Expenditure on concentrates 4.5 a) Requirement (kg/day) 1
  34. 34. Lactation period 3.3 Dry period b) Cost (Rs/kg)xix Veterinary aid/animal/year (Rs) 150xx Labour (Rs./month) 900xxi Insurance premium (%) 4xxii Cost of electricity, water & other overheads 200 (Rs/animal)xxiii Depreciation(%) 5 a) Sheds 10 b) Equipmentxxiv Value of closing stock 4,100xxv Interest rate(%) 13.5xxvi Repayment period (years) 5ANNEXURE VI (Contd.)C. Lactation ChartS.No Particulars I II Years IV V IIII Lactation Daysa) First batch 1,250 1,400 1,250 1,050 1,050b) Second batch 900 1,050 1,050 1,050 1,050 Total 2,150 2,450 2,300 2,100 2,100II Dry daysa) First batch 550 400 550 750 750 Second batch - 750 750 750 750
  35. 35. Total 550 1,150 1,300 1,500 1,500D CASH FLOW ANALYSISSr.No Particulars I II Year IV IV IIII Costs1 Capital cost* 145,7502 Recurring costa) Green fodder 12,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 raising expensesb) Feeding during lactation period Dry fodder 5,375 6,125 5,750 5,250 5,250 Concentrate 31,928 36,383 34,155 31,185 31,185 Total 37,303 42,508 39,905 36,435 36,435c) Feeding during dry period Dry Fodder 1,375 2,875 3,250 3,750 3,750 Concentrate 1,815 3,795 4,290 4,950 4,950 Total 3,190 6,670 7,540 8,700 8,700d) Veterinary aid & 1,125 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 breeding covere) Cost of electricity 1,500 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 & waterf) Insurance 3,280 3,280 3,280 3,280 3,280g) Labour cost 10,800 10,800 10,800 10,800 10,800 Total 188,868 52,678 50,945 49,503 48,635II BENEFITSa) Sale of milk 116,637 132,912 124,775 113,925 113,925b) Sale of Gunny 1,023 1,218 1,165 1,095 1,095
  36. 36. bagsc) Depreciated - 26,813 value of shedsd) Depreciated 2,500 value of equipmentse) Closing stock 41,000 value Total 117,660 134,130 125,940 115,020 185,333III DF @ 15% 0.87 0.76 0.66 0.57 0.50IV DISCOUNTED 164,233 39,832 33,497 28,303 24,180 290,045 COSTS AT 15%V DISCOUNTED 102,313 101,422 82,808 65,763 92,143 444,448 BENEFITS AT 15%VI NPW @ 15% 154,403VII BCR @ 15% 1.53:1VIII DF @ 50% 0.667 0.444 0.296 0.198 0.132IX NET BENEFITS -71,208 81,453 74,995 65,518 136,698X DISCOUNTED 47,472 36,201 22,221 12,942 18,001 41,893 NET BENEFITS AT 50%XI IRR >50* excludes the capitalised cost for fodder raising for three months andinsurance for one yearE REPAYMENT SCHEDULE:Bank Loan (Rs) - 131700Interest rate(%) - 13.5Capital recovery factor - 0.287(inRs.)
  37. 37. Year Income Expenses Gross Equated Net surplus surplus annual installmentI 117,660 33,838 83,823 37,798 46,025II 134,130 52,678 81,453 37,798 43,655III 125,940 50,945 74,995 37,798 47,197IV 115,020 49,503 65,518 37,798 27,720V 115,020 48,635 66,385 37,798 28,587Annexure - VIIHousing Space Requirements for Crossbred cattleAge-group Manger Space (mtr.) Standing or covered Open area (sq.mtr.) Space(sq.mtr.)4-6 months 0.2-0.3 0.8-1.0 3.0-4.06-12 months 0.3-0.4 1.2-1.6 5.0-6.01-2 years 0.4-0.5 1.6-1.8 6.0-8.0Cows 0.8-1.0 1.8-2.0 11.0-12.0Pregnant cows 1.0-1.2 8.5-10.0 15.0-20.0Bulls* 1.0-1.2 9.0-11.0 20.0-22.0*To be housed individuallyAnnexure - VIIIFeeding Schedules for Dairy Animals(Quantity in Kgs.)S.No. Type of animal Feeding Green Dry Fodder Concentrate during Fodder1 2 3 4 5 6(A) CROSSBRED COW
  38. 38. a) 6 to 7 litres milk per day Lactation days 20 to 25 5 to 6 3.0 to 3.5 Dry days 15 to 20 6 to 7 0.5 to 1.0b) 8 to 10 litres milk per Lactation days 25 to 30 4 to 5 4.0 to 4.5 day Dry days 20 to 25 6 to 7 0.5 to 1.0(B) BUFFALOESa) Murrah (7 to 8 litres Lactation days 25 to 30 4 to 5 3.5 to 4.0 milk per day) Dry days 20 to 25 5 to 6 0.5 to 1.0b) Mehasana (6 to 7 litres Lactation days 15 to 20 4 to 5 3.0 to 3.5 milk per day) Dry days 10 to 15 5 to 6 0.5 to 1.0c) Surti (5 to 6 litrs milk Lactation days 10 to 15 4 to 5 2.5 to 3.0 per day) Dry days 5 to 10 5 to 6 0.5 to 1.0Annexure - IXProgramme for vaccination of farm animals against contagious diseasesSr. Name of disease Type of vaccine Type of Duration Remarks vaccinatio ofNo n immunit. y1 2 3 4 5 61 Anthrax (Gorhi) Spore vaccine Once in an One - year season premonsoo n vaccination2 Black Quarter (Sujab) Killed vaccine - do - - do - -3 HaemorrhagicSepticaemi Ocladjuvant - do - - do - - a (Galghotu) vaccine4 Brucellosis (Contagious Cotton strain 19 At about 6 3 or 4 To be abortion) (live bacteria) months of calvings done only age in infected herds
  39. 39. 5 Foot and Mouth disease Polyvalent tissue At about 6 One After (Muhkhar) culture vaccine months of season vaccinatio age with n repeat booster vaccinatio dose 4 n every months year in later Oct./Nov.6 Rinderpest (Mata) Lapinisedavianise At about 6 Life long It is better d vaccine for months of to repeat exotic and age after 3 to crossbred catte, 4 years caprinised vaccine for zebu cattle.. IntroductionDairying is an important source of subsidiary income to small/marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. Themanure from animals provides a good source of organic matter for improving soil fertility and crop yields. The gobargas from the dung is used as fuel for domestic purposes as also for running engines for drawing water from well. Thesurplus fodder and agricultural by-products are gainfully utilised for feeding the animals. Almost all draught power forfarm operations and transportation is supplied by bullocks. Since agriculture is mostly seasonal, there is a possibilityof finding employment throughout the year for many persons through dairy farming. Thus, dairy also providesemployment throughout the year. The main beneficiaries of dairy programmes are small/marginal farmers andlandless labourers.2. Scope for Dairy Farming and its National Importance.The total milk production in the country for the year 2008-09 was estimated at 108.5 million metric tonnes and thedemand is expected to be 180 million tonnes by 2020. To achieve this demand annual growth rate in milk productionhas to be increased from the present 2.5 % to 5% . Thus, there is a tremendous scope/potential for increasing themilk production through profitable dairy farming.3.Financial Assistance Available from Banks/NABARD for Dairy Farming.3.1. Loan from banks with refinance facility from NABARD is available for starting dairy farming.For obtaining bank loan, the farmers should apply to the nearest branch of a commercial bank, regional rural bank orco-operative bank in their area in the prescribed application form which is available in the branches of financingbanks.3.2. For dairy schemes with very large outlays, detailed project reports will have to be prepared.The items of finance would include capital asset items such as purchase of milch animals, construction of sheds,purchase of equipments etc. The feeding cost during the initial period of one/two months is capitalised and given asterm loan. Cost towards land development, fencing, digging of well, commissioning of diesel engine/pumpset,electricity connections, essential servants quarters, godown, transport vehicle, milk processing facilities etc. can beconsidered for loan. Cost of land is not considered for loan.4.Scheme Formulation for bank loan4.1 A Scheme can be prepared by a beneficiary after consulting local technical persons of State AnimalHusbandry Department, DRDA, Dairy Co-operative Society / Union / Federation / commercial dairy farmers. Ifpossible, the beneficiaries should also visit progressive dairy farms and government / military / agricultural universitydairy farms in the vicinity and discuss the profitability of dairy farming. A good practical training and experience indairy farming will be highly desirable. The dairy co-operative societies, if existing in the villages would provide allsupporting facilities particularly for marketing of fluid milk. Nearness of dairy farm to such a society, veterinary aidcentre, artificial insemination centre should be ensured. There is a good demand for milk, if the dairy farm is locatednear urban centre.
  40. 40. 4.2 The scheme should include information on land, livestock markets,availability of water, feeds, fodder,veterinary aid, breeding facilities, marketing aspects, training facilities, experience of the farmer and the type ofassistance available from State Government, dairy society/union/federation.4.3 The scheme should also include information on the number and types of animals to be purchased, theirbreed, production performance, cost and other relevant input and output costs with their description. Basedon this, the total cost of the project, margin money to be provided by the beneficiary, requirement of bank loan,estimated annual expenditure, income, profit and loss statement, repayment period, etc. can be worked out andshown in the Project report. A format developed for formulation of project report for a dairy farm is given as AnnexureI.5.Scrutiny of Schemes by banks.The scheme so formulated should be submitted to the nearest branch of the bank. The banks officer can assist inpreparation of the scheme or filling in the prescribed application form. The bank will then examine the scheme for itstechnical feasibility and economic viability.(A) Technical Feasibility - this would briefly include -1. Nearness of the selected area to veterinary, breeding and milk collection centre and the financing banks branch.2. Availability of good quality animals in nearby livestock market3. Availability of training facilities.4.Availability of good grazing ground/lands.5.Availability of Green/dry fodder, concentrate feed, medicines etc.6.Availability of veterinary aid / breeding centres and milk marketing facilities near the scheme area.(B) Economic Viability - this would briefly include -1. Unit Cost2. Input cost for feed and fodder, veterinary aid, breeding of animals, insurance, labour and other overheads.3.Output costs i.e. sale price of milk, manure, gunny bags, male/female calves, other miscellaneous items etc.4.Income-expenditure statement and annual gross surplus.5.Cash flow analysis.6. Repayment schedule (i.e. repayment of principal loan amount and interest).Other documents such as loan application form, security aspects, margin money requirements etc. are alsoexamined. A field visit to the scheme area is undertaken for conducting a techno-economic feasibility study forappraisal of the scheme.6.Sanction of Bank Loan and its Disbursement.After ensuring technical feasibility and economic viability, the scheme is sanctioned by the bank. The loan isdisbursed in kind in 2 to 3 stages against creation of specific assets such as construction of sheds, purchase ofequipments and machinery, purchase of animals and recurring cost on purchase of feeds/fodders for the initial periodof one/two months. The end use of the funds is verified and constant follow-up is done by the bank.7.Lending terms - General7.1OutlayOutlay of the project depends on the local conditions, unit size and the components included in the project. Prevailingmarket prices may be considered to arrive at the outlay.7.2 Margin Money:Margin depends on the category of the borrowers and range from 5 to 25%.7.3 Interest Rate for ultimate borrower :Banks are free to decide the rates of interest within the overall guidelines. However, for working out the financialviability and bankability of the model projects we have assumed the rate of interest as 12 % p.a.7.4 SecuritySecurity will be as per NABARD/RBI guidelines issued from time to time.7.5 Repayment period of loanRepayment period depends upon the gross surplus in the scheme. The loan will be repaid in suitablemonthly/quarterly instalments usually within a period of five to seven years.
  41. 41. 7.6InsuranceThe animals and capital assets may be insured annually or on long term master policy, where ever it is applicable.A model project with 10 buffaloes is given as Annexure II. This is indicative and the applicable input and output costsas also the parameters observed at the field level may be incorporated. Annexure I FORMAT FOR PROJECT REPORT PREPARATION - DAIRY FARM1. GENERALi) Nature and objectives of the proposed schemeii) Details of proposed investmentsiii) Specification of the project areaiv) Name of the financing bank branchv) Status of beneficiary:(individual/Partnership/Company/Corporation/Co-operative Society / Others)vi) Details of borrowers profile(a) Capability(b) Experience(c) Financial Soundness(d) Technical/Other special Qualifications(e) Technical/Managerial Staff and adequacy thereof2. TECHNICAL ASPECTS :a) Location, Land and Land Development :i) Location details of the projectii) Total Area of land and its costiii) Site mapiv) Particulars of land development, fencing, gates, etc.b) Civil Structures :Detailed cost estimates along with measurements of various civil structures- Sheds- Store room- Milk room- Quarters, etc.c) Equipment/Plant and Machinery :i) Chaff cutterii) Silo pitiii) Milking machineiv) Feed grinder and mixerv) Milking pails/milk cansvi) Biogas plantvii) Bulk coolersviii)Equipment for manufacture of productsix) Truck/van (price quotations for the above equipments)d) Housing :i) Type of housingii) Area requirement- Adults- Heifers (1-3 years)- Calves (less than 1 year)e) Animals :i) Proposed speciesii) Proposed breediii) Source of purchaseiv) Place of purchasev) Distance (km.)
  42. 42. vi) Cost of animal (Rs.)f) Production parameters :i) Order of lactationii) Milk yield (ltrs. per day)iii) Lactation daysiv) Dry daysv) Conception ratevi) Mortality(%)- Adults- Young stockg) Herd projection (with all assumptions) :h) Feeding :i) Source of fodder and feed - Green fodder- Dry fodder- Concentratesii) Fodder crop rotations- Kharif- Rabi- Summeriii) Fodder cultivation expensesiv) Requirement and costs :Quantity required (kg./day) Cost(Rs. / Kg) Lactation Dry Period Young StockGreen FodderDry FodderConcentratesi) Breeding Facilities :i) Source :ii) Location :iii) Distance (km.) :iv) Availability of semen :v) Availability of staff :vi) Expenditure per animal/yearj) Veterinary Aid :i) Sourceii) Locationiii) Distance (km.)iv) Availability of labour and other staffv) Types of facilities availablevi) If own arrangements are made -a) Employed a veterinary doctor/stockman/consultantb) Periodicity of visitc) Amount paid/visit (Rs.)vii)Expenditure per animal per year (Rs.)k) Electricity :i) Sourceii) Approval from SEBiii) Connected loadiv) Problems of power failurev) Arrangements for generatorl) Water :i) Source
  43. 43. ii) Quality of wateriii) Availability of sufficient quantity for drinking, cleaning and fodder productioniv) If investment has to be made, type of structure, design and costm) Marketing of milk :i) Source of salesii) Place of disposaliii) Distance (km.)iv) Price realised - (Rs. per liter of milk)v) Basis of paymentvi) Periodicity of paymentn) Marketing of other products :i) Animal - age- place of sale- price expectedii) Manure - Qty./animalPrice/unit (Rs.)iii) Empty gunny bags- Number- Cost/bag (Rs.)o) Beneficiarys experience :p) Comments on technical feasibility :q) Government restrictions, if any :3. FINANCIAL ASPECTS :i) Project Cost Sr. Item Physical Unit and Specification Cost (Rs.) No. Capital Costs Total Capital Costs(A) Recurring Costs Total Recurring Costs (B) Total Project Cost (A+B)ii) Down payment/margin/subsidy (Indicate source & extent of subsidy):iii) Financial viability (comment on the cash flow projection on a farm model/unit and enclose the same.)Particulars :a) Internal Rate of Return (IRR) :b) Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) :c) Net Present Worth (NPW) :iv) Financial position of the borrowers (to be furnished in case of corporate bodies/partnership firms)a) Profitability Ratio :i) GP Ratioii) NP Ratiob) Debt Equity Ratio :c) Whether Income Tax & other tax obligations are paid upto date :
  44. 44. d) Whether audit is upto date (enclose copies of audited financial statements for the last three years)v) Lending Terms :i) Rate of Interest :ii) Grace Period :iii) Repayment Period :iv) Nature of Security :v) Availability of Government guarantee wherever necessary :4. INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES :a) Availability of technical staff with bank/implementing authority for monitoringb) Details of -i) technical guidanceii) training facilitiesiii) Govt. support /extension supportc) Tie-up arrangements with marketing agencies for loan recoveryd) Insurance -- Type of policy- Periodicity- Rate of premiume) Whether any subsidy is available, if so amount per unitf) Arrangements for supply of green fodder and cattle feed Model Unit Cost and Economics of a 10 Buffalo UnitA. Project Cost Rs.Cost of milch animals including transportation cost : 330000Cost of construction of shed for adult animals : 60000Cost of construction of shed for calves : 20000Cost of chaff cutter : 50000Cost of equipment : 10000Capital cost : 470000Cost of concentrate feed for first batch for first month : 4800Cost of fodder cultivation in 2 acres : 9000Insurance of first batch of milch animals : 16000Recurring cost : 29800Total cost : 499800or say : 500000Margin (15%) : 75000Bank Loan : 425000B. Techno economic parametersType of Animal : Graded Murrah BuffaloNo. of Animals : 10Cost of Animal (Rs./animal) : 32000Transportation Cost/Animal : 1000Average Milk Yield (litre/day) : 8Floor space (sqft) per adult animal : 60Floor space (sqft) per calf : 20Cost of construction per sqft (Rs.) : 100Cost of chaff cutter (power operated) (Rs.) : 50000

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