9. human body


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9. human body

  2. 2. HUMAN BODY <ul><li>Human body is made up of many cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of cells with similar specialized functions form tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues with similar functioning from organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Organs that work in coordination form the organ system. </li></ul><ul><li>Many such organ systems make up the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>The skin is the outer protective layer present all over the body that protects the inner organs. </li></ul>
  3. 3. SYSTEMS OF HUMAN BODY <ul><li>Skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular system </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Excretory system </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive system </li></ul>
  4. 4. SKELETAL SYSTEM <ul><li>It is the bony framework of the body made up of the soft cartilage and the hard bone. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives support to the body and protects the vital organs like brain, heart, lungs etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Made up of the heart, blood vessels and blood </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries and veins </li></ul><ul><li>Blood is red in colour due to the presence of heamoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart pumps blood </li></ul><ul><li>Blood carries food and oxygen and wastes </li></ul>
  6. 6. MUSCULAR SYSTEM <ul><li>Muscles help in the movement of the various parts of the body </li></ul><ul><li>The muscles help the humans to perform various activities </li></ul>
  7. 7. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Coordination between the various organs </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of the brain, spinal cord and the various nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Impulses from the sense organs are carried to the brain and the messages are then taken from the brain to the motor organs </li></ul>
  8. 8. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Made up of the nose, larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>The intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide </li></ul>
  9. 9. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM <ul><li>Intake, digestion and assimilation of food </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth, oesophagus, stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, rectum and anus </li></ul>
  10. 10. EXCRETORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Made up a pair of kidneys, ureters and a urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates the wastes from the body </li></ul>
  11. 11. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM <ul><li>Certain glands that perform specialized functions and are associates with some systems </li></ul><ul><li>pituitary, thyroid, adrenal etc </li></ul>
  12. 12. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM <ul><li>Made up of the reproductive organs that help in giving rise to young ones </li></ul><ul><li>In males testes are the reproductive organs while in females ovaries are the reproductive organs </li></ul>
  13. 13. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Energy is required by the body parts to perform their functions </li></ul><ul><li>This energy is obtained by the oxidation of food </li></ul><ul><li>The process wherein necessary oxygen is taken from the atmosphere and waste carbon dioxide is released out of the body is called respiration and is carried out through the respiratory organs </li></ul><ul><li>The respiratory organs are the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and the lungs </li></ul>
  14. 14. NOSE <ul><li>Looks like a pyramid. </li></ul><ul><li>The nasal cavity divided into two nasal passages </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal passages are covered by a moist mucous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Air as it passes is made moist & warm to protect the lungs from the harmful effects of dry air </li></ul><ul><li>Fine hairs filter the dust particles present in the air </li></ul>
  15. 15. PHARYNX <ul><li>Spacious </li></ul><ul><li>Has the openings of food and air passages </li></ul>
  16. 16. LARYNX <ul><li>Called as the voice box. </li></ul><ul><li>Just below the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>a pair of vocal cords that produce sound </li></ul><ul><li>larynx in men is deeper and larger than in women because of which the voice of men is deeper </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx opens into the trachea </li></ul>
  17. 17. TRACHEA <ul><li>Called as the windpipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Long tube - the neck into the chest cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Wall of trachea is supported by rings of cartilage & the inner wall is lined with mucous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of hair-like cilia present on the mucous membrane sweep away dust particles that enter with air </li></ul>
  18. 18. BRONCHI <ul><li>In the chest cavity trachea divides into a right and a left branch </li></ul><ul><li>Each of this again divides into small branches called the bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>In the lungs each bronchus divides into a number of small tubes called as bronchioles </li></ul>
  19. 19. LUNGS <ul><li>Two lungs - 2 protective membranes called the pleura cover the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs are slate coloured and elastic-protected by the ribcage </li></ul><ul><li>small air sacs inside the lungs -exchange of air takes place in the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>blood takes oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body, collects CO2 &releases it into the lungs that expel it out through the nose </li></ul>
  20. 20. EXCRETION & EXCRETORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Elimination of nitrogenous waste material like urea from the body is called excretion </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys are the main excretory organs </li></ul><ul><li>Skin also performs excretion </li></ul>
  21. 21. KIDNEYS <ul><li>In humans there is a pair of kidneys located in the abdomen, one on either side of the vertebral column </li></ul><ul><li>The right kidney is slightly smaller and lower in position than the left kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Each kidney is bean shaped and dark red in colour </li></ul>
  22. 22. KIDNEYS <ul><li>The outer surface of each kidney is convex while the inner surface is concave </li></ul><ul><li>There is a depression on the concave side called the hilus through which a ureter comes out and enters the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Each kidney consists of an outer cortex and an inner medulla </li></ul><ul><li>About 1 million nephrons are present in each kidney </li></ul>
  23. 23. NEPHRON <ul><li>Each nephron has a Malphigian capsule and a Loop of Henley </li></ul><ul><li>The nephrons open into the collecting tubule </li></ul><ul><li>Many such collecting tubules join together to form a ureter </li></ul>
  24. 24. FUNCTIONS OF KIDNEYS <ul><li>Kidneys filter the wastes from the blood, reabsorb the necessary material and release them into the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys also maintain the water balance in the body and the temperature of the body </li></ul>
  25. 25. INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT KIDNEYS <ul><li>A human being can survive with one kidney </li></ul><ul><li>A Dutch person called William J. Knoff in 1943 first introduced artificial kidneys </li></ul>
  26. 26. NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>Coordination between the various organ systems in the human body is brought about by the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of three parts – central, peripheral and the autonomous nervous systems </li></ul>
  27. 27. PARTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>The central nervous system is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>The peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerves originating from the brain and the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>The autonomous nervous system is made up of ganglia or network of nerves. </li></ul>
  28. 28. BRAIN <ul><li>It is the main organ of the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>It is present in the skull and weighs about 1350 grams </li></ul><ul><li>It has three major parts called the cerebrum, cerebellum and the medulla oblongata </li></ul>
  29. 29. CEREBRUM <ul><li>Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and weighs about 995 grams </li></ul><ul><li>Occupies the upper part of the brain </li></ul>
  30. 30. CEREBELLUM <ul><li>Also called as small brain, lies below the cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of specialized sensory centres for specific activities like vision, hearing, memory, smell, taste, speech, sound etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It also maintains the balance of the body </li></ul>
  31. 31. MEDULLA OBLONGATA <ul><li>Present below the cerebellum, is the smallest part of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly triangular in shape </li></ul><ul><li>Connects the brain and the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates the involuntary action like heart beat, muscular action of the digestive system & the working of lungs etc. </li></ul>
  32. 32. SPINAL CORD <ul><li>About 1 cm in diameter & passes downwards into the trunk through the neck </li></ul><ul><li>12 pairs of cranial nerves arise from the brain & 31 pairs of spinal nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Conveys messages from the brain to the organs & from the organs to brain </li></ul><ul><li>Important function of the spinal cord is reflex action </li></ul>
  33. 33. NERVES <ul><li>Three types – sensory, motor and mixed </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory – carry sensory messages </li></ul><ul><li>Motor – carry motor messages </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed – carry both types of messages </li></ul>