10. malnutrition n constituents of foodPresentation Transcript
HEALTH EDUCATION MALNUTRITION & CONSTITUENTS OF FOOD
Malnutrition means insufficient and unwholesome feeding. Many children in our country are malnourished either due to poverty, parental ignorance and backwardness or because of unhealthy feeding habits and non-intake of balanced diet
Poor mental and physical condition
Pale, charmless, lazy and always feels drowsy
Easily fatigued with a slight strenuous work
Susceptible to disease and ill-health
Highly irritable and gloomy in nature
Lacks concentration and forgets what he learns
Shows no interest in learning or playing
ROLE OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT
Should collect funds from various sources like the State Government, rich people of the society, welfare agencies etc
Funds be used to provide healthy, nutritious food in the mid-day meal scheme
Parents should be given guidance with regards to diet.
Parents should be told about the value of good nutrition & the evils of malnutrition
The teachers should create awareness in the students regarding the ill effects of malnutrition through stories and plays
WHY IS FOOD NECESSARY ?
All living beings need food to live
Food is necessary to build the body tissue, repair worn out tissue and to grow
It is necessary to gain strength and fight disease-causing germs, produce anti-toxins
For the well functioning of all the parts of the body
CONSTITUENTS OF FOOD
Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, salts, vitamins and water are the various constituents of food
Proteins - to form new tissues and repair worn-out ones
Carbohydrates give heat and energy to the body , maintain the body temperature
Vitamins control the metabolism.
Water keeps the fluidity of blood, helps in digestion , excretion & regulates body temperature
Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus
Chief sources of nitrogen available in the form of gluten in wheat, legumen in peas & green vegetables and casein in milk
Two main kinds of proteins – animal proteins and vegetable proteins
Animal proteins found in eggs, meat, milk are easily digestible than the veg proteins found in wheat, peas, beans, and pulses
Animal proteins are more useful to human body than the veg proteins because the proteins present in the human body are similar to those present in animals
Because of their utility in human beings, animal proteins are called ‘A’ class proteins
Both classes of proteins are helpful for the physical growth and development of children and youth because
They build up new tissues in growing children
They make up for the loss of nitrogenous matter removed by the excretory system as urea and urine
If proteins are taken in excess they are stored as fat under the skin
Consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Present in two forms – starch and sugar.
Starch is found in cereals like wheat, maize and rice and in certain vegetables like potato, sago etc.
Sugar is present in sugarcane, beetroot, sweet potato, fruits and milk in the form of lactose.
Main sources of heat and energy as they are used as fuel - called as fuel foods
Changed into glucose during digestion and reach muscles through blood, where they are used for generating energy
Remaining glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in the muscles and used when required
In cases of pancreatic dysfunction excess sugar is excreted through urine and this defect is called diabetes mellitus
Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Help as fuel foods
Two types of fats called as animal fats (butter, ghee etc) and vegetable fats (mustard, coconut, castor etc.)
Animal fats produce more heat and energy when compared to vegetable fats
Animal fats contain vitamins A and D that helps in building bones and teeth
SALTS & MINERALS
Salts and minerals like chlorides, phosphates, calcium, iron, sodium, potassium and iodine are required for the building up of body tissues
They are directly absorbed by the body and require no digestion
Sodium chloride is the common salt, calcium salts are found in cheese and vegetables, iron is found in green leafy vegetables, potassium is found in fresh vegetables and fruits
IMPORTANCE OF SALTS
Common salt is an important part of our tissues and blood and is the chief source of hydrochloric acid in our stomach and bile salts in liver.
Calcium salts are major parts of our bones, teeth, blood and other tissues. Deficiency of calcium slats in children causes bone diseases and teeth decay.
IMPORTANCE OF SALTS
Iron is necessary for heamoglobin formation and deficiency of iron leads to anemia
Sodium and potassium are needed to maintain the salinity of blood and proper working of the muscles
Iodine is needed for the proper functioning of thyroid gland and deficiency of iodine causes goitre