Chapter 45—Chemical Signals in Animals I. Regulatory Systems maintain  homeostasis
<ul><li>A. Nervous system sends high speed signals along neurons </li></ul><ul><li>B. Endocrine system produces chemical m...
 
<ul><li>C. Several chemicals are used by both systems (overlap) </li></ul><ul><li>D. control: </li></ul><ul><li>1. reprodu...
II. Modes of action <ul><li>A. local regulators—affect nearby target cells </li></ul><ul><li>1.  neurotransmitters-s end m...
B. Hormones—act on more distant cells <ul><li>1. usually bind to plasma membrane  proteins (hormones are protein) </li></ul>
<ul><li>2.  initiate signal transduction pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transduction—...
<ul><li>3.  Some diffuse through  the membrane and initiate transcription (hormones are steroids) </li></ul>
 
III. Vertebrate Endocrine System <ul><li>Hypothalamus and pituitary integrate many functions of the vertebrate endocrine s...
 
<ul><li>b. integrates endocrine and nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>c. releases hormones in response to nervous impulses ...
<ul><li>2. pituitary—divided into two parts </li></ul><ul><li>a. posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)—stores and secretes...
<ul><ul><li>oxytocin —produces uterine contractions during birth and  milk “let down” during nursing </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
 
<ul><li>b. anterior pituitary (aka:  </li></ul><ul><li>adenohypophysis) </li></ul><ul><li>  regulated by releasing  </li><...
<ul><li>Growth   hormone —affects many tissues promoting growth directly and stimulating the  release of growth factors </...
<ul><li>Tropic hormones—target  other  endocrine glands (2 step process) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid stimulating  hormon...
<ul><li>Adrenocorticotrophic hormone  (ACTH)— stimulates adrenal cortex to produce and release steroid hormones </li></ul>
 
<ul><li>Endorphins —inhibit pain perception (morphine and other opiates are endorphins) </li></ul>
<ul><li>3. Pineal gland </li></ul><ul><li>a. center of mammalian brain </li></ul><ul><li>b. secretes melatonin—biological ...
4. Thyroid gland <ul><li>a. produces two hormones involved in development  and maturation and calcitonin, involved in lowe...
 
<ul><li>b. excess results in  hyperthyroidism —weight loss and irritability </li></ul><ul><li>c. hypothyroidism  (low thyr...
e. negative feedback loop: <ul><li>TSH—releasing hormone (TRH)  is released by hypothalamus and stimulates anterior pituit...
 
5. Parathyroid glands (4) <ul><li>a. secrete  parathyroid hormone </li></ul><ul><li>(PTH) which stimulates  </li></ul><ul>...
 
6. Pancreas —produces insulin and glucagon   which are “antagonistic”   <ul><li>a.  insulin </li></ul><ul><li>produced by ...
b. glucagon <ul><li>produced by alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans </li></ul><ul><li>raises glucose concentration by ...
 
<ul><li>Diabetes Type I—an autoimmune disorder in which pancreatic cells are destroyed— injections of insulin are required...
7. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>Epinephrine  (adrenaline)—produced in adrenal medulla in response to neurotransmitters; produced...
<ul><ul><li>Increases BMR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioenergetic boost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces glycogen break...
<ul><li>Norepinephrine   (noradrenaline)—produced in adrenal medulla; produces same effects as adrenaline </li></ul><ul><l...
 
8.Gonads <ul><li>a. testes—produce androgens such as  testosterone —supports sperm development; development and maintenanc...
<ul><li>b. Ovaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estrogen—stimulates uterine lining growth; development and maintenance of seconda...
 
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Chapter 45—Chemical Signals In Animals

  1. 1. Chapter 45—Chemical Signals in Animals I. Regulatory Systems maintain homeostasis
  2. 2. <ul><li>A. Nervous system sends high speed signals along neurons </li></ul><ul><li>B. Endocrine system produces chemical messengers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>travel more slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulate biological processes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>C. Several chemicals are used by both systems (overlap) </li></ul><ul><li>D. control: </li></ul><ul><li>1. reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. development </li></ul><ul><li>3. behavior </li></ul>
  4. 5. II. Modes of action <ul><li>A. local regulators—affect nearby target cells </li></ul><ul><li>1. neurotransmitters-s end message from nerve to nearby cell </li></ul><ul><li>2. histamines —inflammatory response—released by mast cells and basophils </li></ul><ul><li>3. interleukins —T cells </li></ul><ul><li>4. Growth factors </li></ul><ul><li>5. Prostaglandins —modified fatty acids that are released from most cells and have a wide range of effects on nearby cells </li></ul>
  5. 6. B. Hormones—act on more distant cells <ul><li>1. usually bind to plasma membrane proteins (hormones are protein) </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>2. initiate signal transduction pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transduction—pathway of several steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>response—action of cell </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>3. Some diffuse through the membrane and initiate transcription (hormones are steroids) </li></ul>
  8. 10. III. Vertebrate Endocrine System <ul><li>Hypothalamus and pituitary integrate many functions of the vertebrate endocrine system </li></ul><ul><li>1. hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>a. in lower brain </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>b. integrates endocrine and nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>c. releases hormones in response to nervous impulses </li></ul><ul><li>d. hormones stored in pituitary at the base of the hypothalamus </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>2. pituitary—divided into two parts </li></ul><ul><li>a. posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)—stores and secretes two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><ul><li>oxytocin —produces uterine contractions during birth and milk “let down” during nursing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antidiuretic hormone (ADH )—osmoregulation (water retention by kidneys) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>b. anterior pituitary (aka: </li></ul><ul><li>adenohypophysis) </li></ul><ul><li> regulated by releasing </li></ul><ul><li>and inhibiting hormones </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>Growth hormone —affects many tissues promoting growth directly and stimulating the release of growth factors </li></ul><ul><li>Prolactin —milk production in mammals ( delay of metamorphosis in amphibians) </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Tropic hormones—target other endocrine glands (2 step process) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid stimulating hormone —release of thyroid hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicle stimulating hormone — gonadotropin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luteininzing hormone— gonadotropin </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)— stimulates adrenal cortex to produce and release steroid hormones </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Endorphins —inhibit pain perception (morphine and other opiates are endorphins) </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>3. Pineal gland </li></ul><ul><li>a. center of mammalian brain </li></ul><ul><li>b. secretes melatonin—biological clock </li></ul>
  18. 23. 4. Thyroid gland <ul><li>a. produces two hormones involved in development and maturation and calcitonin, involved in lowering calcium levels in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>triiodothyroxine (T 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>thyroxine (T 4 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain normal blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase cellular metabolism </li></ul></ul>
  19. 25. <ul><li>b. excess results in hyperthyroidism —weight loss and irritability </li></ul><ul><li>c. hypothyroidism (low thyroid activity) can result in weight gain and lethargy </li></ul>
  20. 26. e. negative feedback loop: <ul><li>TSH—releasing hormone (TRH) is released by hypothalamus and stimulates anterior pituitary to release TSH. </li></ul><ul><li>TSH binds to receptors in thyroid gland triggering the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones. High levels of T 3 and T 4 inhibit the secretion of TRH </li></ul>
  21. 28. 5. Parathyroid glands (4) <ul><li>a. secrete parathyroid hormone </li></ul><ul><li>(PTH) which stimulates </li></ul><ul><li>uptake of Ca 2 + in small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Re-absorption of Ca 2 + in kidney </li></ul><ul><li>b. vitamin D is needed for proper </li></ul><ul><li>function of PTH </li></ul>
  22. 30. 6. Pancreas —produces insulin and glucagon which are “antagonistic” <ul><li>a. insulin </li></ul><ul><li>produced by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans within Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>lowers blood sugar by promoting movement of glucose into body cells from the blood and by slowing breakdown of glycogen in the liver </li></ul>
  23. 31. b. glucagon <ul><li>produced by alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans </li></ul><ul><li>raises glucose concentration by stimulating liver to breakdown glycogen and convert fatty acids and amino acids to sugars </li></ul>
  24. 33. <ul><li>Diabetes Type I—an autoimmune disorder in which pancreatic cells are destroyed— injections of insulin are required </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes Type II—insulin deficiency or reduced responsiveness of target cells—sometimes controlled by diet and exercise </li></ul>
  25. 34. 7. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>Epinephrine (adrenaline)—produced in adrenal medulla in response to neurotransmitters; produced in response to stress—prepares the body for “fight or flight” </li></ul>
  26. 35. <ul><ul><li>Increases BMR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioenergetic boost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces glycogen breakdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases blood glucose levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases heart rate and stroke volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dilates bronchioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive over the short run </li></ul></ul>
  27. 36. <ul><li>Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)—produced in adrenal medulla; produces same effects as adrenaline </li></ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoids —produced by adrenal cortex; increases blood glucose in response to hormones (ACTH) to long term stress </li></ul><ul><li>Mineralcorticoid s —produced by adrenal cortex; increases reabsorption og Na+ and K+ in the kidneys; reduces blood glucose </li></ul>
  28. 38. 8.Gonads <ul><li>a. testes—produce androgens such as testosterone —supports sperm development; development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics </li></ul>
  29. 39. <ul><li>b. Ovaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estrogen—stimulates uterine lining growth; development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>progesterone—promotes growth of uterine lining </li></ul></ul>

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