Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: TEN THEMES IN THE STUDY OF LIFE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. <ul><li>Biology, the study of life, is rooted in the human spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>Biology has been pursued for centuries by men of God as they attempted to learn about God as they studied nature—called: </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Theology </li></ul>Introduction Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. Who were these “natural theologians?”
  4. 5. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) <ul><li>Jansenist, a group of Calvinist French Catholic who emphasized salvation through God’s love and grace </li></ul>
  5. 7. Roger Bacon (1214-1294) <ul><li>English Monk used glass to magnify organisms </li></ul>
  6. 9. Louis Pasteur <ul><li>Experiments that demonstrated the cell theory—“all living things are made of cells and all cells come form pre-existing cells” </li></ul>
  7. 11. Lord Kelvin <ul><li>Opponent of Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>Father of “Energetics” </li></ul>
  8. 13. Carolus Linnaeus 1701-1778 <ul><li>Father of Modern taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted the Biblical account of creations </li></ul><ul><li>Concluded that created kinds never alter enough to form new and different kinds </li></ul>
  9. 14. The list goes on: <ul><li>Michael Farraday </li></ul><ul><li>Johann Kepler </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac Newton </li></ul><ul><li>Gregor Mendel </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Lister </li></ul>
  10. 15. Biologists explore life form a global to a microscopic scale
  11. 25. <ul><li>Life’s basic characteristic is a high degree of order. </li></ul>Each level of biological organization has emergent properties Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1.2(1) Fig. 1.2(2)
  12. 26. <ul><li>Biological organization is based on a hierarchy of structural levels, each building on the levels below. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the lowest level are atoms that are ordered into complex biological molecules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many molecules are arranged into minute structures called organelles, which are the components of cells. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 27. <ul><ul><li>Cells are the subunits of organisms, the units of life. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1.2(3)
  14. 28. <ul><ul><li>Some organisms consist of a single cell, others are multicellular aggregates of specialized cells. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 29. What is the upward hierarchy of biological complexity? <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Populations </li></ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Biomes </li></ul>
  16. 30. <ul><li>Novel properties emerge at each step upward in the biological hierarchy. </li></ul>Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  17. 31. <ul><li>These emergent properties result from interactions between components. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A cell is certainly much more than a bag of molecules. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 32. <ul><li>This theme of emergent properties accents the importance of structural arrangement. </li></ul><ul><li>The emergent properties of life are not supernatural, but simply reflect a hierarchy of structural organization. </li></ul>
  19. 33. <ul><li>Life resists a simple, one-sentence definition, yet we can recognize life by what living things do. </li></ul>Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 1.3
  20. 34. <ul><li>Whether multicellular or unicellular, all organisms must accomplish the same functions: </li></ul>
  21. 36. <ul><li>Growth and development </li></ul>
  22. 39. <ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul>
  23. 41. <ul><li>Regulation </li></ul>
  24. 43. <ul><li>Respond to environment </li></ul>
  25. 45. Figure 1.3bx Reproduction
  26. 46. <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul>
  27. 50. <ul><li>Living things exhibit order </li></ul>
  28. 52. Figure 1.3 Some properties of life
  29. 53. Figure 1.3ax Order
  30. 54. <ul><li>The complex organization of life presents a dilemma to scientists seeking to understand biological processes. </li></ul>Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  31. 55. <ul><ul><li>We cannot fully explain a higher level of organization by breaking down to its parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the same time, it is futile to try to analyze something as complex as an organism or cell without taking it apart. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 56. <ul><li>Reductionism , reducing complex systems to simpler components, is a powerful strategy in biology. </li></ul><ul><li>Reductionism is balanced by the longer-range objective of understanding emergent properties . </li></ul>
  33. 57. Science is a process
  34. 58. <ul><li>Science seeks natural causes for natural phenomena. </li></ul><ul><li>The scope of science is limited to the study of structures and processes that we can observe and measure, either directly or indirectly. </li></ul>
  35. 59. <ul><li>Verifiable observations and measurements are the data of discovery science. </li></ul>
  36. 60. <ul><li>In some cases the observations entail a planned detailed dissection and description of a biological phenomenon, like the human genome. </li></ul><ul><li>In other cases, curious and observant people make totally serendipitous discoveries. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1928, Alexander Fleming accidentally discovered the antibacterial properties of Pencillium when this fungus contaminated some of his bacterial cultures. </li></ul>
  37. 61. <ul><li>Discovery science can </li></ul><ul><li>lead to important </li></ul><ul><li>conclusions via inductive </li></ul><ul><li>reasoning. An inductive </li></ul><ul><li>conclusion is a generalization </li></ul><ul><li>that summarizes many </li></ul><ul><li>concurrent observations. </li></ul>
  38. 62. Organizing Species
  39. 63. Linnaeus developed our system of organizing using 7 taxons <ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul><ul><li> Class </li></ul><ul><li> Order </li></ul><ul><li> Family </li></ul><ul><li> Genus </li></ul><ul><li> species </li></ul>
  40. 64. The scientific name is made of the Genus and species name (hence binomial nomenclature) <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Drosophila melanogaster </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella typhimurium </li></ul>
  41. 65. Linnaeus used 2 groups <ul><li>Plant Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Kingdom </li></ul>
  42. 66. Whitaker used 5 kingdoms <ul><li>Monerans </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Protists </li></ul>
  43. 67. Scientists have now added a new taxon, called a “domain” <ul><li>Current system uses 3 domains: </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria Archaea Eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>Both are prokaryotic </li></ul>
  44. 68. Monerans are Prokaryotic
  45. 69. <ul><li>Smaller than eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>No membrane bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is not contained in a nucleus </li></ul>
  46. 70. Plants, animals, fungi and protists are eukaryotes <ul><li>Larger </li></ul><ul><li>Have membrane bound nucleus containing DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Have membrane bound organelles that compartmentalize cells </li></ul>
  47. 71. <ul><li>Read Chapter One and complete the Learning Log! </li></ul>

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