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Ch 9 Minus Glands
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  • 1. Chapter 9 The Endocrine System Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 9.1 – 9.22 Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook
  • 2.
    • I. The Endocrine System
    Slide 9.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A. Uses chemical messages (hormones) that are released into the blood B. Hormones are produced by specialized cells C. Cells secrete hormones into extracellular fluids D. Blood transfers hormones to target sites
  • 3.
    • E. These hormones regulate the activity of other cells
      • Reproduction
      • Growth and development
      • Mobilization of body defenses
      • Maintenance of much of homeostasis
      • Regulation of metabolism
  • 4.
    • II. The Chemistry of Hormones
    Slide 9.3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    • A. Amino acid-based hormones
      • Proteins
      • Peptides
      • Amines
    • B. Steroids – made from cholesterol
    • C. Prostaglandins – made from highly active lipids
  • 5.
    • III. Mechanisms of Hormone Action
    Slide 9.4 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A. Hormones affect only certain tissues or organs (target cells or organs) B. Target cells must have specific protein receptors C. Hormone binding influences the working of the cells
  • 6.
    • D. Effects Caused by Hormones
    Slide 9.5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    • Changes in plasma membrane permeability or electrical state
    • Synthesis of proteins, such as enzymes
    • Activation or inactivation of enzymes
    • Stimulation of mitosis
  • 7.
    • E. Steroid Hormone Action
    Slide 9.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1. Steroid hormones can diffuse through the plasma membrane of target cells 2. Enter the nucleus 3. Bind to specific sites on the cell’s DNA 4. Activate genes that result in synthesis of new proteins
  • 8.
    • Steroid Hormone Action
    Slide 9.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.1a
  • 9.
    • F. Non-steroid Hormone Action
    Slide 9.8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1. Hormone binds to a membrane receptor 2. Hormone does not enter the cell 3. Sets off a series of reactions that activates an enzyme 4. Catalyzes a reaction that produces a second messenger molecule 5. Oversees additional intracellular changes to promote a specific response
  • 10.
    • Nonsteroid Hormone Action
    Slide 9.9 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.1b
  • 11.
    • G. Control of Hormone Release
    Slide 9.10 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1. Hormone levels in the blood are maintained by negative feedback 2. A stimulus or low hormone levels in the blood triggers the release of more hormone 3. Hormone release stops once an appropriate level in the blood is reached
  • 12.
    • IV. Stimuli of Endocrine Glands
    Slide 9.11 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A. Endocrine glands are activated by other hormones Figure 9.2a
  • 13. Slide 9.12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.2b B. Changing blood levels of certain ions stimulate hormone release
  • 14. Slide 9.13 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings C. In some cases Nerve impulses stimulate hormone release D. Most are under control of the sympathetic nervous system Figure 9.2c
  • 15.
    • Location of Major Endrocrine Organs Slide 9.15
    Slide 9.14 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.3
  • 16.
    • V. Hormone-Producing Tissues and Organs
    Slide 9.39 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A. Parts of the small intestine B. Parts of the stomach C. Kidneys D. Heart E. Many other areas have scattered endocrine cells
  • 17.
    • F. Endocrine Function of the Placenta
    Slide 9.40 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1. Produces hormones that maintain the pregnancy 2. Some hormones play a part in the delivery of the baby 3. Produces HCG in addition to estrogen, progesterone, and other hormones
  • 18.
    • VI. Developmental Aspects of the Endocrine System
    Slide 9.41 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    • A. Most endocrine organs operate smoothly until old age
      • 1. Menopause is brought about by lack of efficiency of the ovaries
      • 2. Problems associated with reduced estrogen are common
      • 3.Growth hormone production declines with age
      • 4. Many endocrine glands decrease output with age