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Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
Ch 13 Development Disorders
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Ch 13 Development Disorders

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  • 1. Chapter 13 The Respiratory System
  • 2. <ul><li>External Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>1. Oxygen movement into the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alveoli have more O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 moves by diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary capillary blood gains O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. CO 2 movement out of the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood has more CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary capillary blood gives up CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood leaving the lungs is O 2 -rich and CO 2 - poor. </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>Which is Internal or External Respiration? </li></ul>Figure 13.11
  • 4. <ul><li>Respiratory Disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplified by chronic bronchitis & emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Major causes of death & disability in US </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>- history of smoking </li></ul><ul><li>-Labored breathing (dyspnea) </li></ul><ul><li>-Coughing & frequent infections </li></ul><ul><li>-Retain carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>- are hypoxic & have respiratory acidosis </li></ul><ul><li>-Ultimately develop respiratory failure </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli enlarge as chambers break through </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic inflammation promotes lung fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Airways collapse during expiration </li></ul><ul><li>Much energy to exhale </li></ul><ul><li>Overinflation leads to a barrel chest </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanosis appears late in the disease </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Chronic Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><li>Mucosa of respiratory passages becomes severely inflamed </li></ul><ul><li>Mucus production increases </li></ul><ul><li>Pooled mucus impairs ventilation and gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of lung infection increases </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia is common </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoxia and cyanosis occur early </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) </li></ul>Figure 13.13
  • 8. <ul><li>Lung Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts for 1/3 of all cancer deaths in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Increased incidence associated with smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Three common types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous cell carcinoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenocarcinoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small cell carcinoma </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Sudden Infant Death syndrome (SIDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Apparently healthy infant stops breathing and dies during sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Some cases are thought to be a problem of the neural respiratory control center </li></ul><ul><li>One third of cases appear to be due to heart rhythm abnormalities </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic inflamed hypersensitive bronchiole passages </li></ul><ul><li>Response to irritants with dyspnea, coughing, and wheezing </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>Developmental Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs filled with fluid in the baby </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs not inflated until 2 weeks after birth </li></ul><ul><li>Surfactant that lowers alveolar surface tension is not present until late in fetal development and may not be present in premature babies </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Developmental Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Important birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis – oversecretion of thick mucus clogs the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Cleft palate </li></ul><ul><li>Newborns – 40 to 80 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Infants – 30 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Age 5 – 25 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Adults – 12 to 18 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Rate increases with old age </li></ul>Respiratory Rate Changes Through Life
  • 13. <ul><li>Aging Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticity of lungs decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Vital capacity decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Blood oxygen levels decrease </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating effects of carbon dioxide decreases </li></ul><ul><li>More risks of respiratory tract infection </li></ul>

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