Stacking(3D to 2D) is best illustrated using the Matlab surf() function, however, plot3() was used for the 2D images
Right hemisphere ~ parallel processor(present events),Left hemisphere ~ serial processor(past n future)
BIOMETRICS National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) defines Biometrics as automated method of identifying or authenticating an individual based on his/her physiological or behavioral characteristic. “Biometrics: The passwords of the Future!!!”
Biometrics makes use of several unique human characteristics:
PERSON AUTHENTICATION Illustration of typical errors of a biometric system during authentication. An impostor above the threshold is a false acceptance. A client below the threshold is a false rejection. Equal Error Rate (EER), i.e when FAR = FRR, False Acceptance (FA), False Rejection (FR), False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR),
BRAIN WAVE CHARACTERISTICS Main source of the EEG is the synchronous activity of thousands of cortical neurons. Everyone's brainwave signal is a bit different even when they think about the same thing. In abnormal adults the EEG shows sudden bursts of electrical activity (spikes) or sudden slowing of brain waves. These abnormal discharges may be caused by a brain tumor, infection, injury, stroke, or epilepsy. Brain dead state : Flat EEG
Recording brain waves Each electrode is connected to one input of a differential amplifier A common system reference electrode is connected to the other input of each differential amplifier Amplified signal is digitized via an analog-to-digital converter, after being passed through an anti-aliasing filter. Sampling frequency range:256–512 Hz High-pass filter are 0.5-1 Hz(Delta wave) and Low-pass filter 35–70 Hz(Gamma wave frequency)
The headgear detects changes in brain-wave patterns via metal
sensors at the front and back of the head and at the earlobes. A chipdigitizes and transmits that information wirelessly via Bluetooth or RFID to a computer or PDA.
Current flow inside our brain would be ionic not electronic
APPS: BIOMETRIC PASSPORT Used in all security systems as biometric locker . The brainwave pattern can be stored on a microchip on the card or on a magnetic strip. Biometric passport is introduced because of the increasing threat of identity fraud makes it necessary to strengthen the security features in passports. International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) nominated brain wave recognition as the biometric security, with facial, iris and fingerprint as backup.
References: 1. FBI biometric centre of excellence(BCOE)- http://www.biometriccoe.gov/ 2. Biometrics Using Headgear to Scan Brainwaves- Proceedings of the National Conference on Innovations in Emerging Technology- February 2011,C.Eswari, S.K.Ramya, Periyar Maniammai University,Tamilnadu,India 3. Characteristics of Biometric System, cernet. 4. http://xtrem-it-y.blogspot.com/p/biometrics-using-headgear-to-scan.html 5.Thinkcontact:Mirko B. Perkusich, Taciana S. Rached, and Angelo Perkusich,IEEEMember SEMINAR RECAP: Visit my blog: www.brainwavebiometric.blogspot.com/
ADVANTAGES AND COMPARISON : Confidential (as it corresponds to a mental task) Very difficult to mimic Problems with fingerprinting matching and submission include cold, dry or oily fingers, extreme humidity, proper placement, finger pressure, and finger disfigurement….results in data acquisition delay. Movement of the head or eye, glasses, and colored contacts affect an accurate and timely submission or acquisition. Many algorithms are under development for person identification. One such algorithm is based on P300 wave analysis. Learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network is used for the classifier to identify which individual the P300 wave belongs to.
APPS: ThinkContact ThinkContact enables a motor disabled person to make a phone call to a desired contact using GIU The byte sequence, called packet, sent by the headset is translated into the user’s level of meditation and attention by using an algorithm provided by the headset’s company. Switching of contacts based on User’s attention levels : 30%-70%(contact switching),80%(makes a call)
Related Ideas n Apps: Alzheimer's’ disease monitoring and treatment by restoring original brain waveform patterns..!! MERMER (memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response),developed by Dr. Farwell, concerned with brain fingerprinting. Real life-changing applications such as controlling a wheelchair using mind wave has been deployed recently.
Brainwave pattern of a person driving a vehicle can be monitored and an alert can be made when he is drowsy or if not in a relaxed state, by just wearing a headset.
Comparison of consumer brain–computer interfaces