A biologic feature that can be used to measure thepresence or progress of disease or the effects oftreatment. For example, prostate specific antig (PSA) is abiomarker for Cancer of the prostate
Lipids Carbohydrates Small molecules Nucleic acids Proteins
Biomarkers validated by genetic and molecular biology methods can be classified into three types. Type 0 - Natural history markers - Intracellular co enzymesType 1 - Drug activity markers rubidium chloride is used as a radioactive isotope to evaluate perfusion of heart muscle. Type 2 - Surrogate markers "Death from heart disease" is the endpoint of interest, but "cholesterol" is the surrogate marker.
Example 1:Biomarkers are urgently needed for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in Parkinsons disease. Both DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein, two proteins critically involved in Parkinsons disease pathogenesis. Example 2:Pathological cascades and potential biomarkers of AD. Proteolytic cleavage of APP first by -secretase followed by -secretase can produce A 42 and other shorter A fragments. The subsequent aggregation of A 42 results in oligomers and amyloid fibrils. Amyloid fibrils are eventually deposited as senile plaques as shown. The toxicity of oligomers and amyloid fibrils could lead to the cascade of tau-hyperphosphorylation, which is otherwise bound to microtubules, providing microtubule stability. Upon hyperphosphorylation, tau dissociates from microtubules and aggregates into NFT, which could eventually cause increased cytoskeleton flexibility and neuronal death.
Example 1:Trastuzumab and lapatinib. They target the HER2 biomarker in women who have HER2-positive breast cancer. These targeted therapies will not work in women who do not have the biomarker, even if they have breast cancer.
Example 1:Toxicity tests are designed to identify the hazardous properties of a chemical substance, tested in an isolated form in laboratory animals.Ex 1 s liver glutathione content asan indicator of paracetamol hepatotoxicity(19), but these cannot be used in a general sense.
Objective: To evaluate the utility of safety biomarkers for monitoring organ safety in humans. The isoenzymes of lactacte dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase in combination with more specific markers of cardiac injury, such as the cardiac troponins, can provide information on the relative severity, extent or duration of myocardial injury.
blood tests (i.e. blood urea nitrogen [BUN] and serum creatinine) are the two factors used for the monitoring kidney toxicity and functional performance of the kidney . Significant changes in BUN and/or serum creatinine can only be detected after major injuries to the kidney have occurred, at stage where the kidney has lost a substantial part of its fie sensitive to injuries to specific segment of the nephron (the basic kidney filtering unit), would reflect the degree of toxicity to the nephron. Histopathology was used to determine the magnitude and extent of the kidney injuries, factor-specific histological assays were used to identify the origin of selected factors detected in the urine (fig. 1).
1.HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Plasma levels of the coagulation biomarker D-dimer (DD) have been correlated with increased mortality and cardiovascular events in HIV-infected patients. In SIVagm-infected PTMs(pig tailed macaques), DD levels were highly indicative of AIDS progression and increased mortality and were associated with cardiovascular lesions, pointing to SIVagm- infected PTMs as an ideal animal model for the study of the mechanisms of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease.
2. plasma cytokine levels and RT-MLPA analysis of whole blood-derived RNA was performed to capture key immune system parameters. Analysis of the plasma showed higher levels of IL-18 in progressors compared to non-progressors and analysis of the RNA showed significantly lower gene expression of Bcl2 but higher CCR7 in progressors compared to non-progressors. This study shows several markers that may predict the onset of active TB at a very early stage after infection
1.Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are causative agents and alter the cell cycle in cervical neoplasms, host genes interacting directly or indirectly with HPV oncoproteins have been identified in vitro. Recent research has centered on identifying the host genes upregulated in association with HPV infection, determining their suitability as “surrogate markers” for HPV infection, and using these markers to identify HPV-associated epithelial lesions in tissue or cytologic specimens.
2. Angiogenesis, a process well known to be involved in tumour growth and metastasis, is the target of several agents available today in the treatment of cancer. Laboratory assays used to detect proteins involved in angiogenesis. Surrogate biomarkers discussed include soluble proteins found in the blood or urine, circulating endothelial cells and their progenitors, and non- invasive imaging techniques.
In vitro tumor assay systems or serum biomarkers that may be reliably used to (a) provide an accurate early indication of prognosis (prognostic test) or (b) to predict the effectiveness of an alternative management strategy in a patient whose disease has been documented to have progressed or where the test suggests an unfavorable outcome with the current strategy (predictive test). estrogen receptor in breast cancer) currently exist in the oncology arena, and it would be most appropriate to firmly state that, to date, no such test satisfies this criterion in the area of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Screen for disease DistinguishAssess risk of between benign developing versus malignant disease processes Biomarker includin g stagingMonitor disease status before and after Predict therapy response to Determine therapy prognosis independent of therapy