DNA Computing

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DNA Computing

  1. 1. PROCESSING DNA TOKENS IN PARALLEL COMPUTING Presented by Sapnah Aligeti Midwestern State University 27 June 2005.
  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>About the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Define keywords. </li></ul><ul><li>A little about DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Operations on DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>History of DNA computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Travelling Salesman Problem. </li></ul><ul><li>The Experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Results. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Futrue Developments. </li></ul>
  3. 3. ABOUT THE PAPER <ul><li>IEEE Proceedings in 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Authors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Nowak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piotr Wasiewicz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prof. Jan J.Mulawka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prof. Andrzej Plucienniczak </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. ABOUT THE PAPER (CONTD) <ul><li>Abstract: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this paper a new technique of sending data between molecular processors is presented. The molecular processor is a processing data unit. Its computation results have to be sent to other units in the form of addressed messages - tokens. Necessary experiments were performed. All operations were implemented in DNA. DNA processors and tokens were specially designed DNA strings. Results of experiments prove our assumptions. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. KEYWORDS DEFINITION <ul><li>Molecular Processor. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA computing. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA tokens. </li></ul>
  6. 6. A LITTLE ABOUT DNA <ul><li>DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid. </li></ul>
  7. 7. A LITTLE ABOUT DNA (CONTD) <ul><li>DNA Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A for Adenine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T for Thymine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G for Guanine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C for Cytosine </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. A LITTLE ABOUT DNA (CONTD) <ul><li>DNA Structure – double helix </li></ul>
  9. 9. FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS ON DNA. <ul><li>Hybridization / Renaturation. </li></ul><ul><li>Denaturation. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting. </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification. </li></ul><ul><li>Concatenation. </li></ul><ul><li>Extracting. </li></ul>
  10. 10. RENATURATION AND DENATURATION
  11. 11. DNA CUTTING.
  12. 12. HISTORY OF DNA COMPUTING. <ul><li>Millions of natural supercomputers exist inside living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequences of A, T, G, C instead of 1’s and 0’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton Path problem / Travelling salesman problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1994. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonard Adleman (University of California.) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM.
  14. 14. TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM (CONTD) <ul><li>Test Tube as Computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Operations are massively parallel. </li></ul>
  15. 15. TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM (CONTD)
  16. 16. TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM (CONTD) <ul><li>Extracting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract all paths having the correct START and END. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract the paths with the correct number of cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract the ones with no repetitions of cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The remaining path would be the result. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. THE EXPERIMENT
  18. 18. DNA TOKENS ADDRESSING. <ul><li>Molecular processors in a single tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Data sending by DNA tokens. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA token structure. </li></ul>
  19. 19. AMPLIFICATION OF DNA <ul><li>AMPLIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>OF </li></ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul>
  20. 20. RESULTS
  21. 21. RESULTS
  22. 22. PROBLEMS. <ul><li>Proper enzyme selection. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While using artificial nucleotides. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extraction. </li></ul>
  23. 23. CONCLSUIONS. <ul><li>Multicast / Broadcast propagation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper sequencing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of artificial nucleotide ‘N’. </li></ul>
  24. 24. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS <ul><li>It is expected that the described molecular processor with changing states during computation will be invented in the near future and will consist of more than one DNA molecule. It is obvious that the real advantage of such systems appears during massively parallel computation. Million molecular processors could be attached with their 3’ ends to a typical DNA chip or magnetic beads placed in a microreactor. Thus, it would be the first prototype of future powerful molecular computers. </li></ul>
  25. 25. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC NEWS. <ul><li>February 24, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli scientists have devised a computer that can perform 330 trillion operations per second. </li></ul>
  26. 26. QUESTIONS???? THANK YOU !!!!!
  27. 27. EXTRA SLIDES - Gel Electrophoresis <ul><li>Result of gel electrophoresis of DNA. Sequence is CGACCACCACCCCGAGGTT </li></ul>

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