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Bollywood for all
the demand for audio described Bollywood films

Sonali Rai
The quantitative research for this report was done by Agroni Research.

Agroni Research
Bow Business Centre
15-159 Bow Roa...
Foreword
Films and TV programmes are often difficult to appreciate if you can only hear them.
Imagine a scene where a woul...
Acknowledgments
A special thanks to Sony Pictures Entertainment for supporting this study, by providing
film material from...
Executive summary
1. Why was this project undertaken?
Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) is a registered UK c...
Executive summary


2. What was done during the course of the project?
The project aimed to understand behaviours and atti...
Executive summary


2.3. Qualitative research study
Fifty blind or partially sighted Asian people were interviewed for the...
Executive summary


    were not aware of its features and what it had to offer. There was a significant
    lack of aware...
Executive summary


Recommendation 4: Raising awareness amongst the target population
in the UK
4 (a) RNIB to plan awarene...
Executive summary


     Recommendation 6: Engage with the Bollywood film industry
     6 (a) RNIB could participate in co...
Contents
1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially
   sighted audience ______________________________...
Contents


            4.4.3. Factors that affect the viewing of Bollywood films______________42
     4.5.   Key finding 3...
Contents


   5.5. What difference does AD make?__________________________________76
        5.5.1. Initial impressions __...
Contents


7. Practical aspects to providing AD on Bollywood films __________________95
   7.1. Lack of awareness of AD wi...
1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its
blind and partially sighted audience
The genesis of India’s Hindi film industry...
1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience


 Gauging the popularity of Bollywood fil...
1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience


1.1. Objectives
This report is the first...
1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience


     Older people are far more likely to...
1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience


Building on this, chapter 5 uses the qua...
2. Audio Description (AD)
2.1. What is AD?
Similar to a narrator telling a story, AD is an additional commentary describin...
2. Audio Description (AD)


In both systems, AD is transmitted to blind and partially sighted people in the
auditorium via...
3. Personas
A total of 260 people were interviewed for the quantitative study and a total of 50
people were interviewed fo...
3. Personas


Persona 2: Rajesh, age 87, a retired musician
He enjoys his Bollywood films at home now – television or DVD....
3. Personas


     his own. Occasionally, he gets frustrated if he fails to understand the plot or the film
     takes a w...
3. Personas


Persona 5: Puja, age 13, school student
She loves watching films in a cinema or on the television. She is al...
3. Personas


     He says he does not watch films/ television anymore; he listens to them in the same
     way as he woul...
4. Quantitative research study
4.1 Executive summary
This study explored Bollywood film viewing behaviour amongst blind an...
4. Quantitative research study


Overall, the evidence from this research suggests that there is demand for audio
describe...
4. Quantitative research study


(Note: Registration is not mandatory therefore actual numbers of blind and partially
sigh...
4. Quantitative research study


4.2.2. Sample size and the locations of interviews
The sample size for the study was 260 ...
4. Quantitative research study


number along with percentages either in a tabular format or in a graphical
representation...
4. Quantitative research study


25 per cent of interviews were conducted in London, 33 per cent in Leicester, 21 per
cent...
4. Quantitative research study


4.3.3. Place of interviews and gender of respondents
Table 3 shows that the majority of t...
4. Quantitative research study


Table 4. Age of respondents (N=260)

 Age of respondents          Number of respondents  ...
4. Quantitative research study


Respondents were offered a choice of languages in which the interviews could be
conducted...
4. Quantitative research study


When asked whether they were registered blind or partially sighted, 35 per cent said
they...
4. Quantitative research study


Table 8. When watching TV, do you have any of the following? (N= 260)


 Multiple respons...
4. Quantitative research study


Table 9. What adjustments do you make when watching television or DVD? (N=260)

 Multiple...
4. Quantitative research study


  Four per cent of respondents said that they watched Bollywood films once a
  fortnight ...
4. Quantitative research study


(Note: Those who never watched Bollywood films on television were categorised as
“not int...
4. Quantitative research study


Table 12 shows that one in five watched a Bollywood film on DVD at least once a
week, but...
4. Quantitative research study


Table 14. Watching Bollywood films on DVD by age groups (N=198)

 Age group              ...
4. Quantitative research study


Table 15. Factors that stop you watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD

 Multiple response...
4. Quantitative research study


Table 16. Factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films on TV or DVD by sight
levels
  ...
4. Quantitative research study


It was found that a similar proportion (over 50 per cent) of respondents from the
middle ...
4. Quantitative research study


Table 18. How often do you currently watch Bollywood films in the cinema?

              ...
4. Quantitative research study


Table 20 shows the frequency of watching Bollywood films in a cinema by age groups.
(Note...
4. Quantitative research study


Table 21. What factors stop you from watching Bollywood films in a cinema?


 Multiple re...
4. Quantitative research study


Similarly a higher proportion of blind people cited ‘difficult to travel’ as a factor
pre...
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
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RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
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RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report
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RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report

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RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report

RNIB has been hugely successful in establishing the audio description (AD) of films as a norm in the production of DVDs and in cinemas across the UK. We now seek to expand and develop audio description services for Bollywood films.

The Bollywood industry produces the largest number of films globally and is known for producing song and dance visual extravaganzas. To ensure that these are enjoyed fully by blind and partially sighted people, it is imperative that audio description becomes an intrinsic feature of Bollywood films.

RNIB has undertaken this project to look at the specific needs of ethnic minority blind and partially sighted people in the UK. We hope to establish a potential market for audio described Bollywood films and develop a working relationship with the Bollywood film industry.

Our work involves developing links with organisations supporting blind and partially sighted people in the UK and India to enable audio description provision in both countries.

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Transcript of "RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report"

  1. 1. Bollywood for all the demand for audio described Bollywood films Sonali Rai
  2. 2. The quantitative research for this report was done by Agroni Research. Agroni Research Bow Business Centre 15-159 Bow Road London E3 2SE Tel: 020 8981 1020 Fax: 020 8983 4136 Email: info@agroni.co.uk Website: www.agroni.co.uk Project Steering Group Heather Cryer Joan Greening Alison Handford Anna Jones Leen Petré For further information about this research, contact: Royal National Institute of Blind People Media and Culture Department 105 Judd Street London WC1H 9NE Telephone: 020 7391 2258 Fax: 020 7387 7109 Email: audiodescription@rnib.org.uk Website: www.rnib.org.uk 2
  3. 3. Foreword Films and TV programmes are often difficult to appreciate if you can only hear them. Imagine a scene where a would-be killer is stalking the heroine in a lonely alley. In the absence of dialogue, the background score alone would be inadequate to render the scene captivating unless you can see the action. Audio Description (AD) enhances an audience’s involvement by adding a narrative, which draws word pictures for the audience during sequences in which the dialogue is few and far between. RNIB’s involvement with AD has ensured that more than 300 cinemas in the UK are equipped with systems that facilitate AD and the majority of Hollywood films released in UK cinemas have an AD track on them. Going to the movies is no longer considered the prerogative of sighted people. This study seeks to expand the horizons of RNIB’s initiative, and take it to new shores. A logical extension of this initiative would be to involve Bollywood, the world’s most prolific film industry producing around 700 films every year, in this venture. The study explores whether a potential demand for audio described Bollywood films exists in the UK and India. Apart from establishing the demand, it seeks to understand the best medium (TV/DVD/Cinema) to introduce the availability of audio described Bollywood films and language preferences of the target audience for audio described Bollywood films. It also aims to understand the best ways of reaching out to this audience to create awareness about the availability of this service. Using both qualitative and quantitative research, the study clearly shows that there is a huge unmet need for audio described Bollywood films in the UK and India. Bollywood continues to shine for millions of its fans ever since it released its first silent film. These films mean much more to viewers than just pure entertainment. They have managed to create that original, sentimental celluloid connection with audiences around the world. In such a scenario, it becomes even more significant that every single person, including people of Asian origin with sight loss, get that chance to sit back and enjoy a Bollywood film of their choice, independently. This report can be used as a reference tool by the Bollywood film industry, AD providers and Bollywood film distributors. RNIB hopes that the results of this research will not only assist the introduction of AD in Bollywood films but also go a long way in bridging that gap in accessibility for millions of its fans. Leen Petré Principal Manager, Media and Culture Department, RNIB 3
  4. 4. Acknowledgments A special thanks to Sony Pictures Entertainment for supporting this study, by providing film material from the Bollywood film “Saawariya” for the purpose of this research study. A big thanks to Independent Television Facilities Centre Limited (ITFC) for producing audio description for user material to be used in the qualitative research study. Sincere thanks to a team of colleagues and friends at RNIB for their encouragement and support throughout this research study. During the production of the report, the steering group committee dedicated time to reviewing and commenting on the content of the material. Amongst those who fulfilled this enormous task, a special thanks to Heather Cryer and Alison Handford for their constant guidance and support. Thanks also to all those who participated in the qualitative and quantitative research interviews, including those who helped us recruit further participants: All India Confederation of the Blind National Association for the Blind Blind People’s Association (BPA), Ahmedabad Saksham Trust Asian Blind Association (ABA) Kiran Talking Newspaper Bradnet Birmingham Focus on Blindness Newham Voluntary Association for the Blind Waltham Forest Asian Blind Association Sonali Garden Day Centre Dekhtay Chai Vista Community Centre (Leicester) Leicester General Hospital (VI Services) Age Concern (Leicester) Sanatan Centre Bradford College Bilton Medical Centre Oakland House Care for Old People. Agroni Research would also like to express their sincere gratitude to Dr Sean Carey, Ms Nadira Huda, Dr Kapil Ahmed and all the interviewers for their immense contribution in the completion of the quantitative research study. 4
  5. 5. Executive summary 1. Why was this project undertaken? Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) is a registered UK charity, representing the needs and interests of around two million blind and partially sighted people in the UK. RNIB works directly and indirectly with blind and partially sighted people, representative organisations, government sectors, broadcasting and entertainment industries, and a range of professionals working in the field of visual impairment. A needs survey carried out by RNIB in 1991 showed that 94 per cent of blind and partially sighted people watch films/television regularly. The survey found that filmed entertainment and media play an important role in their lives by providing access to news, information and entertainment. Independent film/television viewing can be facilitated by the provision of Audio Description (AD). AD is an additional commentary to a film/television programme, describing body language, expressions and movements. It gives people information about the things that they might not be able to see, so that they can keep up with the action on the screen. It takes away the dependence of relying on someone else to fill in the gaps. RNIB has ensured access to films by working with all areas of the film industry, including film distributors, exhibitors and equipment manufacturers, and by influencing legislation. In the UK today, the majority of Hollywood films are screened with AD, and 40 per cent of cinemas are equipped to deliver AD. Many Hollywood DVDs also include AD on mainstream UK releases, with the service often promoted on relevant film websites. The Indian film industry, popularly known as Bollywood, is by far the most prolific film industry in the world. The industry, which produces about 700 films a year, has always had a strong and passionate relationship with its domestic audience. But the 21st century has seen a new breed of Bollywood fans cropping up across the globe. Even second or third-generation Asian emigrants, who do not always speak the language of the film, definitely know their Hrithik Roshans and their Kareena Kapoors. It is the sheer exuberance of these films that drive them to bridge the language barrier. Today, the UK is the largest market for Bollywood films outside India. But since Bollywood films are currently not available with AD, they largely remain inaccessible to their blind and partially sighted viewers. RNIB, through this study, sought to investigate the demand for audio described Bollywood films in the UK and India. 5
  6. 6. Executive summary 2. What was done during the course of the project? The project aimed to understand behaviours and attitudes of blind and partially sighted Asian people towards the viewing of Bollywood films with and without AD. The findings of this project draw on the data collected through a combination of qualitative and quantitative research studies to provide an accurate picture of the issue being addressed, with a comprehensive analysis of the barriers faced by the target audience when watching Bollywood films. 2.1. Objectives The primary objectives of this study were to provide answers to the following questions specifically in relation to blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin: How often does the target group watch Bollywood films, eg at the cinema, on DVD, or on television? Would AD encourage the target group to watch Bollywood films more often? Is the target group likely to change its film viewing habits if AD was provided on these films? Which factors influence the target audience’s views on AD of Bollywood films, eg degree of sight loss, personal circumstances etc? What preferences do the target audience have in terms of language of the description, eg Hindi or English? When AD is provided, what impact does it have on the experience of watching Bollywood films (positive or negative)? How might description in Bollywood films differ from description in Hollywood films to increase viewing and viewing pleasure? Should the UK AD guidelines be adapted for AD in Bollywood films? The project also aimed to put forth recommendations for further implementation of the findings. 2.2. Quantitative research study The quantitative research was undertaken with 260 blind or partially sighted people of Asian descent (including people of Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani origin only), living in the UK. The sample included a range of ages, sight conditions and levels of familiarity with Bollywood films. 6
  7. 7. Executive summary 2.3. Qualitative research study Fifty blind or partially sighted Asian people were interviewed for the qualitative study. Of these, 25 people were interviewed in the UK and 25 in India. The sample included a wide range of ages, sight conditions and familiarity with Bollywood films although the majority of participants tended to have severe sight problems. 3. Key findings and conclusions 3.1. Current barriers to watching Bollywood films Despite accessibility issues, 19 per cent of the 260 respondents in the quantitative study said they watched a Bollywood film on television everyday, with 6 per cent stating that they watched them on DVD about once a day. Viewing of Bollywood films at the cinema was much lower, with 66 per cent stating they never watched Bollywood films at the cinema. However, about 15 per cent said they watched a Bollywood film in a cinema at least once a week. A significant number of respondents, 40 per cent, believed that their current sight level was a major factor that prevented them from going to the cinema to watch Bollywood films, as it affected their understanding of the film. 3.2. Likelihood of people watching Bollywood films with AD Over half of the respondents in both studies stated that they were more likely to watch Bollywood films if AD was provided (56 per cent in the quantitative study and 92 per cent in the qualitative study). AD improved understanding of the film clip for blind and partially sighted people, with people reporting a greater grasp of location, characters, expressions and the plot. 3.3. Three key areas were identified 3.3.1. Description over songs Respondents felt it was important to provide AD during songs as well as in the standard story so as to be able to follow what was happening on the screen. 3.3.2. Language of the description The majority of respondents preferred AD in Hindi compared with description in English. 3.3.3. Awareness about audio description The research found that only five per cent of respondents in the quantitative study had any previous experience of AD. 16 per cent were aware of AD but 7
  8. 8. Executive summary were not aware of its features and what it had to offer. There was a significant lack of awareness about AD amongst blind and partially sighted Asians in the UK. 4. Recommendations The study was able to establish a number of areas in which the Bollywood film industry, RNIB, various associations working with blind and partially sighted people in India, sectors within the Government of India and other stakeholders could usefully collaborate to improve the accessibility of Bollywood films in the UK and India. The findings of this research study resulted in the following recommendations: Recommendation 1: Initiate partnership working with the Indian film industry RNIB to work closely with the Indian film industry, sharing the expertise and the experience, it has built up while working with UK Hollywood distributors. The aim would be to support the setting up of a system in the UK and India that can produce AD for Bollywood films. Recommendation 2: UK pilot of audio described Bollywood films Keeping in mind that all systems and infrastructure enabling the provision and delivery of AD in films are in place within the UK, it would be operationally simpler to pilot the product in the UK first, and then share the experience and expertise with the industry in India. If the AD track was available for UK cinema release, the track could then be included on the DVD and tested in the Indian DVD market. Recommendation 3: AD for all mediums The research study was unable to bring out a clear preference for any particular medium for accessing Bollywood films in the UK or India. A split between preferences was evident amongst younger cinema goers (18-44 years) and older home entertainment enthusiasts. Therefore, the Bollywood film industry should be encouraged to make AD tracks available across diverse film viewing platforms – cinema, DVD and eventually television. If AD were to be made available as an optional audio track on the regular DVD release, it would not only increase the availability of accessible Bollywood films but also lead to a greater acceptance of AD amongst the general population in both India and the UK. 8
  9. 9. Executive summary Recommendation 4: Raising awareness amongst the target population in the UK 4 (a) RNIB to plan awareness campaigns with the aim of familiarising the UK Asian blind community with the concept of AD. These promotional activities should be planned bearing in mind the specific characteristics of the Asian community such as language preference of the target audience and their knowledge of Hindi. 4 (b) RNIB to share the findings of this research with the UK distributors of Hollywood films who are forming alliances with the Indian film industry and distributing Bollywood films in the UK, including Warner Bros and Sony Pictures. 4 (c) RNIB to create awareness within the UK cinema exhibitors about the possible arrival of audio described Bollywood films. This would enable cinemas to appropriately assign films to specific screens that are equipped to handle AD. 4 (d) RNIB should work in partnership with organisations providing services to different Asian communities in the UK to raise the level of awareness about AD for blind and partially sighted people. The evidence from the research indicates that there is a high demand for other specialist services like ‘talking newspapers’ for blind and partially sighted people within the different Asian communities. This provides a favourable context for the introduction of AD aimed at Asian communities via Bollywood films. These activities and campaigns would need to be planned and organised in conjunction with the relevant industries. Recommendation 5: Raising awareness amongst the target population in India 5 (a) RNIB and associations working for/with blind and partially sighted people in India to work collaboratively with the specific departments within the Government of India, with the Indian counterparts taking a lead role in creating awareness about AD and its eventual availability on Bollywood films in India. As AD is a medium for moving images, cinemas and television could play an instrumental role in creating this awareness. 9
  10. 10. Executive summary Recommendation 6: Engage with the Bollywood film industry 6 (a) RNIB could participate in conferences and discussions relevant to the Indian film industry and non-profit organisations working in the field of visual impairment and access technologies in India. This would enable wider awareness and discussion on the subject with a larger audience. Once the discussion gathers momentum, it should be steered towards practical solutions to making AD technology widely available. 6 (b) RNIB may wish to think about working in partnership with selected Bollywood film producers in order to set up a pilot project using AD in Bollywood films. Such a development would not only benefit blind and partially sighted people in the UK and India but others living across the globe. This could be done by organising workshops for selected Bollywood film producers and provide them with practical advice and support for implementing the Bollywood Audio Description Initiative. Recommendation 7: Possible introduction of a legislation in the UK RNIB may wish to explore with Ofcom, the possibility of achieving a quota for AD on Bollywood channels shown in the UK. Recommendation 8: Accessible technology in the UK The evidence from the survey suggests that many blind and partially sighted people have difficulty operating current electronic devices providing access to AD. It is recommended that RNIB continues to work with manufacturers and television platform operators to ensure that they implement a ‘shortcut’ button on the remote control so that people can easily access AD. 10
  11. 11. Contents 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience ________________________________________________15 1.1. Objectives __________________________________________________17 1.2. Quantitative research study ____________________________________17 1.3. Qualitative research study ______________________________________18 1.4. Structure of the report ________________________________________18 2. Audio Description (AD)____________________________________________20 2.1. What is AD? ________________________________________________20 2.2. Development of AD in the UK __________________________________20 2.3. Enabling AD for 35mm film prints ________________________________20 2.4. Enabling AD for digital cinema __________________________________21 2.5. AD guideliness ______________________________________________21 3. Personas ________________________________________________________22 4. Quantitative research study ________________________________________27 4.1. Executive summary ____________________________________________27 4.2. Introduction ________________________________________________28 4.2.1. Approach: Sample and methodology ________________________29 4.2.2. Sample size and the locations of interviews __________________30 4.2.3. Fieldwork ____________________________________________30 4.2.4. Data processing ________________________________________30 4.3. Key finding 1: About the respondents ____________________________31 4.3.1. Regional distribution of interviews __________________________31 4.3.2. Ethnicity and gender ____________________________________32 4.3.3. Place of interviews and gender of respondents ________________33 4.3.4. Age of respondents ____________________________________33 4.3.5. Types of interviews and the language used for interviews ________34 4.3.6. About respondents’ eye sight______________________________35 4.4. Key finding 2: About television and DVD viewing habits ______________36 4.4.1. Watching Bollywood films on television ______________________38 4.4.2. Watching a Bollywood film on the DVD ______________________40 11
  12. 12. Contents 4.4.3. Factors that affect the viewing of Bollywood films______________42 4.5. Key finding 3: About cinema viewing habits ________________________45 4.5.1. Watching Bollywood films at the cinema ____________________45 4.5.2. Factors that affect the viewing of Bollywood films at the cinema __47 4.5.3. Strategies for watching Bollywood films in a cinema ____________49 4.6. About AD __________________________________________________50 4.7. Preferred mediums for accessing information about new products/services ____________________________________________53 4.7.1. Top five general sources of information ______________________54 4.7.2. Radio as a source for information __________________________56 4.7.3. Television as a source for information________________________57 4.7.4. Talking Newspapers as a source for information ________________57 4.7.5. Mainstream newspapers and magazines as a source for information ________________________________________58 4.8. Conclusion __________________________________________________58 4.8.1. Main findings __________________________________________58 4.8.2. Current level of awareness of AD and a further likelihood of watching a Bollywood film with AD if introduced ____________59 4.8.3. Potential for audio described Bollywood films in the UK ________60 5. Qualitative research study ________________________________________61 5.1. Executive summary ____________________________________________61 5.2. Introduction to AD and the relevant film industry ____________________62 5.2.1. Aims and objectives ____________________________________64 5.2.2. Approach ____________________________________________64 5.2.3. Sample ______________________________________________65 5.2.4. Film material __________________________________________67 5.3. Results ____________________________________________________68 5.3.1. A summary of characteristics of participants __________________68 5.3.2. Level of sight impairment ________________________________69 5.4. Current viewing habits ________________________________________71 5.4.1. Film viewing habits ____________________________________71 5.4.2. Current methods of watching television/films ________________71 5.4.3. Following films/television programmes on television with the current level of vision ________________________________72 5.4.4. Knowledge of AD ______________________________________76 12
  13. 13. Contents 5.5. What difference does AD make?__________________________________76 5.5.1. Initial impressions ______________________________________76 5.5.2. Objective measures of understanding________________________77 5.5.3. Does better understanding also translate into increased enjoyment?____________________________________________84 5.5.4. Initial indication of the demand for AD ______________________86 5.5.5. Preferred method for accessing described content ____________87 5.6. Optimising AD for Bollywood films ________________________________88 5.6.1. Language preferences____________________________________88 5.6.2. Describing over songs____________________________________89 5.6.3. What to include in AD __________________________________90 6. Proposed AD guidelines for Bollywood films __________________________91 6.1. What is Audio Description (AD)? ________________________________91 6.2. Users ______________________________________________________91 6.3. Best practice ________________________________________________91 6.3.1. What to describe ______________________________________91 6.3.2. Characters ____________________________________________91 6.3.3. On-screen action ______________________________________92 6.3.4. Settings ______________________________________________92 6.3.5. What not to describe ____________________________________92 6.3.6. When to describe ______________________________________92 6.3.7. Language ____________________________________________93 6.3.8. Delivery ______________________________________________93 6.3.9. Balance ______________________________________________93 6.3.10. Describers ____________________________________________94 6.3.11. Children’s programmes/films ______________________________94 6.3.12. Language and songs in Bollywood Films ____________________94 13
  14. 14. Contents 7. Practical aspects to providing AD on Bollywood films __________________95 7.1. Lack of awareness of AD within the target market in the UK and India __________________________________________95 7.2. Operational barriers to making audio described films available __________96 7.2.1. Operational barriers to making audio described films available in India ______________________________________________96 7.2.2. Operational barriers to making audio described films available in the UK ____________________________________________96 7.3. Commercial considerations ______________________________________97 7.4. Conclusion __________________________________________________98 7.5. Recommendations ____________________________________________98 8. References ____________________________________________________102 Appendix 1: Questionnaire for qualitative study ________________________104 Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study________________________112 14
  15. 15. 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience The genesis of India’s Hindi film industry can be traced to a public screening of Raja Harischandra, India’s first silent film, in 1913. It gave the Indian film industry its first occasion to celebrate. Almost a hundred years on, the industry continues to be a veritable dream factory for millions of fans worldwide, without the dream having lost its sheen. The sheer riot of colours makes an Indian film stand out amongst the crowd of filmed entertainment. The 1970’s gave birth to a peculiar term, Bollywood, which interestingly, struck a chord with millions of its film fans living in India and overseas, and over the years it has come to define the Hindi film industry from Bombay, now known as Mumbai. Bollywood embodied a style of cinema determined by musical interludes, opulent settings and high production values that still define the form today. In 2001, the film industry was brought under the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). This was done with a view to corporatise the film industry in India. Within a few years of its inception, the FICCI entertainment committee was able to obtain an ‘industry’ status from the government. Bollywood produces, on average, around 700 films a year, making it not only the dominant national film industry, but perhaps the largest in the world. With films being the most popular form of mass entertainment in India, the industry has witnessed a robust double digit growth over the past decade. The massive Indian expatriate population, for whom Bollywood movies are not just three-hour diversions on a week-night but a part of their childhood memories, is turning Bollywood blockbusters into international hits. Things have come a long way from the 1970’s Britain, when there were no cinemas devoted to Bollywood films and its fans would take over a local cinema to show a popular Hindi film over the weekend. Today popular cinema chains like Odeon, Vue and Cineworld regularly screen Bollywood films. 15
  16. 16. 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience Gauging the popularity of Bollywood films in the UK A small, but growing, part of the audience in the UK and Republic of Ireland enjoys foreign language films, of which there were 170 releases in 2007 in 33 languages, taking 3.5 per cent of the box office. Hindi figured at the top of the list of foreign languages in the UK and Republic of Ireland box office in 2007 with 13 Hindi titles dominating the top 20 foreign language film chart of 2007. [UK Film Council (2007) Statistical Year Book, Page 73] The Indian film industry too is equally keen to reach out to its global audience. In accordance with the FICCI and Pricewaterhouse Coopers report on Indian entertainment and media industry 2007, even though domestic box office collections continue to be the largest contributor to the revenues of the industry at 74 per cent, the share of the domestic box office is projected to reduce to 70 per cent by 2012, primarily in favour of overseas and ancillary revenues. The report also points out that “the overseas collections are estimated to grow cumulatively at 19 per cent over the next five years to reach GBP 250 million in 2012 from a current size of GBP 105 million in 2007. [June 2009: 1 GBP = 79.69 Indian Rupees]. There are several growth drivers for this segment from increased marketing and selling efforts internationally, to a significantly more organised distribution plan.” [FICCI and Pricewaterhouse Coopers (2007) – Indian entertainment and media industry] This trend is also reflected in the UK Film Council’s “Statistical Yearbook 2007”, which says that minority ethnic groups were equally or over-represented in the 60 per cent of the UK population that said they went to the cinema at least once a year. But Bollywood films continue to remain inaccessible to blind and partially sighted people because of the absence of AD. One of the major reasons contributing to this continued inaccessibility could be the absence of technology enabling AD in Indian cinemas, which is the primary market for Bollywood films. In the UK, more than 300 cinemas are equipped with AD facilities and the UK distribu- tors for Hollywood films such as Warner Bros Distributors, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures UK, Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, Paramount Pictures UK, Universal Pictures UK, Pathé Distribution and Sony Pictures Releasing increase the accessibility of their films by providing subtitling for deaf and hard of hearing people and AD for blind and partially sighted people on almost 100 per cent of their UK releases. The Bollywood Audio Description Project seeks to explore this gap in accessi- bility of Bollywood films and its ramifications on blind and partially sighted Bollywood fans living in the UK and India. 16
  17. 17. 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience 1.1. Objectives This report is the first in-depth investigation of AD for Bollywood films that RNIB has undertaken. It seeks to understand behaviours and attitudes of blind and partially sighted people towards viewing Bollywood films with and without AD. The objectives of this report are as follows: to look at television viewing and cinema going habits of blind and partially sighted people in India and within the Asian community in the UK to investigate if there is an unmet demand within the target audience for audio described Bollywood films to broadly gauge the size of the market for such films in both countries to investigate the feasibility of audio described Bollywood films for the benefit of blind and partially sighted film viewers in the UK and India. This report draws on a combination of qualitative and quantitative research studies carried out for the purpose of this project. 1.2. Quantitative research study The purpose of this quantitative research study, aside from throwing light on the approximate market size for audio described Bollywood films in the UK, was to explore the cinema and DVD viewing habits of people with sight loss within the UK Asian community. The survey interviewed a total of 260 blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community across the UK. It was carried out by Agroni Research. It is important to understand that, in the absence of any robust data being available on blind and partially sighted Asian population living in the UK, the study is only equipped to give an impression of the approximate market size for audio described Bollywood films in the UK. As part of the study to understand the market size, we followed a basic deductive process with the available data, which indicate that 4 per cent of the UK’s current population of 54 million either belong, or are descendants of, people who belonged to the Indian sub-continent. Combined with RNIB’s estimate that there are around two million blind and partially sighted people in the country (RNIB, 2005), it led us to conclude that about 80,000 people should be the approximate number of blind and partially sighted Asians in the UK. But this process failed to take into account various other factors that would significantly influence the size of this group such as: 17
  18. 18. 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience Older people are far more likely to be affected by sight problems and, according to the Office of National Statistics, there is a lower proportion of older people belonging to the Asian population in the UK. People of Asian descent are more likely to have diabetes and about 60 per cent of people with diabetes go on to develop diabetic retinopathy. The early stages of diabetic retinopathy may cause blurred vision, or they may produce no visual symptoms at all. As the disease progresses, a cloudiness of vision, blind spots or floaters may occur. This makes activities such as reading, driving and watching television extremely difficult. If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness. 1.3. Qualitative research study This in-depth qualitative research study investigated behaviours, attitudes and barriers for watching Bollywood films among 25 blind or partially sighted Asians living in the UK; and 25 blind and partially sighted people in India. The study included adults and children, viewers and non-regular viewers of Bollywood films. This report includes findings from this qualitative research study. While it is believed that these findings will make a useful contribution to the debate in this area, the results of the qualitative research should not be used to draw statistically robust conclusions for the entire population of blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community in the UK or India. 1.4. Structure of the report Chapter 2 discusses the development of AD in the UK and its current status. Chapter 3 presents a series of six personas, to summarise the breadth of Bollywood film viewing experiences observed across the samples. Each persona represents an amalgamation of insights obtained across the samples. It also provides further context to the results with particular regard to the key user group – blind or partially sighted Bollywood film viewers. Chapter 4 looks quantitatively at people’s habits with reference to the watching of Bollywood films on television, DVD and in cinemas in the UK. It includes an indication of the market size for such films. 18
  19. 19. 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience Building on this, chapter 5 uses the qualitative study to look at the behaviours and attitudes to the viewing of Bollywood films and related aspects with special reference to AD. Chapter 6 draws up guidelines for AD in Bollywood films using the research findings. Chapter 7 draws up recommendations based on the quantitative data, qualitative data and interaction with the Bollywood film industry to look at the best ways of introducing AD in Bollywood films. 19
  20. 20. 2. Audio Description (AD) 2.1. What is AD? Similar to a narrator telling a story, AD is an additional commentary describing body language, expressions and movements – allowing you to hear what you might not be able to see. 2.2. Development of AD in the UK Even though research and actual testing of AD was being carried out in the UK in the early 1990’s, it was the Broadcasting Act 1996, which made it mandatory for UK digital terrestrial television broadcasters to provide AD on 10 per cent of its programming. The Communications Act 2003 extended this legal obligation to cable and satellite broadcasters. The provision has come a long way, with one of the private broadcasters in the UK, British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) having committed to providing AD on 20 per cent of its programming. The first UK cinema release with AD was in 2002 – Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. In 2003, the UK Film Council launched its Cinema Access Programme to improve facilities for people with hearing or sight loss. Within a year, a further 79 UK cinemas were equipped with subtitle/caption and AD equipment to enable more people to enjoy the cinema experience. Today, there are more than 300 ‘accessible’ cinemas. As a consequence, there is now a thriving industry of AD providers in the UK. 2.3. Enabling AD for 35mm film prints Until recently, there were only two systems that enabled AD in UK cinemas – DTS and Dolby. The DTS Cinema Subtitling System (DTS-CSS) is installed in more than 200 UK cinemas. A disc containing both the subtitles/captions is projected directly onto the film print and the AD track is synchronised with the DTS time code. The Dolby ScreenTalk system is installed in almost 100 UK cinemas and delivers cinema subtitles/captions and AD for films. The system allows subtitles to be projected on to any standard film print. This system is no longer available in the market. 20
  21. 21. 2. Audio Description (AD) In both systems, AD is transmitted to blind and partially sighted people in the auditorium via an infrared headphone system. Once a film print has been provided with DTS and/or Dolby time codes, the AD for the film is decoded in the cinema by either the DTS-CSS system or Dolby ScreenTalk – depending on which system has been installed. 2.4. Enabling AD for digital cinema With the advent of Digital cinema, AD is now part of the digital cinema package and is transmitted through an infra red headphone system. The challenge for the industry is to have the AD track finished and available in time for it to be included on the digital print. 2.5. AD guidelines The most comprehensive set of instructions for audio describers, Guidance on Standards for Audio Description, was developed by the Independent Television Commission (ITC) in the UK as a result of the Broadcasting Act 1996. Amongst other things, the document laid down guidelines in considerable detail on prioritising information, stating the obvious, mentioning colours and ethnic origins. Complete guidelines are available on: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive /itc/uploads/ITC_Guidance_On_Standards_for_Audio_Description.doc These were later updated by Ofcom in their Code on Television Access Services in 2006. The updated Guidelines on the Provision of Television Access Services, are available on: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/tv/ifi/guidance/tv_access_serv/guidelines/ These guidelines are used by the AD service providers as a tool while writing and recording descriptions for broadcast and film materials. 21
  22. 22. 3. Personas A total of 260 people were interviewed for the quantitative study and a total of 50 people were interviewed for the qualitative study of this research. Amongst the 50 people interviewed for the qualitative research study, 25 people were interviewed in the UK and 25 in India. All participants tended to have severe sight problems. A wide age range of people was interviewed to gain a comprehensive understanding of problems faced by blind and partially sighted viewers of Bollywood films. From the qualitative sample, 40 people were interviewed in Hindi and 10 in English. During the study, a broad range of life situations and experiences in reference to their film viewing habits was described to us. To bring our research participants to life for the reader, we present six personas. None of the personas were real participants in the research, but their characteristics and features were based on research observations gained in this project. Persona 1: Asha, age 32, unemployed Loves going to the movies and watches almost every Bollywood film released in UK cinemas. Also, watches a lot of films and film related shows on television. Not a native Hindi speaker, she understands the language sufficiently to follow Bollywood films. She enjoys film music and regularly downloads Bollywood songs from the internet. Partially sighted since birth, Asha differs in the techniques she uses to understand a film from a sighted person: She often depends on her friends to tell her what is happening on the screen. She depends a lot on audio clues to understand the film better. While watching a Bollywood film in a cinema, Asha does not like asking her friends/family to explain to her what’s happening on the screen and, as a result, quite often ends up losing track of the plot. Asha is familiar with AD and uses it to watch soaps on British television channels, and wishes that Bollywood films were available with AD. 22
  23. 23. 3. Personas Persona 2: Rajesh, age 87, a retired musician He enjoys his Bollywood films at home now – television or DVD. Rajesh has subscribed to the Asian package offered by one of the satellite television service providers. He receives seven Asian entertainment channels, three of which are 24-hour Hindi movie channels. A native Hindi speaker, he has a collection of old Bollywood films on DVD, which he listens to (views) when someone gets the player going for him. He can manage the remote control but with difficulty. Totally blind since birth, Rajesh differs in the techniques he uses to understand a film from a sighted person: He used to enjoy going to the cinema when he was younger but says that he now finds it embarrassing when his companion/friend, who is trying to help by explaining the screenplay, is asked to keep quiet. He would rather watch them at home where he can ask friends/family for assistance. A musician by profession, he loves film music. So his family purchases a lot of music CDs for him. But he does not enjoy songs while watching the films as he misses out on all the action during the songs. Rajesh has never heard or used AD as an aid to understand what is happening on the television/cinema screen. Persona 3: Tarun, age 46, works for a private company He is very fond of watching films in cinemas and has always enjoyed going to the cinema. He watches at least one film a week in a cinema. Depending on his mood and the availability of films in his local cinemas, he will go for a Bollywood or a Hollywood film. Not a native Hindi speaker, Tarun can speak little Hindi but understands the language as Urdu, a language very similar to Hindi, is spoken at home. He does not face any language barriers in gaining an understanding of a Bollywood film, and, in fact, attributes his knowledge of Hindi to Bollywood films. Tarun has been totally blind since the age of 12 and differs in his film viewing habits from a sighted person: He rarely asks any one for help to understand a film as he feels it will spoil the film for him and his friend. He prefers to use audio clues to understand what he can on 23
  24. 24. 3. Personas his own. Occasionally, he gets frustrated if he fails to understand the plot or the film takes a weird turn – he knows he has missed something but does not have a clue what that could be. Tarun uses AD very regularly to watch Hollywood films in cinemas and at home on the television. He wishes audio described Bollywood films were available. Persona 4: Aarti, age 58, housewife Likes watching films and dramas on the television: She does not visit the cinema any more unless there is a very good film on, maybe a film starring one of her old favourites. She only goes when her family is able to find time to visit the cinema with her and wants to watch the same film. Aside from the fact that she enjoys their company and takes it as a family day out, she is now unsure about her ability to move around independently. A native Hindi/Gujarati speaker, she watches at least five to six hours of television each day, which usually includes one film. She has subscribed to the entire Asian television channel package by one of the private satellite broadcasters: Aarti often discusses films/television soaps with her neighbours/friends so she feels it is important for her to watch films/television soaps to be a part of the group. Aarti is now partially sighted. She was diagnosed with glaucoma seven years ago. Glaucoma is a sight condition that can lead to blindness if left untreated. Aarti wears prescription glasses and has to use to eye drops that may control further damage to her sight. Aarti differs in her film/television viewing habits from sighted people: She sits very close to the screen when she watches television and also wears special stronger glasses to improve the quality of the picture as much as possible. Even though Aarti has digital television at home, she never accesses the electronic programme guide because she can’t read the small print even when she sits close to the screen. She is reluctant to try out new features on her digital television and has memorised the few buttons which she uses regularly on her remote control. Aarti has heard about AD but doesn’t know what it exactly is. She would like to find out more and is keen to use it, provided it is easy to find out which films are described and it is not difficult to switch it on and off on her television/or on DVDs. 24
  25. 25. 3. Personas Persona 5: Puja, age 13, school student She loves watching films in a cinema or on the television. She is allowed to watch two hours of television each day and one or two films in a week: She forces her parents to take her to the cinema over the weekend so that she can talk about it with her friends at school. She watches a lot of film based shows on the television and is very comfortable using the television remote control. Her favourite television channels, when she is not watching films or kids programming, are MTV and Channel V. These are 24-hour music channels that play songs from latest Bollywood films. Puja is totally blind from birth and her film/television viewing habits differ from other children’s: She seeks help from her sibling to explain to her what’s happening on the screen. She does not like cartoons or animated films as there is too much going on for her to understand on her own. Puja has never heard or used AD as an aid to understand what is happening on the television/cinema screen, but she is always keen to try out new features on her television/DVD player. So she is quite likely to want to try it if it becomes available. Persona 6: Mukesh, age 76, retired He likes to watch television and, aside from Bollywood classic films, he enjoys news and sports based programmes. On average, he watches about four to five hours of television each day, mostly in his wife’s company. He has mobility problems and therefore does not go to the cinema: Mukesh has always been a cricket enthusiast. He watches all the matches that are broadcast on television. He used to enjoy watching a lot of films until about a decade ago. Now he only watches new films by selected directors or he will watch films that he enjoyed earlier in his life. Mukesh has been diabetic for almost 22 years and has lost most of his sight due to diabetic retinopathy. The technique he uses for watching film/television differs from sighted people: 25
  26. 26. 3. Personas He says he does not watch films/ television anymore; he listens to them in the same way as he would listen to a radio. He misses watching cricket matches and his favourite star’s films when they are released. He does not like asking anyone, even his wife, to explain to him what is happening on the screen as it makes him feel dependant. Even though Mukesh is relatively comfortable with technology, he is reluctant to try out new devices such as his new digital set-top box or his new DVD player. He has memorised a few buttons on the remote control to facilitate basic functions. Mukesh has heard about AD but has never used it. He is not aware that AD is available on some of the television channels that he watches regularly such as BBC/Sky sports. He would be willing to try out AD if it was easy to access on his digital set top box and did not require him to go into complicated menus. He would certainly access it if it was a single step process as he misses the independence that he lost with his sight. 26
  27. 27. 4. Quantitative research study 4.1 Executive summary This study explored Bollywood film viewing behaviour amongst blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin in the UK to understand: the film viewing habits of blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin resident in the UK the specific needs and preferences of blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin in relation to AD in Bollywood films the demand for audio described Bollywood films in the UK. Overall, 260 blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community living in London, Leicester, Birmingham and Bradford were interviewed for this study. The research was able to establish that Bollywood films were popular amongst the target audience; 73 per cent of the respondents stated that they watched Bollywood films on television; 53 per cent of respondents reported that they watched them on DVD. The frequency of viewing Bollywood films obviously varied amongst respondents; 43 per cent of the respondents watched a Bollywood film on television at least once a week while 19 per cent of the respondents watched a Bollywood film on DVD during the same period. Interestingly, 15 per cent of respondents reported that they watched a Bollywood film in the cinema at least once a week. However, a minority of respondents, 10 per cent for television and 14 per cent for DVD, stated that they did not watch Bollywood films because they found it too difficult to engage with the current technology. This research finding suggests that the introduction of simpler technology allowing easier access to television and DVD could significantly boost the number of blind and partially sighted Asian people viewing Bollywood films. Another significant finding was the low level of awareness about AD amongst blind and partially sighted Asian people. 56 per cent of the respondents stated they had never heard of AD while only five per cent of respondents said that they had used it at some point. Having introduced users to AD during the study, 57 per cent of respondents reported that they would be more likely to watch a Bollywood film that was audio described compared to a film that was not. Only 14 per cent of respondents said they were less likely to watch a Bollywood film that was audio described. 27
  28. 28. 4. Quantitative research study Overall, the evidence from this research suggests that there is demand for audio described Bollywood films amongst blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community living in the UK. 4.2. Introduction Though it might be hard to comment on the exact size of the Bollywood film industry, it would not be wrong to say that it is the largest and the most prolific film industry in the world. Mihir Bose (2007), in his book Bollywood: A History, notes that the Indian film industry produces around 1,000 feature films annually and that some 14 million Indians go to the cinema every day. These figures suggest that on an annual basis around a million more people buy tickets for Indian films than for those produced in Hollywood. Interestingly, the International Indian Film Academy (2007) offers an alternative estimate to Bose’s and claims that around 23 million Indians go to see a film every day. It also calculates that around 15-20 per cent of the income of the Indian film sector comes from overseas markets. A recent study carried out by Price Waterhouse Coopers (PWC) and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FCCI) confirms that revenue from overseas releases is becoming a significant source of income for the Indian film industry. It reports that the income from overseas markets for the sector was estimated to be £107 million in 2007. This translates into 21 per cent growth since 2006 (The Indian Entertainment and Media Industry; Sustaining Growth, 2008:28). Furthermore, PWC and the FCCI predict that income from overseas markets for the Indian film industry will reach £251 million by 2012 (note figures based on current currency exchange rate of 1 GBP = 79.69 Indian Rupees, June 2009). However, despite the social and economic significance of the Bollywood film industry, Bollywood films are not available with AD. Significantly, the UK has the largest audience for Indian cinema outside India with Bollywood films regularly achieving a position within the UK box office top 10. This success can be largely, although not exclusively, attributed to film goers in the large Asian communities, namely people from the Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin settled in the UK. The 2001 census shows that over half of the black and minority ethnic (BME) population in the UK is of Asian origin constituting four per cent of the overall population. Indians were the largest minority group – 23 per cent of the total minority ethnic population; 16 per cent were Pakistanis and six per cent were Bangladeshis. A report published by The Information Centre (2006) estimated that there were 152,000 registered blind and 155,000 registered as partially sighted people in the UK. 28
  29. 29. 4. Quantitative research study (Note: Registration is not mandatory therefore actual numbers of blind and partially sighted people are higher). Sefton, Baker and Praat, (2005) suggest that five per cent of the registered blind/partially sighted people are from the Black and Minority Ethnic communities. They also estimated that Pakistanis represent 31 per cent and Indians 29 per cent of BME people with a sensory disability. In this context, RNIB commissioned Agroni Research to undertake a quantitative research survey amongst blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin. As mentioned earlier, for the purpose of this study the term Asian refers to people from the Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi communities only. The aims and objectives of the research were as follows: Explore the film viewing habits of blind and partially sighted people within the Asian population in the UK Establish whether there is a demand for audio described Bollywood films in the UK Investigate the specific needs and preferences of blind and partially sighted people in relation to the AD of Bollywood films. 4.2.1. Approach: Sample and methodology A combination of face to face and telephone interviews was used to gather responses. Multilingual interviewers were used to ensure effective engagement with respondents from the designated ethnic groups. Interviewers were also gender matched to respondents to overcome cultural barriers. Fifty organisations working with blind and partially sighted Asian people, including charitable and statutory organisations such as local authorities and specialist eye hospitals, were contacted. A number of appropriate organisations were also contacted in regions known for their high Asian population. Some of these organisations were unable to provide contact details of their members, for reasons including data protection. Overall, 20 organisations were willing to assist with this research. Some of these were only able to sign post to other institutions, while others were able to facilitate interviewers in their scheduled gatherings and meetings of blind and partially sighted people. It should be noted that in the end only 85 (33 per cent) out of 260 successfully completed interviews were conducted in community centres, while 168 (65 per cent) of the interviews were conducted at the homes of respondents. In addition, interviewers identified blind and partially sighted people from the different Asian communities and used a range of approaches to generate contacts including the use of social networks of friends and relatives as well as visiting local shops, schools, colleges, hospitals and housing estates. 29
  30. 30. 4. Quantitative research study 4.2.2. Sample size and the locations of interviews The sample size for the study was 260 people. Interviews were conducted with blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community spread across the UK. The regions selected for the study were London, Birmingham, Leicester and Bradford. A small number of interviews were also conducted in Manchester and Oldham. For the purpose of this report, and because of the geographical proximity of these locations, these interviews were grouped together with those carried out in Bradford. An attempt was made to include an equal number of respondents from each of the ethnic communities. In addition, an attempt was made to make the regional spread reflect the population size of the respective communities. However, a relaxation of the aforementioned soft quotas was made as the fieldwork progressed to ensure a sufficient number of respondents were interviewed. It should be noted, however, that no strict quotas were set for ethnicity, gender and age among the target population. Further details about the ethnicity, gender and age of respondents are provided in the key findings section. 4.2.3. Fieldwork The research questionnaire was made available in five different languages – English, Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati and Urdu. This was done to standardise the script for the field researchers since the project required them to interview people who might be more willing to participate if the interview was done in their preferred language. Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati and Urdu were chosen as they are the most commonly spoken languages amongst the Asian community. 23 interviewers were able to complete around 11 interviews each on average over a period of nine weeks. However, two interviewers in Leicester and Birmingham were able to secure the co-operation of staff at drop-in centres for blind and partially sighted people and were, therefore, able to benefit from the excellent connections that these organisations had with local blind and partially sighted people. 4.2.4. Data processing Data was first entered in the Excel program with a unique identification number and then transferred to SPSS for analysis. Frequency tables were created to check the categories of all variables and to identify coding errors to ensure that they were consistent with the original records. Different consistency checks were then carried out between the variables to ensure the integrity of the data. Finally, a clean data set was generated to produce a variety of tables and graphs. Tables were prepared for almost all variables included in the questionnaire and SPSS outcomes were presented with a 30
  31. 31. 4. Quantitative research study number along with percentages either in a tabular format or in a graphical representation. Additional cross tables were also prepared by controlling some socio- demographic aspects and presented in a tabular format indicating both number and percentages. Appropriate statistical tests were performed for relevant characteristics, eg age and sight level of respondents relating to some selected responses. In this instance it was not feasible to use random sampling owing to the unavailability of reliable data on the sampling population to work from. Other practical implications, such as time and cost, made a thoroughly comprehensive sampling method prohibitive. Hence stratified opportunity sampling was utilised in this study. However, it is a well established research principle that any sample that includes at least 200 cases is deemed to be representative. In this instance this study utilised a sample size of 260 respondents. Therefore the study is very confident that the sample is representative of blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin and descent. 4.3. Key finding 1: About the respondents 4.3.1. Regional distribution of interviews Figure 1 shows the number of valid interviews that were successfully completed in each region. Figure 1. Distribution of respondents according to region (N=260). 31
  32. 32. 4. Quantitative research study 25 per cent of interviews were conducted in London, 33 per cent in Leicester, 21 per cent in Birmingham and 21 per cent in Bradford and Manchester. The number of interviews conducted in Leicester was relatively high compared with other regions. This was primarily because of the co-operation of a community centre which offered a wide range of activities for blind and partially sighted people. Leicester is home to one of the largest Indian communities living outside India. Figures obtained from Leicester City Council (2009) count 72,000 Indian residents amongst its population, the highest for any single area in the UK. 4.3.2. Ethnicity and gender Overall 60 per cent interviews were conducted with respondents of Indian origin, 29 per cent of the interviews were conducted with respondents of Bangladeshi origin and 11 per cent of the interviews were conducted with respondents of Pakistani origin. Table 1 shows the ethnicity of respondents. Table 1. Ethnicity of respondents (N=260) Ethnicity of respondents Number of respondents Per cent Indian 157 60.3% Bangladeshi 75 28.8% Pakistani 28 10.8% TOTAL 260 100% There were more male respondents (57 per cent) than female respondents (43 per cent). This reflects the fact that the male respondents were easier to identify and approach through community networks than the female respondents, some of whom are part of a ‘hard-to-reach’ population in many areas. The decision not to use a gender specific quota system in the research also contributed to the unequal participation of male and female respondents. Table 2 shows the gender breakdown. Table 2. Gender breakdown of respondents (N=260) Gender of respondents Number of respondents Per cent Male 148 57% Female 112 43% TOTAL 260 100% 32
  33. 33. 4. Quantitative research study 4.3.3. Place of interviews and gender of respondents Table 3 shows that the majority of the interviews were conducted either at respondents’ homes (65 per cent) or community centres (33 per cent). A smaller number of interviews were carried out in places of worship (five per cent) and the workplace (one per cent). Of all the female respondents interviewed, the number of female respondents interviewed at home (61 per cent) was lower than the number of male respondents (68 per cent) interviewed at home. By contrast, the number of male respondents interviewed in community centres (28 per cent) was lower compared with female respondents (39 per cent). This difference is readily explained because one researcher located a large number of female respondents at a community centre in Leicester. It is also noteworthy that the relatively small number of interviews that were carried out in the workplace were carried out with male respondents only. Table 3. Place of interview by gender Male respondents Female respondents Place of interview (N=148) (N=112) Home 68% 61% Community centre 28% 39% Workplace 2% 0% Place of worship 3% 0% 4.3.4. Age of respondents Table 4 shows a spread of the age groups that participated in the research. The majority of respondents (79 per cent) were between the ages of 45-74. Only 12 per cent were between the ages of 18-44. Furthermore, 14 per cent of respondents were between 75-84 years of age and only five per cent over 85 years of age. The older age group, often first-generation emigrants, were usually only fluent in their native language. Members of older age groups tended to spend more time at home and consequently were far less likely to use outside facilities (including cinemas) than their younger counterparts. 33
  34. 34. 4. Quantitative research study Table 4. Age of respondents (N=260) Age of respondents Number of respondents Per cent 18-24 years 8 3.1% 25-34 years 26 10% 35-44 years 22 8.5% 45-54 years 47 18.1% 55-64 years 53 20.4% 65-74 years 55 21.2% 75-84 years 37 14.2% 85+ years 12 4.6% TOTAL 260 100% 4.3.5. Types of interviews and the language used for interviews The overwhelming majority of the interviews (84 per cent) were conducted face-to- face while the remainder (16 per cent) were conducted over the telephone. Figure 2. Type of interview (N=260) 34
  35. 35. 4. Quantitative research study Respondents were offered a choice of languages in which the interviews could be conducted. The majority of respondents (78 per cent) selected their native language while 22 per cent preferred to speak in English. The number of interviews conducted in community languages were as follows: Table 5. Language used for the interview (N=260) Language Number of respondents Per cent Gujarati 71 27.3% Bengali 66 25.4% English 58 22.3% Urdu 48 18.5% Hindi 17 6.5% TOTAL 260 100% Because of their language preference, interviews with 10 per cent of the respondents from the Indian origin were actually conducted in Urdu while one Bengali respondent and a Pakistani respondent were interviewed in Hindi. Here it is relevant to note that nearly all Asians, even young British-Asians from non-Hindi speaking communities, have an adequate knowledge of the Hindi language to be able to follow the story lines of contemporary Bollywood films. 4.3.6. About respondents’ eye sight When respondents were asked to describe the current condition of their eyesight, just over one-third (34 per cent) reported that they defined themselves as blind. Of the remainder, two out of three respondents (66 per cent) stated that they defined themselves as partially sighted (Table 6). Table 6. Condition of respondent eye sight (self-assessment) (N=260) Frequency Per cent Cumulative Blind 88 34% 34 Partially sighted 172 66% 100 TOTAL 260 100% 100% 35
  36. 36. 4. Quantitative research study When asked whether they were registered blind or partially sighted, 35 per cent said they were registered as partially sighted while 32 per cent of the respondents reported being registered as blind as table 7 shows. Table 7. Are you registered as blind or partially sighted? Frequency Per cent Blind 92 35.4% Partially sighted 83 31.9% Don’t know 46 17.7% Neither 39 15% TOTAL 260 100% The remaining 15 per cent of respondents had not registered and an additional 18 per cent did not know whether they were registered or not, often because they were “looked after by others”, ie family members. 4.4. Key finding 2: About television and DVD viewing habits Respondents were asked to identify the level and type of difficulty they had while watching television from a list of options. Only a small number of respondents, eight per cent, said that they had no difficulty following programmes/films on television. However, many respondents reported experiencing the following difficulties: 52 per cent had difficulty in seeing the buttons on the remote control A similar percentage (52 per cent) said that they were unable to see the fine details on the television screen 44 per cent had difficulty seeing the picture on the television screen Just under half of all respondents (49 per cent) had difficulty seeing text on the television screen 22 per cent could not see anything on the television screen. 36
  37. 37. 4. Quantitative research study Table 8. When watching TV, do you have any of the following? (N= 260) Multiple responses Frequency Per cent Difficulty seeing the buttons on the remote control 134 51.5% Difficulty seeing the fine detail on the TV screen 134 51.5% Difficulty seeing text on the TV screen 127 48.8% Difficulty seeing the picture on the TV screen 114 43.8% Able to see the light of the TV screen 84 32.3% Cannot see anything on the TV screen 58 22.3% Do not find any difficulty following what is 21 8.1% going on the screen This data clearly lends support to the belief that sight problems have a significant impact on a blind or partially sighted person’s experience of watching a programme/film on television or DVD. Respondents were also asked what sort of adjustments they made when watching television and/or DVDs or whether they used any visual aids to improve their visual capacity. The most common coping strategies were as follows: 45 per cent of respondents stated that they simply picked up as much as possible from the sound of the programme/film 39 per cent reported that they wore stronger glasses to improve their vision 29 per cent stated that they sat closer to the television screen 24 per cent relied on the assistance of family members or friends to explain to them what was happening on the screen Table 9 (overleaf) provides further details of strategies employed by respondents to improve their television and DVD viewing. 37
  38. 38. 4. Quantitative research study Table 9. What adjustments do you make when watching television or DVD? (N=260) Multiple responses Frequency Per cent Just pick up as much as possible from the sound of 117 45% the film or programme Wear special stronger glasses 101 39% Get closer to the television screen 76 29% Ask my friends or family members to assist by 63 24% explaining what happens on the screen Use residual sight to watch 54 21% Use a large screen television 23 9% Adjust the lighting in the room 17 7% Use a magnifier 16 6% Adjust the screen settings 10 4% Make none of these adjustments 10 4% Use AD to explain what happens on the screen 8 3% Never watch television or DVD(s) 7 3% It is noteworthy that only a small minority (three per cent) of the respondents, reported that they had used AD at some point in the past. Interestingly, only three per cent of all respondents stated that they never watched television or DVDs. 4.4.1. Watching Bollywood films on television A large majority of the respondents reported that they liked watching Bollywood films on a variety of television channels with a fifth of the sample watching a Bollywood film on television every day. But a quarter of the sample said that they never watched Bollywood films on television at all. 19 per cent of the respondents stated that they watched a Bollywood film once a day on television. 15 per cent of the respondents said that they watched a Bollywood film a couple of times a week on television. 11 per cent of the respondents said that they watched a Bollywood film once a week on television. 38
  39. 39. 4. Quantitative research study Four per cent of respondents said that they watched Bollywood films once a fortnight on television. 10 per cent of the respondents indicated that they watched a Bollywood film once a month on television. Five per cent of the respondents stated that they watched a Bollywood film once every three months on television. Eight per cent of respondents said that they watched a Bollywood film once a year on television. 27 per cent of the respondents said that they never watched a Bollywood film on television. Overall, 73 per cent of respondents stated that they watched Bollywood films on various television channels at least once a year. Table 10 below shows the frequency of respondents broken down by sight level who were regular watchers of Bollywood films and those who were not interested in Bollywood films. (Notes: Sight level groupings are based on self-reported assessment as blind or partially sighted. Those who never watched Bollywood films on TV were categorised as “not interested”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”) Table 10. Watching Bollywood films on television by sight levels (N=217) Sight level Not interested Watch often Total Blind 25% 75% 100% Partially sighted 35% 66% 100%* TOTAL 31% 69% 100% Chi-Square = 2.01, 1 d.f, p=0.103 (Not Significant) N of valid cases 217. *Figures rounded to nearest whole number. When comparing groups by sight level, no significant difference was found between those who reported that they were blind and those who reported that they were partially sighted in terms of how regularly they watched Bollywood films on television (p=0.103). Table 11 shows frequency of watching Bollywood films on television by age groups. 39
  40. 40. 4. Quantitative research study (Note: Those who never watched Bollywood films on television were categorised as “not interested”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”) Table 11. Watching Bollywood films on television by age groups (N=217) Age group Not interested Watch often Total Young adult (18-44) 21% 80% 100%* Middle age (45-74) 38% 62% 100% Older adult (75+) 30% 70% 100% TOTAL 31% 69% 100% Chi-Square = 3.99, 2 d.f, p=0.135 (Not significant). N of valid cases 217. *Figures rounded to nearest whole number. No significant difference was found between age groups in terms of how regularly they watched Bollywood films on television (p=0.135). 4.4.2. Watching a Bollywood film on the DVD Table 12 shows how respondents reported their frequency of watching Bollywood films on a DVD. Table 12. How often do you currently watch Bollywood films on DVD? Age group Frequency Per cent Cum % About once a day 14 5.6% 5.6% About a couple of times a week 15 6% 11.5% About once a week 20 7.9% 19.4% About once a fortnight 9 3.6% 23% About once a month 21 8.3% 31.3% About once every three months 30 11.9% 43.3% About once a year 24 9.5% 52.8% Never 119 47.2% 100% TOTAL 252 100% 40
  41. 41. 4. Quantitative research study Table 12 shows that one in five watched a Bollywood film on DVD at least once a week, but almost half (47 per cent) of the respondents never watched Bollywood films on DVD. This is probably because a significant number of the respondents did not own or did not have access to, or found it difficult to use a DVD player. (See table 15 for further details.) Table 13 shows the frequency of watching Bollywood films on DVD by sight level. (Note: Sight level groupings are based on self-reported assessment as blind or partially sighted. Those who never watched Bollywood films on TV were categorised as “not interested”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”) Table 13. Watching Bollywood films on DVD by sight levels (N=198) Sight level Not interested Watch often Total Blind 55% 45% 100% Partially sighted 63% 37% 100% TOTAL 60% 40% 100% Chi-Square = 1.01, 1 d.f, p=0.198 Not Significant (p=NS). N of valid cases 198 When comparing groups by sight level, no significant difference was found between those who reported that they were blind and those who reported that they were partially sighted in terms of how regularly they watched Bollywood films on DVD (p=0.198). Table 14 shows the frequency of watching Bollywood films on DVD by age groups. (Note: Those who never watched Bollywood films on TV were categorised as “not interested”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”.) 41
  42. 42. 4. Quantitative research study Table 14. Watching Bollywood films on DVD by age groups (N=198) Age group Not interested Watch often Total Young adult (18-44) 31% 69% 100% Middle age (45-74) 62% 38% 100% Older adult (75+) 71% 29% 100% TOTAL 60% 40% 100% Chi-Square = 17.40, 2 d.f, p=0.000 (p<0.001). N of valid cases 198 Table 14 shows a significant difference (p< 0.001) between age groups in terms of their regularity in watching Bollywood films on DVD. Younger respondents (18-44) were more likely to watch Bollywood films often on DVD than older respondents. 4.4.3. Factors that affect the viewing of Bollywood films When asked to identify factors that stopped them from watching Bollywood films on television or DVD, 20 per cent of the respondents said that they were not interested in watching Bollywood films. A further four per cent of the respondents stated that they were not interested in watching television or DVD at all. However, over 42 per cent of the respondents reported that they did not watch Bollywood films either on television or DVD as a result of their sight problem. Another 14 per cent of the respondents stated that they were either unfamiliar with DVD players or found them too difficult to operate. Table 15 (overleaf) shows the factors which stopped respondents from watching Bollywood films on television or DVD. 42
  43. 43. 4. Quantitative research study Table 15. Factors that stop you watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD Multiple responses Frequency Percent I find it difficult to follow Bollywood films because of 108 42% my sight problem I am not interested in watching Bollywood films 53 20% Nothing stops me from watching Bollywood films on 46 18% television or DVD I find it too difficult to use a DVD player 36 14% I find it too difficult to use a television 25 10% I do not own a DVD player 19 7% I don’t have time to watch television or DVDs 18 7% I have no access to a DVD player 17 7% I am not interested in watching television or DVD 9 4% Other 5 2% I do not own a television 4 2% I have no access to a television 1 0% TOTAL 260 Further investigation of these responses by sight level and age groups is set out overleaf. (Note: “Find too difficult” consists of respondents who found it too difficult to follow Bollywood films due to their sight problem, and those who found it difficult to use a TV/DVD player; “Not interested” consists of those who were specifically not interested in Bollywood films and those who were not interested in watching TV/DVD in general). 43
  44. 44. 4. Quantitative research study Table 16. Factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films on TV or DVD by sight levels Whole sample Partially sighted Blind (N=88) (N=260) (N=172) Find too difficult 52% 87% 37% to use Not interested 22% 8% 29% Nothing stops me 18% 7% 23% Note: This was a multicode question meaning some respondents may have chosen more than one response. This table shows the percentages of each group who chose particular responses. When comparing groups by sight level in terms of factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films on TV or DVD, table 16 shows that a higher proportion of blind respondents reported finding it too difficult to operate a TV/DVD player (87 per cent compared to 37 per cent partially sighted). A higher proportion (29 per cent) of the partially sighted respondents was not interested in watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD compared to the blind respondents (8 per cent). Likewise, a higher proportion of the partially sighted group reported that nothing stopped them from watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD. Table 17. Factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films on TV or DVD by age group Whole Young adult Middle aged Older adult sample (N=56) (N=100) (N=104) (N=260) Find too difficult 52% 39% 54% 58% to use Not interested 22% 11% 28% 22% Nothing stops me 18% 12% 14% 13% Note: This was a multicode question meaning some respondents may have chosen more than one response. This table shows the percentages of each group who chose particular responses. 44
  45. 45. 4. Quantitative research study It was found that a similar proportion (over 50 per cent) of respondents from the middle and older age groups reported difficulty in operating equipment which prevented them from watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD. The younger age group, meanwhile, were less affected (39 per cent) compared to the middle and older age groups by the difficulty experienced operating equipment. A higher proportion of the middle and older age group respondents reported no interest in watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD (28 per cent and 22 per cent respectively), while only 11 per cent of the younger age group said they were not interested in watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD. One possible explanation for the lack of interest in Bollywood films expressed by one in five respondents could be the presence of a large number of Asian and mainstream satellite television channels offering a wide range of entertainment content. As these programmes typically have a high level of verbal content they may be more readily understood by blind and partially sighted people than films with complex dream sequences and songs. 4.5. Key finding 3: About cinema viewing habits 4.5.1. Watching Bollywood films at the cinema Sixty six per cent of the respondents (172) reported that they never went to a cinema. In such a scenario, it is perhaps not surprising that a large proportion of the respondents stated that they never visited a cinema to watch a Bollywood film, as these locations were often perceived to be ‘unfriendly’ or ‘unwelcoming’ for blind and partially sighted people. (See the next section – ‘Factors that affect viewing of Bollywood films in a cinema for further details). Amongst the sample, those who said that they go to the cinema (34 per cent) were then asked how often they watched Bollywood films in a cinema. Results are shown in table 18 overleaf. 45
  46. 46. 4. Quantitative research study Table 18. How often do you currently watch Bollywood films in the cinema? Frequency Percent Cum % About once a day 7 8% 8% About a couple of times a week 3 3% 18% About once a week 6 7% 15% About once a fortnight 9 10% 28% About once a month 15 17% 45% About once every three months 11 13% 58% About twice a year 10 11% 69% About once a year 27 31% 100% TOTAL 100% In terms of watching Bollywood films in a cinema by sight level (table 19), the result was similar to the pattern of watching Bollywood films on television and DVD as indicated earlier (see tables 10-14). Table 19 shows the frequency of watching Bollywood films by sight levels. (Note: Sight level groupings are based on self-reported assessment as blind or partially sighted. Those who never watched Bollywood films at the cinema were categorised as “don’t watch”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”). Table 19. Watching Bollywood films in the cinema by sight levels (N=212) Sight level Don’t watch Watch often Total Blind 85% 15% 100% Partially sighted 79% 21% 100% TOTAL 81% 19% 100% Chi-Square = 0.92, 1 d.f, p=0.222 (Not significant). N of valid cases 212 When comparing groups by sight level, no significant difference was found between those who reported that they were blind and those who reported that they were partially sighted in terms of how regularly they watched Bollywood films at the cinema (p=0.222). 46
  47. 47. 4. Quantitative research study Table 20 shows the frequency of watching Bollywood films in a cinema by age groups. (Note: Those who never watched Bollywood films at the cinema were categorised as “don’t watch”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”.) Table 20. Watching Bollywood films in the cinema by age groups (N=212) Age group Don’t watch Watch often Total Young adult (18-44) 71% 29% 100% Middle age (45-74) 80% 20% 100% Older adult (75+) 87% 13% 100% TOTAL 81% 19% 100% Chi-Square = 4.88, 2 d.f, p=0.087 (p<0.10). N of valid cases 212 When comparing age groups, no significant difference was found between age groups in terms of how regularly they watched Bollywood films at the cinema (p=0.087). 4.5.2. Factors that affect the viewing of Bollywood films at the cinema A significant number of respondents (40 per cent) believed that their current sight level was a major factor that prevented them from going to the cinema to watch Bollywood films (Table 21). Just over a quarter of the respondents (27 per cent) stated that they found it exceedingly difficult to travel to a cinema while six per cent said they didn’t have a cinema showing Bollywood films in close proximity to where they lived. Only a small number of respondents (five per cent) said that they did not have time to go the cinema. Interestingly, a sizable proportion (22 per cent) of the respondents stated that nothing stopped them going to the cinema to watch a Bollywood film. 47
  48. 48. 4. Quantitative research study Table 21. What factors stop you from watching Bollywood films in a cinema? Multiple responses Frequency Per cent Find it difficult to follow Bollywood films in the 105 40% cinema because of current sight level Find it difficult to travel to the cinema 70 27% Nothing stops me from watching Bollywood films in 56 22% the cinema Not interested in watching Bollywood films 24 9% Other 21 8% There are no local cinemas that screen Bollywood 15 5% films No time to go to a cinema 13 5% TOTAL 260 Further investigation of these responses by sight level and age group were as follows: (Note: rows depict breakdown by sight level and age group for responses shown in table 21) Table 22. Factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films in a cinema by sight levels Whole sample Partially sighted Blind (N=88) (N=260) (N=172) Difficult due to sight 40% 65% 28% problem Difficult to travel 27% 36% 22% Not interested 9% 11% 8% Nothing stops me 22% 10% 27% Note: This was a multicode question meaning some respondents may have chosen more than one response. This table shows the percentages of each group who chose particular responses. Table 22 shows that 65 per cent of blind people and 28 per cent of partially sighted people find it difficult to watch Bollywood films due to their sight problem. 48
  49. 49. 4. Quantitative research study Similarly a higher proportion of blind people cited ‘difficult to travel’ as a factor preventing them from watching Bollywood films (36 per cent) compared to partially sighted people (22 per cent). A higher proportion of partially sighted people reported that nothing stops them from viewing Bollywood films at the cinema. Table 23. Factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films in a cinema by age groups Whole Young adult Middle aged Older adult sample (N=56) (N=100) (N=104) (N=260) Difficult due to sight 40% 20% 39% 53% problem Difficult to travel 27% 21% 25% 32% Not interested 9% 13% 8% 9% Nothing stops me 22% 30% 22% 16% Note: This was a multicode question meaning some respondents may have chosen more than one response. This table shows the percentages of each group who chose particular responses. Table 23 shows that a higher proportion of the older age group reported having difficulty going to the cinema due to their sight problem. Difficulty travelling also seemed to increase with age. A higher proportion of respondents in the younger age group reported that nothing stops them from viewing Bollywood films at the cinema. 4.5.3 Strategies for watching Bollywood films in a cinema Respondents were asked to respond to a multiple choice question on how they watched or followed a Bollywood film in a cinema currently. 12 per cent of the respondents stated that they tried to pick up as much information as possible from the soundtrack/audio clues in the film. 11 per cent stated that they either asked someone typically but not always, a friend or family member, to explain to them what was happening on the screen. eight per cent reported that they used their residual eye sight to watch a film. 49

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