RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report

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RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report …

RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Report

RNIB has been hugely successful in establishing the audio description (AD) of films as a norm in the production of DVDs and in cinemas across the UK. We now seek to expand and develop audio description services for Bollywood films.

The Bollywood industry produces the largest number of films globally and is known for producing song and dance visual extravaganzas. To ensure that these are enjoyed fully by blind and partially sighted people, it is imperative that audio description becomes an intrinsic feature of Bollywood films.

RNIB has undertaken this project to look at the specific needs of ethnic minority blind and partially sighted people in the UK. We hope to establish a potential market for audio described Bollywood films and develop a working relationship with the Bollywood film industry.

Our work involves developing links with organisations supporting blind and partially sighted people in the UK and India to enable audio description provision in both countries.

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  • 1. Bollywood for all the demand for audio described Bollywood films Sonali Rai
  • 2. The quantitative research for this report was done by Agroni Research. Agroni Research Bow Business Centre 15-159 Bow Road London E3 2SE Tel: 020 8981 1020 Fax: 020 8983 4136 Email: info@agroni.co.uk Website: www.agroni.co.uk Project Steering Group Heather Cryer Joan Greening Alison Handford Anna Jones Leen Petré For further information about this research, contact: Royal National Institute of Blind People Media and Culture Department 105 Judd Street London WC1H 9NE Telephone: 020 7391 2258 Fax: 020 7387 7109 Email: audiodescription@rnib.org.uk Website: www.rnib.org.uk 2
  • 3. Foreword Films and TV programmes are often difficult to appreciate if you can only hear them. Imagine a scene where a would-be killer is stalking the heroine in a lonely alley. In the absence of dialogue, the background score alone would be inadequate to render the scene captivating unless you can see the action. Audio Description (AD) enhances an audience’s involvement by adding a narrative, which draws word pictures for the audience during sequences in which the dialogue is few and far between. RNIB’s involvement with AD has ensured that more than 300 cinemas in the UK are equipped with systems that facilitate AD and the majority of Hollywood films released in UK cinemas have an AD track on them. Going to the movies is no longer considered the prerogative of sighted people. This study seeks to expand the horizons of RNIB’s initiative, and take it to new shores. A logical extension of this initiative would be to involve Bollywood, the world’s most prolific film industry producing around 700 films every year, in this venture. The study explores whether a potential demand for audio described Bollywood films exists in the UK and India. Apart from establishing the demand, it seeks to understand the best medium (TV/DVD/Cinema) to introduce the availability of audio described Bollywood films and language preferences of the target audience for audio described Bollywood films. It also aims to understand the best ways of reaching out to this audience to create awareness about the availability of this service. Using both qualitative and quantitative research, the study clearly shows that there is a huge unmet need for audio described Bollywood films in the UK and India. Bollywood continues to shine for millions of its fans ever since it released its first silent film. These films mean much more to viewers than just pure entertainment. They have managed to create that original, sentimental celluloid connection with audiences around the world. In such a scenario, it becomes even more significant that every single person, including people of Asian origin with sight loss, get that chance to sit back and enjoy a Bollywood film of their choice, independently. This report can be used as a reference tool by the Bollywood film industry, AD providers and Bollywood film distributors. RNIB hopes that the results of this research will not only assist the introduction of AD in Bollywood films but also go a long way in bridging that gap in accessibility for millions of its fans. Leen Petré Principal Manager, Media and Culture Department, RNIB 3
  • 4. Acknowledgments A special thanks to Sony Pictures Entertainment for supporting this study, by providing film material from the Bollywood film “Saawariya” for the purpose of this research study. A big thanks to Independent Television Facilities Centre Limited (ITFC) for producing audio description for user material to be used in the qualitative research study. Sincere thanks to a team of colleagues and friends at RNIB for their encouragement and support throughout this research study. During the production of the report, the steering group committee dedicated time to reviewing and commenting on the content of the material. Amongst those who fulfilled this enormous task, a special thanks to Heather Cryer and Alison Handford for their constant guidance and support. Thanks also to all those who participated in the qualitative and quantitative research interviews, including those who helped us recruit further participants: All India Confederation of the Blind National Association for the Blind Blind People’s Association (BPA), Ahmedabad Saksham Trust Asian Blind Association (ABA) Kiran Talking Newspaper Bradnet Birmingham Focus on Blindness Newham Voluntary Association for the Blind Waltham Forest Asian Blind Association Sonali Garden Day Centre Dekhtay Chai Vista Community Centre (Leicester) Leicester General Hospital (VI Services) Age Concern (Leicester) Sanatan Centre Bradford College Bilton Medical Centre Oakland House Care for Old People. Agroni Research would also like to express their sincere gratitude to Dr Sean Carey, Ms Nadira Huda, Dr Kapil Ahmed and all the interviewers for their immense contribution in the completion of the quantitative research study. 4
  • 5. Executive summary 1. Why was this project undertaken? Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) is a registered UK charity, representing the needs and interests of around two million blind and partially sighted people in the UK. RNIB works directly and indirectly with blind and partially sighted people, representative organisations, government sectors, broadcasting and entertainment industries, and a range of professionals working in the field of visual impairment. A needs survey carried out by RNIB in 1991 showed that 94 per cent of blind and partially sighted people watch films/television regularly. The survey found that filmed entertainment and media play an important role in their lives by providing access to news, information and entertainment. Independent film/television viewing can be facilitated by the provision of Audio Description (AD). AD is an additional commentary to a film/television programme, describing body language, expressions and movements. It gives people information about the things that they might not be able to see, so that they can keep up with the action on the screen. It takes away the dependence of relying on someone else to fill in the gaps. RNIB has ensured access to films by working with all areas of the film industry, including film distributors, exhibitors and equipment manufacturers, and by influencing legislation. In the UK today, the majority of Hollywood films are screened with AD, and 40 per cent of cinemas are equipped to deliver AD. Many Hollywood DVDs also include AD on mainstream UK releases, with the service often promoted on relevant film websites. The Indian film industry, popularly known as Bollywood, is by far the most prolific film industry in the world. The industry, which produces about 700 films a year, has always had a strong and passionate relationship with its domestic audience. But the 21st century has seen a new breed of Bollywood fans cropping up across the globe. Even second or third-generation Asian emigrants, who do not always speak the language of the film, definitely know their Hrithik Roshans and their Kareena Kapoors. It is the sheer exuberance of these films that drive them to bridge the language barrier. Today, the UK is the largest market for Bollywood films outside India. But since Bollywood films are currently not available with AD, they largely remain inaccessible to their blind and partially sighted viewers. RNIB, through this study, sought to investigate the demand for audio described Bollywood films in the UK and India. 5
  • 6. Executive summary 2. What was done during the course of the project? The project aimed to understand behaviours and attitudes of blind and partially sighted Asian people towards the viewing of Bollywood films with and without AD. The findings of this project draw on the data collected through a combination of qualitative and quantitative research studies to provide an accurate picture of the issue being addressed, with a comprehensive analysis of the barriers faced by the target audience when watching Bollywood films. 2.1. Objectives The primary objectives of this study were to provide answers to the following questions specifically in relation to blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin: How often does the target group watch Bollywood films, eg at the cinema, on DVD, or on television? Would AD encourage the target group to watch Bollywood films more often? Is the target group likely to change its film viewing habits if AD was provided on these films? Which factors influence the target audience’s views on AD of Bollywood films, eg degree of sight loss, personal circumstances etc? What preferences do the target audience have in terms of language of the description, eg Hindi or English? When AD is provided, what impact does it have on the experience of watching Bollywood films (positive or negative)? How might description in Bollywood films differ from description in Hollywood films to increase viewing and viewing pleasure? Should the UK AD guidelines be adapted for AD in Bollywood films? The project also aimed to put forth recommendations for further implementation of the findings. 2.2. Quantitative research study The quantitative research was undertaken with 260 blind or partially sighted people of Asian descent (including people of Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani origin only), living in the UK. The sample included a range of ages, sight conditions and levels of familiarity with Bollywood films. 6
  • 7. Executive summary 2.3. Qualitative research study Fifty blind or partially sighted Asian people were interviewed for the qualitative study. Of these, 25 people were interviewed in the UK and 25 in India. The sample included a wide range of ages, sight conditions and familiarity with Bollywood films although the majority of participants tended to have severe sight problems. 3. Key findings and conclusions 3.1. Current barriers to watching Bollywood films Despite accessibility issues, 19 per cent of the 260 respondents in the quantitative study said they watched a Bollywood film on television everyday, with 6 per cent stating that they watched them on DVD about once a day. Viewing of Bollywood films at the cinema was much lower, with 66 per cent stating they never watched Bollywood films at the cinema. However, about 15 per cent said they watched a Bollywood film in a cinema at least once a week. A significant number of respondents, 40 per cent, believed that their current sight level was a major factor that prevented them from going to the cinema to watch Bollywood films, as it affected their understanding of the film. 3.2. Likelihood of people watching Bollywood films with AD Over half of the respondents in both studies stated that they were more likely to watch Bollywood films if AD was provided (56 per cent in the quantitative study and 92 per cent in the qualitative study). AD improved understanding of the film clip for blind and partially sighted people, with people reporting a greater grasp of location, characters, expressions and the plot. 3.3. Three key areas were identified 3.3.1. Description over songs Respondents felt it was important to provide AD during songs as well as in the standard story so as to be able to follow what was happening on the screen. 3.3.2. Language of the description The majority of respondents preferred AD in Hindi compared with description in English. 3.3.3. Awareness about audio description The research found that only five per cent of respondents in the quantitative study had any previous experience of AD. 16 per cent were aware of AD but 7
  • 8. Executive summary were not aware of its features and what it had to offer. There was a significant lack of awareness about AD amongst blind and partially sighted Asians in the UK. 4. Recommendations The study was able to establish a number of areas in which the Bollywood film industry, RNIB, various associations working with blind and partially sighted people in India, sectors within the Government of India and other stakeholders could usefully collaborate to improve the accessibility of Bollywood films in the UK and India. The findings of this research study resulted in the following recommendations: Recommendation 1: Initiate partnership working with the Indian film industry RNIB to work closely with the Indian film industry, sharing the expertise and the experience, it has built up while working with UK Hollywood distributors. The aim would be to support the setting up of a system in the UK and India that can produce AD for Bollywood films. Recommendation 2: UK pilot of audio described Bollywood films Keeping in mind that all systems and infrastructure enabling the provision and delivery of AD in films are in place within the UK, it would be operationally simpler to pilot the product in the UK first, and then share the experience and expertise with the industry in India. If the AD track was available for UK cinema release, the track could then be included on the DVD and tested in the Indian DVD market. Recommendation 3: AD for all mediums The research study was unable to bring out a clear preference for any particular medium for accessing Bollywood films in the UK or India. A split between preferences was evident amongst younger cinema goers (18-44 years) and older home entertainment enthusiasts. Therefore, the Bollywood film industry should be encouraged to make AD tracks available across diverse film viewing platforms – cinema, DVD and eventually television. If AD were to be made available as an optional audio track on the regular DVD release, it would not only increase the availability of accessible Bollywood films but also lead to a greater acceptance of AD amongst the general population in both India and the UK. 8
  • 9. Executive summary Recommendation 4: Raising awareness amongst the target population in the UK 4 (a) RNIB to plan awareness campaigns with the aim of familiarising the UK Asian blind community with the concept of AD. These promotional activities should be planned bearing in mind the specific characteristics of the Asian community such as language preference of the target audience and their knowledge of Hindi. 4 (b) RNIB to share the findings of this research with the UK distributors of Hollywood films who are forming alliances with the Indian film industry and distributing Bollywood films in the UK, including Warner Bros and Sony Pictures. 4 (c) RNIB to create awareness within the UK cinema exhibitors about the possible arrival of audio described Bollywood films. This would enable cinemas to appropriately assign films to specific screens that are equipped to handle AD. 4 (d) RNIB should work in partnership with organisations providing services to different Asian communities in the UK to raise the level of awareness about AD for blind and partially sighted people. The evidence from the research indicates that there is a high demand for other specialist services like ‘talking newspapers’ for blind and partially sighted people within the different Asian communities. This provides a favourable context for the introduction of AD aimed at Asian communities via Bollywood films. These activities and campaigns would need to be planned and organised in conjunction with the relevant industries. Recommendation 5: Raising awareness amongst the target population in India 5 (a) RNIB and associations working for/with blind and partially sighted people in India to work collaboratively with the specific departments within the Government of India, with the Indian counterparts taking a lead role in creating awareness about AD and its eventual availability on Bollywood films in India. As AD is a medium for moving images, cinemas and television could play an instrumental role in creating this awareness. 9
  • 10. Executive summary Recommendation 6: Engage with the Bollywood film industry 6 (a) RNIB could participate in conferences and discussions relevant to the Indian film industry and non-profit organisations working in the field of visual impairment and access technologies in India. This would enable wider awareness and discussion on the subject with a larger audience. Once the discussion gathers momentum, it should be steered towards practical solutions to making AD technology widely available. 6 (b) RNIB may wish to think about working in partnership with selected Bollywood film producers in order to set up a pilot project using AD in Bollywood films. Such a development would not only benefit blind and partially sighted people in the UK and India but others living across the globe. This could be done by organising workshops for selected Bollywood film producers and provide them with practical advice and support for implementing the Bollywood Audio Description Initiative. Recommendation 7: Possible introduction of a legislation in the UK RNIB may wish to explore with Ofcom, the possibility of achieving a quota for AD on Bollywood channels shown in the UK. Recommendation 8: Accessible technology in the UK The evidence from the survey suggests that many blind and partially sighted people have difficulty operating current electronic devices providing access to AD. It is recommended that RNIB continues to work with manufacturers and television platform operators to ensure that they implement a ‘shortcut’ button on the remote control so that people can easily access AD. 10
  • 11. Contents 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience ________________________________________________15 1.1. Objectives __________________________________________________17 1.2. Quantitative research study ____________________________________17 1.3. Qualitative research study ______________________________________18 1.4. Structure of the report ________________________________________18 2. Audio Description (AD)____________________________________________20 2.1. What is AD? ________________________________________________20 2.2. Development of AD in the UK __________________________________20 2.3. Enabling AD for 35mm film prints ________________________________20 2.4. Enabling AD for digital cinema __________________________________21 2.5. AD guideliness ______________________________________________21 3. Personas ________________________________________________________22 4. Quantitative research study ________________________________________27 4.1. Executive summary ____________________________________________27 4.2. Introduction ________________________________________________28 4.2.1. Approach: Sample and methodology ________________________29 4.2.2. Sample size and the locations of interviews __________________30 4.2.3. Fieldwork ____________________________________________30 4.2.4. Data processing ________________________________________30 4.3. Key finding 1: About the respondents ____________________________31 4.3.1. Regional distribution of interviews __________________________31 4.3.2. Ethnicity and gender ____________________________________32 4.3.3. Place of interviews and gender of respondents ________________33 4.3.4. Age of respondents ____________________________________33 4.3.5. Types of interviews and the language used for interviews ________34 4.3.6. About respondents’ eye sight______________________________35 4.4. Key finding 2: About television and DVD viewing habits ______________36 4.4.1. Watching Bollywood films on television ______________________38 4.4.2. Watching a Bollywood film on the DVD ______________________40 11
  • 12. Contents 4.4.3. Factors that affect the viewing of Bollywood films______________42 4.5. Key finding 3: About cinema viewing habits ________________________45 4.5.1. Watching Bollywood films at the cinema ____________________45 4.5.2. Factors that affect the viewing of Bollywood films at the cinema __47 4.5.3. Strategies for watching Bollywood films in a cinema ____________49 4.6. About AD __________________________________________________50 4.7. Preferred mediums for accessing information about new products/services ____________________________________________53 4.7.1. Top five general sources of information ______________________54 4.7.2. Radio as a source for information __________________________56 4.7.3. Television as a source for information________________________57 4.7.4. Talking Newspapers as a source for information ________________57 4.7.5. Mainstream newspapers and magazines as a source for information ________________________________________58 4.8. Conclusion __________________________________________________58 4.8.1. Main findings __________________________________________58 4.8.2. Current level of awareness of AD and a further likelihood of watching a Bollywood film with AD if introduced ____________59 4.8.3. Potential for audio described Bollywood films in the UK ________60 5. Qualitative research study ________________________________________61 5.1. Executive summary ____________________________________________61 5.2. Introduction to AD and the relevant film industry ____________________62 5.2.1. Aims and objectives ____________________________________64 5.2.2. Approach ____________________________________________64 5.2.3. Sample ______________________________________________65 5.2.4. Film material __________________________________________67 5.3. Results ____________________________________________________68 5.3.1. A summary of characteristics of participants __________________68 5.3.2. Level of sight impairment ________________________________69 5.4. Current viewing habits ________________________________________71 5.4.1. Film viewing habits ____________________________________71 5.4.2. Current methods of watching television/films ________________71 5.4.3. Following films/television programmes on television with the current level of vision ________________________________72 5.4.4. Knowledge of AD ______________________________________76 12
  • 13. Contents 5.5. What difference does AD make?__________________________________76 5.5.1. Initial impressions ______________________________________76 5.5.2. Objective measures of understanding________________________77 5.5.3. Does better understanding also translate into increased enjoyment?____________________________________________84 5.5.4. Initial indication of the demand for AD ______________________86 5.5.5. Preferred method for accessing described content ____________87 5.6. Optimising AD for Bollywood films ________________________________88 5.6.1. Language preferences____________________________________88 5.6.2. Describing over songs____________________________________89 5.6.3. What to include in AD __________________________________90 6. Proposed AD guidelines for Bollywood films __________________________91 6.1. What is Audio Description (AD)? ________________________________91 6.2. Users ______________________________________________________91 6.3. Best practice ________________________________________________91 6.3.1. What to describe ______________________________________91 6.3.2. Characters ____________________________________________91 6.3.3. On-screen action ______________________________________92 6.3.4. Settings ______________________________________________92 6.3.5. What not to describe ____________________________________92 6.3.6. When to describe ______________________________________92 6.3.7. Language ____________________________________________93 6.3.8. Delivery ______________________________________________93 6.3.9. Balance ______________________________________________93 6.3.10. Describers ____________________________________________94 6.3.11. Children’s programmes/films ______________________________94 6.3.12. Language and songs in Bollywood Films ____________________94 13
  • 14. Contents 7. Practical aspects to providing AD on Bollywood films __________________95 7.1. Lack of awareness of AD within the target market in the UK and India __________________________________________95 7.2. Operational barriers to making audio described films available __________96 7.2.1. Operational barriers to making audio described films available in India ______________________________________________96 7.2.2. Operational barriers to making audio described films available in the UK ____________________________________________96 7.3. Commercial considerations ______________________________________97 7.4. Conclusion __________________________________________________98 7.5. Recommendations ____________________________________________98 8. References ____________________________________________________102 Appendix 1: Questionnaire for qualitative study ________________________104 Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study________________________112 14
  • 15. 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience The genesis of India’s Hindi film industry can be traced to a public screening of Raja Harischandra, India’s first silent film, in 1913. It gave the Indian film industry its first occasion to celebrate. Almost a hundred years on, the industry continues to be a veritable dream factory for millions of fans worldwide, without the dream having lost its sheen. The sheer riot of colours makes an Indian film stand out amongst the crowd of filmed entertainment. The 1970’s gave birth to a peculiar term, Bollywood, which interestingly, struck a chord with millions of its film fans living in India and overseas, and over the years it has come to define the Hindi film industry from Bombay, now known as Mumbai. Bollywood embodied a style of cinema determined by musical interludes, opulent settings and high production values that still define the form today. In 2001, the film industry was brought under the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). This was done with a view to corporatise the film industry in India. Within a few years of its inception, the FICCI entertainment committee was able to obtain an ‘industry’ status from the government. Bollywood produces, on average, around 700 films a year, making it not only the dominant national film industry, but perhaps the largest in the world. With films being the most popular form of mass entertainment in India, the industry has witnessed a robust double digit growth over the past decade. The massive Indian expatriate population, for whom Bollywood movies are not just three-hour diversions on a week-night but a part of their childhood memories, is turning Bollywood blockbusters into international hits. Things have come a long way from the 1970’s Britain, when there were no cinemas devoted to Bollywood films and its fans would take over a local cinema to show a popular Hindi film over the weekend. Today popular cinema chains like Odeon, Vue and Cineworld regularly screen Bollywood films. 15
  • 16. 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience Gauging the popularity of Bollywood films in the UK A small, but growing, part of the audience in the UK and Republic of Ireland enjoys foreign language films, of which there were 170 releases in 2007 in 33 languages, taking 3.5 per cent of the box office. Hindi figured at the top of the list of foreign languages in the UK and Republic of Ireland box office in 2007 with 13 Hindi titles dominating the top 20 foreign language film chart of 2007. [UK Film Council (2007) Statistical Year Book, Page 73] The Indian film industry too is equally keen to reach out to its global audience. In accordance with the FICCI and Pricewaterhouse Coopers report on Indian entertainment and media industry 2007, even though domestic box office collections continue to be the largest contributor to the revenues of the industry at 74 per cent, the share of the domestic box office is projected to reduce to 70 per cent by 2012, primarily in favour of overseas and ancillary revenues. The report also points out that “the overseas collections are estimated to grow cumulatively at 19 per cent over the next five years to reach GBP 250 million in 2012 from a current size of GBP 105 million in 2007. [June 2009: 1 GBP = 79.69 Indian Rupees]. There are several growth drivers for this segment from increased marketing and selling efforts internationally, to a significantly more organised distribution plan.” [FICCI and Pricewaterhouse Coopers (2007) – Indian entertainment and media industry] This trend is also reflected in the UK Film Council’s “Statistical Yearbook 2007”, which says that minority ethnic groups were equally or over-represented in the 60 per cent of the UK population that said they went to the cinema at least once a year. But Bollywood films continue to remain inaccessible to blind and partially sighted people because of the absence of AD. One of the major reasons contributing to this continued inaccessibility could be the absence of technology enabling AD in Indian cinemas, which is the primary market for Bollywood films. In the UK, more than 300 cinemas are equipped with AD facilities and the UK distribu- tors for Hollywood films such as Warner Bros Distributors, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures UK, Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, Paramount Pictures UK, Universal Pictures UK, Pathé Distribution and Sony Pictures Releasing increase the accessibility of their films by providing subtitling for deaf and hard of hearing people and AD for blind and partially sighted people on almost 100 per cent of their UK releases. The Bollywood Audio Description Project seeks to explore this gap in accessi- bility of Bollywood films and its ramifications on blind and partially sighted Bollywood fans living in the UK and India. 16
  • 17. 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience 1.1. Objectives This report is the first in-depth investigation of AD for Bollywood films that RNIB has undertaken. It seeks to understand behaviours and attitudes of blind and partially sighted people towards viewing Bollywood films with and without AD. The objectives of this report are as follows: to look at television viewing and cinema going habits of blind and partially sighted people in India and within the Asian community in the UK to investigate if there is an unmet demand within the target audience for audio described Bollywood films to broadly gauge the size of the market for such films in both countries to investigate the feasibility of audio described Bollywood films for the benefit of blind and partially sighted film viewers in the UK and India. This report draws on a combination of qualitative and quantitative research studies carried out for the purpose of this project. 1.2. Quantitative research study The purpose of this quantitative research study, aside from throwing light on the approximate market size for audio described Bollywood films in the UK, was to explore the cinema and DVD viewing habits of people with sight loss within the UK Asian community. The survey interviewed a total of 260 blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community across the UK. It was carried out by Agroni Research. It is important to understand that, in the absence of any robust data being available on blind and partially sighted Asian population living in the UK, the study is only equipped to give an impression of the approximate market size for audio described Bollywood films in the UK. As part of the study to understand the market size, we followed a basic deductive process with the available data, which indicate that 4 per cent of the UK’s current population of 54 million either belong, or are descendants of, people who belonged to the Indian sub-continent. Combined with RNIB’s estimate that there are around two million blind and partially sighted people in the country (RNIB, 2005), it led us to conclude that about 80,000 people should be the approximate number of blind and partially sighted Asians in the UK. But this process failed to take into account various other factors that would significantly influence the size of this group such as: 17
  • 18. 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience Older people are far more likely to be affected by sight problems and, according to the Office of National Statistics, there is a lower proportion of older people belonging to the Asian population in the UK. People of Asian descent are more likely to have diabetes and about 60 per cent of people with diabetes go on to develop diabetic retinopathy. The early stages of diabetic retinopathy may cause blurred vision, or they may produce no visual symptoms at all. As the disease progresses, a cloudiness of vision, blind spots or floaters may occur. This makes activities such as reading, driving and watching television extremely difficult. If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness. 1.3. Qualitative research study This in-depth qualitative research study investigated behaviours, attitudes and barriers for watching Bollywood films among 25 blind or partially sighted Asians living in the UK; and 25 blind and partially sighted people in India. The study included adults and children, viewers and non-regular viewers of Bollywood films. This report includes findings from this qualitative research study. While it is believed that these findings will make a useful contribution to the debate in this area, the results of the qualitative research should not be used to draw statistically robust conclusions for the entire population of blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community in the UK or India. 1.4. Structure of the report Chapter 2 discusses the development of AD in the UK and its current status. Chapter 3 presents a series of six personas, to summarise the breadth of Bollywood film viewing experiences observed across the samples. Each persona represents an amalgamation of insights obtained across the samples. It also provides further context to the results with particular regard to the key user group – blind or partially sighted Bollywood film viewers. Chapter 4 looks quantitatively at people’s habits with reference to the watching of Bollywood films on television, DVD and in cinemas in the UK. It includes an indication of the market size for such films. 18
  • 19. 1. Introduction to Bollywood films and its blind and partially sighted audience Building on this, chapter 5 uses the qualitative study to look at the behaviours and attitudes to the viewing of Bollywood films and related aspects with special reference to AD. Chapter 6 draws up guidelines for AD in Bollywood films using the research findings. Chapter 7 draws up recommendations based on the quantitative data, qualitative data and interaction with the Bollywood film industry to look at the best ways of introducing AD in Bollywood films. 19
  • 20. 2. Audio Description (AD) 2.1. What is AD? Similar to a narrator telling a story, AD is an additional commentary describing body language, expressions and movements – allowing you to hear what you might not be able to see. 2.2. Development of AD in the UK Even though research and actual testing of AD was being carried out in the UK in the early 1990’s, it was the Broadcasting Act 1996, which made it mandatory for UK digital terrestrial television broadcasters to provide AD on 10 per cent of its programming. The Communications Act 2003 extended this legal obligation to cable and satellite broadcasters. The provision has come a long way, with one of the private broadcasters in the UK, British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) having committed to providing AD on 20 per cent of its programming. The first UK cinema release with AD was in 2002 – Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone. In 2003, the UK Film Council launched its Cinema Access Programme to improve facilities for people with hearing or sight loss. Within a year, a further 79 UK cinemas were equipped with subtitle/caption and AD equipment to enable more people to enjoy the cinema experience. Today, there are more than 300 ‘accessible’ cinemas. As a consequence, there is now a thriving industry of AD providers in the UK. 2.3. Enabling AD for 35mm film prints Until recently, there were only two systems that enabled AD in UK cinemas – DTS and Dolby. The DTS Cinema Subtitling System (DTS-CSS) is installed in more than 200 UK cinemas. A disc containing both the subtitles/captions is projected directly onto the film print and the AD track is synchronised with the DTS time code. The Dolby ScreenTalk system is installed in almost 100 UK cinemas and delivers cinema subtitles/captions and AD for films. The system allows subtitles to be projected on to any standard film print. This system is no longer available in the market. 20
  • 21. 2. Audio Description (AD) In both systems, AD is transmitted to blind and partially sighted people in the auditorium via an infrared headphone system. Once a film print has been provided with DTS and/or Dolby time codes, the AD for the film is decoded in the cinema by either the DTS-CSS system or Dolby ScreenTalk – depending on which system has been installed. 2.4. Enabling AD for digital cinema With the advent of Digital cinema, AD is now part of the digital cinema package and is transmitted through an infra red headphone system. The challenge for the industry is to have the AD track finished and available in time for it to be included on the digital print. 2.5. AD guidelines The most comprehensive set of instructions for audio describers, Guidance on Standards for Audio Description, was developed by the Independent Television Commission (ITC) in the UK as a result of the Broadcasting Act 1996. Amongst other things, the document laid down guidelines in considerable detail on prioritising information, stating the obvious, mentioning colours and ethnic origins. Complete guidelines are available on: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive /itc/uploads/ITC_Guidance_On_Standards_for_Audio_Description.doc These were later updated by Ofcom in their Code on Television Access Services in 2006. The updated Guidelines on the Provision of Television Access Services, are available on: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/tv/ifi/guidance/tv_access_serv/guidelines/ These guidelines are used by the AD service providers as a tool while writing and recording descriptions for broadcast and film materials. 21
  • 22. 3. Personas A total of 260 people were interviewed for the quantitative study and a total of 50 people were interviewed for the qualitative study of this research. Amongst the 50 people interviewed for the qualitative research study, 25 people were interviewed in the UK and 25 in India. All participants tended to have severe sight problems. A wide age range of people was interviewed to gain a comprehensive understanding of problems faced by blind and partially sighted viewers of Bollywood films. From the qualitative sample, 40 people were interviewed in Hindi and 10 in English. During the study, a broad range of life situations and experiences in reference to their film viewing habits was described to us. To bring our research participants to life for the reader, we present six personas. None of the personas were real participants in the research, but their characteristics and features were based on research observations gained in this project. Persona 1: Asha, age 32, unemployed Loves going to the movies and watches almost every Bollywood film released in UK cinemas. Also, watches a lot of films and film related shows on television. Not a native Hindi speaker, she understands the language sufficiently to follow Bollywood films. She enjoys film music and regularly downloads Bollywood songs from the internet. Partially sighted since birth, Asha differs in the techniques she uses to understand a film from a sighted person: She often depends on her friends to tell her what is happening on the screen. She depends a lot on audio clues to understand the film better. While watching a Bollywood film in a cinema, Asha does not like asking her friends/family to explain to her what’s happening on the screen and, as a result, quite often ends up losing track of the plot. Asha is familiar with AD and uses it to watch soaps on British television channels, and wishes that Bollywood films were available with AD. 22
  • 23. 3. Personas Persona 2: Rajesh, age 87, a retired musician He enjoys his Bollywood films at home now – television or DVD. Rajesh has subscribed to the Asian package offered by one of the satellite television service providers. He receives seven Asian entertainment channels, three of which are 24-hour Hindi movie channels. A native Hindi speaker, he has a collection of old Bollywood films on DVD, which he listens to (views) when someone gets the player going for him. He can manage the remote control but with difficulty. Totally blind since birth, Rajesh differs in the techniques he uses to understand a film from a sighted person: He used to enjoy going to the cinema when he was younger but says that he now finds it embarrassing when his companion/friend, who is trying to help by explaining the screenplay, is asked to keep quiet. He would rather watch them at home where he can ask friends/family for assistance. A musician by profession, he loves film music. So his family purchases a lot of music CDs for him. But he does not enjoy songs while watching the films as he misses out on all the action during the songs. Rajesh has never heard or used AD as an aid to understand what is happening on the television/cinema screen. Persona 3: Tarun, age 46, works for a private company He is very fond of watching films in cinemas and has always enjoyed going to the cinema. He watches at least one film a week in a cinema. Depending on his mood and the availability of films in his local cinemas, he will go for a Bollywood or a Hollywood film. Not a native Hindi speaker, Tarun can speak little Hindi but understands the language as Urdu, a language very similar to Hindi, is spoken at home. He does not face any language barriers in gaining an understanding of a Bollywood film, and, in fact, attributes his knowledge of Hindi to Bollywood films. Tarun has been totally blind since the age of 12 and differs in his film viewing habits from a sighted person: He rarely asks any one for help to understand a film as he feels it will spoil the film for him and his friend. He prefers to use audio clues to understand what he can on 23
  • 24. 3. Personas his own. Occasionally, he gets frustrated if he fails to understand the plot or the film takes a weird turn – he knows he has missed something but does not have a clue what that could be. Tarun uses AD very regularly to watch Hollywood films in cinemas and at home on the television. He wishes audio described Bollywood films were available. Persona 4: Aarti, age 58, housewife Likes watching films and dramas on the television: She does not visit the cinema any more unless there is a very good film on, maybe a film starring one of her old favourites. She only goes when her family is able to find time to visit the cinema with her and wants to watch the same film. Aside from the fact that she enjoys their company and takes it as a family day out, she is now unsure about her ability to move around independently. A native Hindi/Gujarati speaker, she watches at least five to six hours of television each day, which usually includes one film. She has subscribed to the entire Asian television channel package by one of the private satellite broadcasters: Aarti often discusses films/television soaps with her neighbours/friends so she feels it is important for her to watch films/television soaps to be a part of the group. Aarti is now partially sighted. She was diagnosed with glaucoma seven years ago. Glaucoma is a sight condition that can lead to blindness if left untreated. Aarti wears prescription glasses and has to use to eye drops that may control further damage to her sight. Aarti differs in her film/television viewing habits from sighted people: She sits very close to the screen when she watches television and also wears special stronger glasses to improve the quality of the picture as much as possible. Even though Aarti has digital television at home, she never accesses the electronic programme guide because she can’t read the small print even when she sits close to the screen. She is reluctant to try out new features on her digital television and has memorised the few buttons which she uses regularly on her remote control. Aarti has heard about AD but doesn’t know what it exactly is. She would like to find out more and is keen to use it, provided it is easy to find out which films are described and it is not difficult to switch it on and off on her television/or on DVDs. 24
  • 25. 3. Personas Persona 5: Puja, age 13, school student She loves watching films in a cinema or on the television. She is allowed to watch two hours of television each day and one or two films in a week: She forces her parents to take her to the cinema over the weekend so that she can talk about it with her friends at school. She watches a lot of film based shows on the television and is very comfortable using the television remote control. Her favourite television channels, when she is not watching films or kids programming, are MTV and Channel V. These are 24-hour music channels that play songs from latest Bollywood films. Puja is totally blind from birth and her film/television viewing habits differ from other children’s: She seeks help from her sibling to explain to her what’s happening on the screen. She does not like cartoons or animated films as there is too much going on for her to understand on her own. Puja has never heard or used AD as an aid to understand what is happening on the television/cinema screen, but she is always keen to try out new features on her television/DVD player. So she is quite likely to want to try it if it becomes available. Persona 6: Mukesh, age 76, retired He likes to watch television and, aside from Bollywood classic films, he enjoys news and sports based programmes. On average, he watches about four to five hours of television each day, mostly in his wife’s company. He has mobility problems and therefore does not go to the cinema: Mukesh has always been a cricket enthusiast. He watches all the matches that are broadcast on television. He used to enjoy watching a lot of films until about a decade ago. Now he only watches new films by selected directors or he will watch films that he enjoyed earlier in his life. Mukesh has been diabetic for almost 22 years and has lost most of his sight due to diabetic retinopathy. The technique he uses for watching film/television differs from sighted people: 25
  • 26. 3. Personas He says he does not watch films/ television anymore; he listens to them in the same way as he would listen to a radio. He misses watching cricket matches and his favourite star’s films when they are released. He does not like asking anyone, even his wife, to explain to him what is happening on the screen as it makes him feel dependant. Even though Mukesh is relatively comfortable with technology, he is reluctant to try out new devices such as his new digital set-top box or his new DVD player. He has memorised a few buttons on the remote control to facilitate basic functions. Mukesh has heard about AD but has never used it. He is not aware that AD is available on some of the television channels that he watches regularly such as BBC/Sky sports. He would be willing to try out AD if it was easy to access on his digital set top box and did not require him to go into complicated menus. He would certainly access it if it was a single step process as he misses the independence that he lost with his sight. 26
  • 27. 4. Quantitative research study 4.1 Executive summary This study explored Bollywood film viewing behaviour amongst blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin in the UK to understand: the film viewing habits of blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin resident in the UK the specific needs and preferences of blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin in relation to AD in Bollywood films the demand for audio described Bollywood films in the UK. Overall, 260 blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community living in London, Leicester, Birmingham and Bradford were interviewed for this study. The research was able to establish that Bollywood films were popular amongst the target audience; 73 per cent of the respondents stated that they watched Bollywood films on television; 53 per cent of respondents reported that they watched them on DVD. The frequency of viewing Bollywood films obviously varied amongst respondents; 43 per cent of the respondents watched a Bollywood film on television at least once a week while 19 per cent of the respondents watched a Bollywood film on DVD during the same period. Interestingly, 15 per cent of respondents reported that they watched a Bollywood film in the cinema at least once a week. However, a minority of respondents, 10 per cent for television and 14 per cent for DVD, stated that they did not watch Bollywood films because they found it too difficult to engage with the current technology. This research finding suggests that the introduction of simpler technology allowing easier access to television and DVD could significantly boost the number of blind and partially sighted Asian people viewing Bollywood films. Another significant finding was the low level of awareness about AD amongst blind and partially sighted Asian people. 56 per cent of the respondents stated they had never heard of AD while only five per cent of respondents said that they had used it at some point. Having introduced users to AD during the study, 57 per cent of respondents reported that they would be more likely to watch a Bollywood film that was audio described compared to a film that was not. Only 14 per cent of respondents said they were less likely to watch a Bollywood film that was audio described. 27
  • 28. 4. Quantitative research study Overall, the evidence from this research suggests that there is demand for audio described Bollywood films amongst blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community living in the UK. 4.2. Introduction Though it might be hard to comment on the exact size of the Bollywood film industry, it would not be wrong to say that it is the largest and the most prolific film industry in the world. Mihir Bose (2007), in his book Bollywood: A History, notes that the Indian film industry produces around 1,000 feature films annually and that some 14 million Indians go to the cinema every day. These figures suggest that on an annual basis around a million more people buy tickets for Indian films than for those produced in Hollywood. Interestingly, the International Indian Film Academy (2007) offers an alternative estimate to Bose’s and claims that around 23 million Indians go to see a film every day. It also calculates that around 15-20 per cent of the income of the Indian film sector comes from overseas markets. A recent study carried out by Price Waterhouse Coopers (PWC) and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FCCI) confirms that revenue from overseas releases is becoming a significant source of income for the Indian film industry. It reports that the income from overseas markets for the sector was estimated to be £107 million in 2007. This translates into 21 per cent growth since 2006 (The Indian Entertainment and Media Industry; Sustaining Growth, 2008:28). Furthermore, PWC and the FCCI predict that income from overseas markets for the Indian film industry will reach £251 million by 2012 (note figures based on current currency exchange rate of 1 GBP = 79.69 Indian Rupees, June 2009). However, despite the social and economic significance of the Bollywood film industry, Bollywood films are not available with AD. Significantly, the UK has the largest audience for Indian cinema outside India with Bollywood films regularly achieving a position within the UK box office top 10. This success can be largely, although not exclusively, attributed to film goers in the large Asian communities, namely people from the Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin settled in the UK. The 2001 census shows that over half of the black and minority ethnic (BME) population in the UK is of Asian origin constituting four per cent of the overall population. Indians were the largest minority group – 23 per cent of the total minority ethnic population; 16 per cent were Pakistanis and six per cent were Bangladeshis. A report published by The Information Centre (2006) estimated that there were 152,000 registered blind and 155,000 registered as partially sighted people in the UK. 28
  • 29. 4. Quantitative research study (Note: Registration is not mandatory therefore actual numbers of blind and partially sighted people are higher). Sefton, Baker and Praat, (2005) suggest that five per cent of the registered blind/partially sighted people are from the Black and Minority Ethnic communities. They also estimated that Pakistanis represent 31 per cent and Indians 29 per cent of BME people with a sensory disability. In this context, RNIB commissioned Agroni Research to undertake a quantitative research survey amongst blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin. As mentioned earlier, for the purpose of this study the term Asian refers to people from the Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi communities only. The aims and objectives of the research were as follows: Explore the film viewing habits of blind and partially sighted people within the Asian population in the UK Establish whether there is a demand for audio described Bollywood films in the UK Investigate the specific needs and preferences of blind and partially sighted people in relation to the AD of Bollywood films. 4.2.1. Approach: Sample and methodology A combination of face to face and telephone interviews was used to gather responses. Multilingual interviewers were used to ensure effective engagement with respondents from the designated ethnic groups. Interviewers were also gender matched to respondents to overcome cultural barriers. Fifty organisations working with blind and partially sighted Asian people, including charitable and statutory organisations such as local authorities and specialist eye hospitals, were contacted. A number of appropriate organisations were also contacted in regions known for their high Asian population. Some of these organisations were unable to provide contact details of their members, for reasons including data protection. Overall, 20 organisations were willing to assist with this research. Some of these were only able to sign post to other institutions, while others were able to facilitate interviewers in their scheduled gatherings and meetings of blind and partially sighted people. It should be noted that in the end only 85 (33 per cent) out of 260 successfully completed interviews were conducted in community centres, while 168 (65 per cent) of the interviews were conducted at the homes of respondents. In addition, interviewers identified blind and partially sighted people from the different Asian communities and used a range of approaches to generate contacts including the use of social networks of friends and relatives as well as visiting local shops, schools, colleges, hospitals and housing estates. 29
  • 30. 4. Quantitative research study 4.2.2. Sample size and the locations of interviews The sample size for the study was 260 people. Interviews were conducted with blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community spread across the UK. The regions selected for the study were London, Birmingham, Leicester and Bradford. A small number of interviews were also conducted in Manchester and Oldham. For the purpose of this report, and because of the geographical proximity of these locations, these interviews were grouped together with those carried out in Bradford. An attempt was made to include an equal number of respondents from each of the ethnic communities. In addition, an attempt was made to make the regional spread reflect the population size of the respective communities. However, a relaxation of the aforementioned soft quotas was made as the fieldwork progressed to ensure a sufficient number of respondents were interviewed. It should be noted, however, that no strict quotas were set for ethnicity, gender and age among the target population. Further details about the ethnicity, gender and age of respondents are provided in the key findings section. 4.2.3. Fieldwork The research questionnaire was made available in five different languages – English, Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati and Urdu. This was done to standardise the script for the field researchers since the project required them to interview people who might be more willing to participate if the interview was done in their preferred language. Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati and Urdu were chosen as they are the most commonly spoken languages amongst the Asian community. 23 interviewers were able to complete around 11 interviews each on average over a period of nine weeks. However, two interviewers in Leicester and Birmingham were able to secure the co-operation of staff at drop-in centres for blind and partially sighted people and were, therefore, able to benefit from the excellent connections that these organisations had with local blind and partially sighted people. 4.2.4. Data processing Data was first entered in the Excel program with a unique identification number and then transferred to SPSS for analysis. Frequency tables were created to check the categories of all variables and to identify coding errors to ensure that they were consistent with the original records. Different consistency checks were then carried out between the variables to ensure the integrity of the data. Finally, a clean data set was generated to produce a variety of tables and graphs. Tables were prepared for almost all variables included in the questionnaire and SPSS outcomes were presented with a 30
  • 31. 4. Quantitative research study number along with percentages either in a tabular format or in a graphical representation. Additional cross tables were also prepared by controlling some socio- demographic aspects and presented in a tabular format indicating both number and percentages. Appropriate statistical tests were performed for relevant characteristics, eg age and sight level of respondents relating to some selected responses. In this instance it was not feasible to use random sampling owing to the unavailability of reliable data on the sampling population to work from. Other practical implications, such as time and cost, made a thoroughly comprehensive sampling method prohibitive. Hence stratified opportunity sampling was utilised in this study. However, it is a well established research principle that any sample that includes at least 200 cases is deemed to be representative. In this instance this study utilised a sample size of 260 respondents. Therefore the study is very confident that the sample is representative of blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin and descent. 4.3. Key finding 1: About the respondents 4.3.1. Regional distribution of interviews Figure 1 shows the number of valid interviews that were successfully completed in each region. Figure 1. Distribution of respondents according to region (N=260). 31
  • 32. 4. Quantitative research study 25 per cent of interviews were conducted in London, 33 per cent in Leicester, 21 per cent in Birmingham and 21 per cent in Bradford and Manchester. The number of interviews conducted in Leicester was relatively high compared with other regions. This was primarily because of the co-operation of a community centre which offered a wide range of activities for blind and partially sighted people. Leicester is home to one of the largest Indian communities living outside India. Figures obtained from Leicester City Council (2009) count 72,000 Indian residents amongst its population, the highest for any single area in the UK. 4.3.2. Ethnicity and gender Overall 60 per cent interviews were conducted with respondents of Indian origin, 29 per cent of the interviews were conducted with respondents of Bangladeshi origin and 11 per cent of the interviews were conducted with respondents of Pakistani origin. Table 1 shows the ethnicity of respondents. Table 1. Ethnicity of respondents (N=260) Ethnicity of respondents Number of respondents Per cent Indian 157 60.3% Bangladeshi 75 28.8% Pakistani 28 10.8% TOTAL 260 100% There were more male respondents (57 per cent) than female respondents (43 per cent). This reflects the fact that the male respondents were easier to identify and approach through community networks than the female respondents, some of whom are part of a ‘hard-to-reach’ population in many areas. The decision not to use a gender specific quota system in the research also contributed to the unequal participation of male and female respondents. Table 2 shows the gender breakdown. Table 2. Gender breakdown of respondents (N=260) Gender of respondents Number of respondents Per cent Male 148 57% Female 112 43% TOTAL 260 100% 32
  • 33. 4. Quantitative research study 4.3.3. Place of interviews and gender of respondents Table 3 shows that the majority of the interviews were conducted either at respondents’ homes (65 per cent) or community centres (33 per cent). A smaller number of interviews were carried out in places of worship (five per cent) and the workplace (one per cent). Of all the female respondents interviewed, the number of female respondents interviewed at home (61 per cent) was lower than the number of male respondents (68 per cent) interviewed at home. By contrast, the number of male respondents interviewed in community centres (28 per cent) was lower compared with female respondents (39 per cent). This difference is readily explained because one researcher located a large number of female respondents at a community centre in Leicester. It is also noteworthy that the relatively small number of interviews that were carried out in the workplace were carried out with male respondents only. Table 3. Place of interview by gender Male respondents Female respondents Place of interview (N=148) (N=112) Home 68% 61% Community centre 28% 39% Workplace 2% 0% Place of worship 3% 0% 4.3.4. Age of respondents Table 4 shows a spread of the age groups that participated in the research. The majority of respondents (79 per cent) were between the ages of 45-74. Only 12 per cent were between the ages of 18-44. Furthermore, 14 per cent of respondents were between 75-84 years of age and only five per cent over 85 years of age. The older age group, often first-generation emigrants, were usually only fluent in their native language. Members of older age groups tended to spend more time at home and consequently were far less likely to use outside facilities (including cinemas) than their younger counterparts. 33
  • 34. 4. Quantitative research study Table 4. Age of respondents (N=260) Age of respondents Number of respondents Per cent 18-24 years 8 3.1% 25-34 years 26 10% 35-44 years 22 8.5% 45-54 years 47 18.1% 55-64 years 53 20.4% 65-74 years 55 21.2% 75-84 years 37 14.2% 85+ years 12 4.6% TOTAL 260 100% 4.3.5. Types of interviews and the language used for interviews The overwhelming majority of the interviews (84 per cent) were conducted face-to- face while the remainder (16 per cent) were conducted over the telephone. Figure 2. Type of interview (N=260) 34
  • 35. 4. Quantitative research study Respondents were offered a choice of languages in which the interviews could be conducted. The majority of respondents (78 per cent) selected their native language while 22 per cent preferred to speak in English. The number of interviews conducted in community languages were as follows: Table 5. Language used for the interview (N=260) Language Number of respondents Per cent Gujarati 71 27.3% Bengali 66 25.4% English 58 22.3% Urdu 48 18.5% Hindi 17 6.5% TOTAL 260 100% Because of their language preference, interviews with 10 per cent of the respondents from the Indian origin were actually conducted in Urdu while one Bengali respondent and a Pakistani respondent were interviewed in Hindi. Here it is relevant to note that nearly all Asians, even young British-Asians from non-Hindi speaking communities, have an adequate knowledge of the Hindi language to be able to follow the story lines of contemporary Bollywood films. 4.3.6. About respondents’ eye sight When respondents were asked to describe the current condition of their eyesight, just over one-third (34 per cent) reported that they defined themselves as blind. Of the remainder, two out of three respondents (66 per cent) stated that they defined themselves as partially sighted (Table 6). Table 6. Condition of respondent eye sight (self-assessment) (N=260) Frequency Per cent Cumulative Blind 88 34% 34 Partially sighted 172 66% 100 TOTAL 260 100% 100% 35
  • 36. 4. Quantitative research study When asked whether they were registered blind or partially sighted, 35 per cent said they were registered as partially sighted while 32 per cent of the respondents reported being registered as blind as table 7 shows. Table 7. Are you registered as blind or partially sighted? Frequency Per cent Blind 92 35.4% Partially sighted 83 31.9% Don’t know 46 17.7% Neither 39 15% TOTAL 260 100% The remaining 15 per cent of respondents had not registered and an additional 18 per cent did not know whether they were registered or not, often because they were “looked after by others”, ie family members. 4.4. Key finding 2: About television and DVD viewing habits Respondents were asked to identify the level and type of difficulty they had while watching television from a list of options. Only a small number of respondents, eight per cent, said that they had no difficulty following programmes/films on television. However, many respondents reported experiencing the following difficulties: 52 per cent had difficulty in seeing the buttons on the remote control A similar percentage (52 per cent) said that they were unable to see the fine details on the television screen 44 per cent had difficulty seeing the picture on the television screen Just under half of all respondents (49 per cent) had difficulty seeing text on the television screen 22 per cent could not see anything on the television screen. 36
  • 37. 4. Quantitative research study Table 8. When watching TV, do you have any of the following? (N= 260) Multiple responses Frequency Per cent Difficulty seeing the buttons on the remote control 134 51.5% Difficulty seeing the fine detail on the TV screen 134 51.5% Difficulty seeing text on the TV screen 127 48.8% Difficulty seeing the picture on the TV screen 114 43.8% Able to see the light of the TV screen 84 32.3% Cannot see anything on the TV screen 58 22.3% Do not find any difficulty following what is 21 8.1% going on the screen This data clearly lends support to the belief that sight problems have a significant impact on a blind or partially sighted person’s experience of watching a programme/film on television or DVD. Respondents were also asked what sort of adjustments they made when watching television and/or DVDs or whether they used any visual aids to improve their visual capacity. The most common coping strategies were as follows: 45 per cent of respondents stated that they simply picked up as much as possible from the sound of the programme/film 39 per cent reported that they wore stronger glasses to improve their vision 29 per cent stated that they sat closer to the television screen 24 per cent relied on the assistance of family members or friends to explain to them what was happening on the screen Table 9 (overleaf) provides further details of strategies employed by respondents to improve their television and DVD viewing. 37
  • 38. 4. Quantitative research study Table 9. What adjustments do you make when watching television or DVD? (N=260) Multiple responses Frequency Per cent Just pick up as much as possible from the sound of 117 45% the film or programme Wear special stronger glasses 101 39% Get closer to the television screen 76 29% Ask my friends or family members to assist by 63 24% explaining what happens on the screen Use residual sight to watch 54 21% Use a large screen television 23 9% Adjust the lighting in the room 17 7% Use a magnifier 16 6% Adjust the screen settings 10 4% Make none of these adjustments 10 4% Use AD to explain what happens on the screen 8 3% Never watch television or DVD(s) 7 3% It is noteworthy that only a small minority (three per cent) of the respondents, reported that they had used AD at some point in the past. Interestingly, only three per cent of all respondents stated that they never watched television or DVDs. 4.4.1. Watching Bollywood films on television A large majority of the respondents reported that they liked watching Bollywood films on a variety of television channels with a fifth of the sample watching a Bollywood film on television every day. But a quarter of the sample said that they never watched Bollywood films on television at all. 19 per cent of the respondents stated that they watched a Bollywood film once a day on television. 15 per cent of the respondents said that they watched a Bollywood film a couple of times a week on television. 11 per cent of the respondents said that they watched a Bollywood film once a week on television. 38
  • 39. 4. Quantitative research study Four per cent of respondents said that they watched Bollywood films once a fortnight on television. 10 per cent of the respondents indicated that they watched a Bollywood film once a month on television. Five per cent of the respondents stated that they watched a Bollywood film once every three months on television. Eight per cent of respondents said that they watched a Bollywood film once a year on television. 27 per cent of the respondents said that they never watched a Bollywood film on television. Overall, 73 per cent of respondents stated that they watched Bollywood films on various television channels at least once a year. Table 10 below shows the frequency of respondents broken down by sight level who were regular watchers of Bollywood films and those who were not interested in Bollywood films. (Notes: Sight level groupings are based on self-reported assessment as blind or partially sighted. Those who never watched Bollywood films on TV were categorised as “not interested”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”) Table 10. Watching Bollywood films on television by sight levels (N=217) Sight level Not interested Watch often Total Blind 25% 75% 100% Partially sighted 35% 66% 100%* TOTAL 31% 69% 100% Chi-Square = 2.01, 1 d.f, p=0.103 (Not Significant) N of valid cases 217. *Figures rounded to nearest whole number. When comparing groups by sight level, no significant difference was found between those who reported that they were blind and those who reported that they were partially sighted in terms of how regularly they watched Bollywood films on television (p=0.103). Table 11 shows frequency of watching Bollywood films on television by age groups. 39
  • 40. 4. Quantitative research study (Note: Those who never watched Bollywood films on television were categorised as “not interested”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”) Table 11. Watching Bollywood films on television by age groups (N=217) Age group Not interested Watch often Total Young adult (18-44) 21% 80% 100%* Middle age (45-74) 38% 62% 100% Older adult (75+) 30% 70% 100% TOTAL 31% 69% 100% Chi-Square = 3.99, 2 d.f, p=0.135 (Not significant). N of valid cases 217. *Figures rounded to nearest whole number. No significant difference was found between age groups in terms of how regularly they watched Bollywood films on television (p=0.135). 4.4.2. Watching a Bollywood film on the DVD Table 12 shows how respondents reported their frequency of watching Bollywood films on a DVD. Table 12. How often do you currently watch Bollywood films on DVD? Age group Frequency Per cent Cum % About once a day 14 5.6% 5.6% About a couple of times a week 15 6% 11.5% About once a week 20 7.9% 19.4% About once a fortnight 9 3.6% 23% About once a month 21 8.3% 31.3% About once every three months 30 11.9% 43.3% About once a year 24 9.5% 52.8% Never 119 47.2% 100% TOTAL 252 100% 40
  • 41. 4. Quantitative research study Table 12 shows that one in five watched a Bollywood film on DVD at least once a week, but almost half (47 per cent) of the respondents never watched Bollywood films on DVD. This is probably because a significant number of the respondents did not own or did not have access to, or found it difficult to use a DVD player. (See table 15 for further details.) Table 13 shows the frequency of watching Bollywood films on DVD by sight level. (Note: Sight level groupings are based on self-reported assessment as blind or partially sighted. Those who never watched Bollywood films on TV were categorised as “not interested”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”) Table 13. Watching Bollywood films on DVD by sight levels (N=198) Sight level Not interested Watch often Total Blind 55% 45% 100% Partially sighted 63% 37% 100% TOTAL 60% 40% 100% Chi-Square = 1.01, 1 d.f, p=0.198 Not Significant (p=NS). N of valid cases 198 When comparing groups by sight level, no significant difference was found between those who reported that they were blind and those who reported that they were partially sighted in terms of how regularly they watched Bollywood films on DVD (p=0.198). Table 14 shows the frequency of watching Bollywood films on DVD by age groups. (Note: Those who never watched Bollywood films on TV were categorised as “not interested”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”.) 41
  • 42. 4. Quantitative research study Table 14. Watching Bollywood films on DVD by age groups (N=198) Age group Not interested Watch often Total Young adult (18-44) 31% 69% 100% Middle age (45-74) 62% 38% 100% Older adult (75+) 71% 29% 100% TOTAL 60% 40% 100% Chi-Square = 17.40, 2 d.f, p=0.000 (p<0.001). N of valid cases 198 Table 14 shows a significant difference (p< 0.001) between age groups in terms of their regularity in watching Bollywood films on DVD. Younger respondents (18-44) were more likely to watch Bollywood films often on DVD than older respondents. 4.4.3. Factors that affect the viewing of Bollywood films When asked to identify factors that stopped them from watching Bollywood films on television or DVD, 20 per cent of the respondents said that they were not interested in watching Bollywood films. A further four per cent of the respondents stated that they were not interested in watching television or DVD at all. However, over 42 per cent of the respondents reported that they did not watch Bollywood films either on television or DVD as a result of their sight problem. Another 14 per cent of the respondents stated that they were either unfamiliar with DVD players or found them too difficult to operate. Table 15 (overleaf) shows the factors which stopped respondents from watching Bollywood films on television or DVD. 42
  • 43. 4. Quantitative research study Table 15. Factors that stop you watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD Multiple responses Frequency Percent I find it difficult to follow Bollywood films because of 108 42% my sight problem I am not interested in watching Bollywood films 53 20% Nothing stops me from watching Bollywood films on 46 18% television or DVD I find it too difficult to use a DVD player 36 14% I find it too difficult to use a television 25 10% I do not own a DVD player 19 7% I don’t have time to watch television or DVDs 18 7% I have no access to a DVD player 17 7% I am not interested in watching television or DVD 9 4% Other 5 2% I do not own a television 4 2% I have no access to a television 1 0% TOTAL 260 Further investigation of these responses by sight level and age groups is set out overleaf. (Note: “Find too difficult” consists of respondents who found it too difficult to follow Bollywood films due to their sight problem, and those who found it difficult to use a TV/DVD player; “Not interested” consists of those who were specifically not interested in Bollywood films and those who were not interested in watching TV/DVD in general). 43
  • 44. 4. Quantitative research study Table 16. Factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films on TV or DVD by sight levels Whole sample Partially sighted Blind (N=88) (N=260) (N=172) Find too difficult 52% 87% 37% to use Not interested 22% 8% 29% Nothing stops me 18% 7% 23% Note: This was a multicode question meaning some respondents may have chosen more than one response. This table shows the percentages of each group who chose particular responses. When comparing groups by sight level in terms of factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films on TV or DVD, table 16 shows that a higher proportion of blind respondents reported finding it too difficult to operate a TV/DVD player (87 per cent compared to 37 per cent partially sighted). A higher proportion (29 per cent) of the partially sighted respondents was not interested in watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD compared to the blind respondents (8 per cent). Likewise, a higher proportion of the partially sighted group reported that nothing stopped them from watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD. Table 17. Factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films on TV or DVD by age group Whole Young adult Middle aged Older adult sample (N=56) (N=100) (N=104) (N=260) Find too difficult 52% 39% 54% 58% to use Not interested 22% 11% 28% 22% Nothing stops me 18% 12% 14% 13% Note: This was a multicode question meaning some respondents may have chosen more than one response. This table shows the percentages of each group who chose particular responses. 44
  • 45. 4. Quantitative research study It was found that a similar proportion (over 50 per cent) of respondents from the middle and older age groups reported difficulty in operating equipment which prevented them from watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD. The younger age group, meanwhile, were less affected (39 per cent) compared to the middle and older age groups by the difficulty experienced operating equipment. A higher proportion of the middle and older age group respondents reported no interest in watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD (28 per cent and 22 per cent respectively), while only 11 per cent of the younger age group said they were not interested in watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD. One possible explanation for the lack of interest in Bollywood films expressed by one in five respondents could be the presence of a large number of Asian and mainstream satellite television channels offering a wide range of entertainment content. As these programmes typically have a high level of verbal content they may be more readily understood by blind and partially sighted people than films with complex dream sequences and songs. 4.5. Key finding 3: About cinema viewing habits 4.5.1. Watching Bollywood films at the cinema Sixty six per cent of the respondents (172) reported that they never went to a cinema. In such a scenario, it is perhaps not surprising that a large proportion of the respondents stated that they never visited a cinema to watch a Bollywood film, as these locations were often perceived to be ‘unfriendly’ or ‘unwelcoming’ for blind and partially sighted people. (See the next section – ‘Factors that affect viewing of Bollywood films in a cinema for further details). Amongst the sample, those who said that they go to the cinema (34 per cent) were then asked how often they watched Bollywood films in a cinema. Results are shown in table 18 overleaf. 45
  • 46. 4. Quantitative research study Table 18. How often do you currently watch Bollywood films in the cinema? Frequency Percent Cum % About once a day 7 8% 8% About a couple of times a week 3 3% 18% About once a week 6 7% 15% About once a fortnight 9 10% 28% About once a month 15 17% 45% About once every three months 11 13% 58% About twice a year 10 11% 69% About once a year 27 31% 100% TOTAL 100% In terms of watching Bollywood films in a cinema by sight level (table 19), the result was similar to the pattern of watching Bollywood films on television and DVD as indicated earlier (see tables 10-14). Table 19 shows the frequency of watching Bollywood films by sight levels. (Note: Sight level groupings are based on self-reported assessment as blind or partially sighted. Those who never watched Bollywood films at the cinema were categorised as “don’t watch”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”). Table 19. Watching Bollywood films in the cinema by sight levels (N=212) Sight level Don’t watch Watch often Total Blind 85% 15% 100% Partially sighted 79% 21% 100% TOTAL 81% 19% 100% Chi-Square = 0.92, 1 d.f, p=0.222 (Not significant). N of valid cases 212 When comparing groups by sight level, no significant difference was found between those who reported that they were blind and those who reported that they were partially sighted in terms of how regularly they watched Bollywood films at the cinema (p=0.222). 46
  • 47. 4. Quantitative research study Table 20 shows the frequency of watching Bollywood films in a cinema by age groups. (Note: Those who never watched Bollywood films at the cinema were categorised as “don’t watch”, whereas those who watched between once a day and once a month were categorised as “watch often”.) Table 20. Watching Bollywood films in the cinema by age groups (N=212) Age group Don’t watch Watch often Total Young adult (18-44) 71% 29% 100% Middle age (45-74) 80% 20% 100% Older adult (75+) 87% 13% 100% TOTAL 81% 19% 100% Chi-Square = 4.88, 2 d.f, p=0.087 (p<0.10). N of valid cases 212 When comparing age groups, no significant difference was found between age groups in terms of how regularly they watched Bollywood films at the cinema (p=0.087). 4.5.2. Factors that affect the viewing of Bollywood films at the cinema A significant number of respondents (40 per cent) believed that their current sight level was a major factor that prevented them from going to the cinema to watch Bollywood films (Table 21). Just over a quarter of the respondents (27 per cent) stated that they found it exceedingly difficult to travel to a cinema while six per cent said they didn’t have a cinema showing Bollywood films in close proximity to where they lived. Only a small number of respondents (five per cent) said that they did not have time to go the cinema. Interestingly, a sizable proportion (22 per cent) of the respondents stated that nothing stopped them going to the cinema to watch a Bollywood film. 47
  • 48. 4. Quantitative research study Table 21. What factors stop you from watching Bollywood films in a cinema? Multiple responses Frequency Per cent Find it difficult to follow Bollywood films in the 105 40% cinema because of current sight level Find it difficult to travel to the cinema 70 27% Nothing stops me from watching Bollywood films in 56 22% the cinema Not interested in watching Bollywood films 24 9% Other 21 8% There are no local cinemas that screen Bollywood 15 5% films No time to go to a cinema 13 5% TOTAL 260 Further investigation of these responses by sight level and age group were as follows: (Note: rows depict breakdown by sight level and age group for responses shown in table 21) Table 22. Factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films in a cinema by sight levels Whole sample Partially sighted Blind (N=88) (N=260) (N=172) Difficult due to sight 40% 65% 28% problem Difficult to travel 27% 36% 22% Not interested 9% 11% 8% Nothing stops me 22% 10% 27% Note: This was a multicode question meaning some respondents may have chosen more than one response. This table shows the percentages of each group who chose particular responses. Table 22 shows that 65 per cent of blind people and 28 per cent of partially sighted people find it difficult to watch Bollywood films due to their sight problem. 48
  • 49. 4. Quantitative research study Similarly a higher proportion of blind people cited ‘difficult to travel’ as a factor preventing them from watching Bollywood films (36 per cent) compared to partially sighted people (22 per cent). A higher proportion of partially sighted people reported that nothing stops them from viewing Bollywood films at the cinema. Table 23. Factors that prevent viewing of Bollywood films in a cinema by age groups Whole Young adult Middle aged Older adult sample (N=56) (N=100) (N=104) (N=260) Difficult due to sight 40% 20% 39% 53% problem Difficult to travel 27% 21% 25% 32% Not interested 9% 13% 8% 9% Nothing stops me 22% 30% 22% 16% Note: This was a multicode question meaning some respondents may have chosen more than one response. This table shows the percentages of each group who chose particular responses. Table 23 shows that a higher proportion of the older age group reported having difficulty going to the cinema due to their sight problem. Difficulty travelling also seemed to increase with age. A higher proportion of respondents in the younger age group reported that nothing stops them from viewing Bollywood films at the cinema. 4.5.3 Strategies for watching Bollywood films in a cinema Respondents were asked to respond to a multiple choice question on how they watched or followed a Bollywood film in a cinema currently. 12 per cent of the respondents stated that they tried to pick up as much information as possible from the soundtrack/audio clues in the film. 11 per cent stated that they either asked someone typically but not always, a friend or family member, to explain to them what was happening on the screen. eight per cent reported that they used their residual eye sight to watch a film. 49
  • 50. 4. Quantitative research study 4.6. About AD During the interview, respondents were asked if they had ever heard of AD before the survey. The responses were as follows: 56 per cent of the respondents stated that that they had never heard of AD; 27 per cent of the respondents said that they had heard about AD but did not know what AD involved. 12 per cent of the respondents said that they had heard of AD and were aware of its features. five per cent of the respondents stated that they were aware of AD and had used it. Table 24 shows awareness of AD by sight levels. (Note: Sight level groupings are based on self-reported assessment as blind or partially sighted. Those who had used AD previously, or were aware of its features were categorised as “aware”, whereas those who had never heard of AD or had heard of it but did not know what the medium involved were categorised as “not aware”.) Table 24. Awareness of AD by sight levels (N=230) Sight level Aware Not aware Total Blind 28% 72% 100% Partially sighted 14% 86% 100% TOTAL 19% 81% 100% Chi-Square =6.63, 1 d.f, p=0.009 (p<0.01). N of valid cases 230 When comparing groups by sight level, a significant difference was found between those who reported that they were blind and those who reported that they were partially sighted in terms of their awareness of AD (p<0.01). The results show that the awareness of AD was higher amongst blind respondents as compared to partially sighted respondents (as shown in table 24). Table 25 (overleaf) shows awareness of AD by age group. (Note: Those who has used AD previously, or who knew of its use were categorised as “aware”, whereas those who had not heard of AD or had heard of it but did not know what it was were categorised as “not aware”.) 50
  • 51. 4. Quantitative research study Table 25. Awareness of AD by age group (N=230) Age group Aware Not aware Total Young adult (18-44) 36% 64% 100% Middle age (45-74) 16% 84% 100% Older adult (75+) 12% 88% 100% TOTAL 19% 81% 100% Chi-Square =12.33, 1 d.f, p=0.002 (p<0.01). N of valid cases 230 When comparing groups by age group, a significant difference was found between age groups in terms of their awareness of AD (p<0.001). The results show that the awareness of AD was higher amongst younger respondents. All respondents were asked to listen to an audio described clip from a Bollywood film before responding to the next question, “Are you more likely to watch a Bollywood film with AD than without it?” Figure 3 below shows that 57 per cent of the respondents stated that on the basis of their experience of having an audio described clip from a Bollywood film, they would prefer to watch an audio described rather than a non audio described Bollywood film. This suggests that there is a demand for audio described Bollywood films in the UK. Figure 3. Likelihood of watching audio described Bollywood films compared to non-audio described Bollywood films 30% 57% 13% 51
  • 52. 4. Quantitative research study 16 per cent of respondents said that they would be less likely to watch audio described Bollywood films. However, it is also noteworthy that a number of respondents (30 per cent) were not sure whether they would be more or less likely to watch a Bollywood film with AD. Amongst other reasons, the most significant factor that came up was that accessing AD through television, DVD (or cinema) would require a change in viewing behaviour. For example, to enable AD on television, irrespective of the platform – Freeview, Cable or Satellite – one is required to navigate through various on-screen menus using the remote control. For many blind and partially sighted first- time or novice users of AD, this a daunting prospect. Furthermore, it has already been established that a significant number of respondents found it difficult to engage with the buttons on the remote control which only complicates matters. It seems likely, therefore, that the introduction of more accessible technology would significantly boost demand for AD amongst those who are nervous about its current complexity. Table 26 shows reported likelihood of watching audio described Bollywood films by sight level. (Note: Sight level groupings are based on self-reported assessment as blind or partially sighted.) Table 26. Likelihood of watching audio described Bollywood films compared to non-audio described Bollywood films by sight levels (N=183) Sight level More likely Less likely Total Blind 87% 13% 100% Partially sighted 77% 23% 100% TOTAL 81% 19% 100% Chi-Square = 2.88, 1 d.f, p=0.064 (p<0.10). N of valid cases 183. Table 26 shows marginally significant difference in terms of reported likelihood of watching audio described Bollywood films between sight levels. Those who reported that they were blind were slightly more likely to report a likelihood of watching audio described Bollywood films, although the difference between the two groups was not large. Overall, the majority of respondents across all sight levels reported that they would be more likely to watch Bollywood films if they were audio described. 52
  • 53. 4. Quantitative research study Table 27 shows reported likelihood of watching audio described Bollywood films by age groups. Table 27. Likelihood of watching audio described Bollywood films compared to non-audio described Bollywood films by age group (N=183) Age group More likely Less likely Total Young adult (18-44) 68% 32% 100% Middle age (45-74) 81% 19% 100% Older adult (75+) 88% 12% 100% TOTAL 81% 19% 100% Chi-Square = 6.66, 2 d.f, p=0.036 (p<0.05). N of valid cases 183 Table 27 shows a significant difference in terms of the reported likelihood of watching audio described Bollywood films between age groups. While across all age groups, the majority of respondents reported that they were more likely to watch audio described Bollywood films, this was less pronounced in the younger age group, where a larger proportion (32 per cent) reported they would be less likely to watch Bollywood films if they were audio described. 4.7. Preferred mediums for accessing information about new products/services The last question in the research topic guide dealt with methods preferred by Asian blind and partially sighted people for accessing information about new services or new products. Once established these preferred mediums could then potentially be used to create awareness about services such as availability of AD on UK television channels. The rank order of most popular sources was: family and friends radio television local organisations talking newspapers. 53
  • 54. 4. Quantitative research study 4.7.1. Top five general sources of information Please see figure 4 for further details of the ranking. Figure 4. Top five sources of information (N=260) Figure 4 shows the top five sources of information for products and/or services for blind and partially sighted people as chosen by respondents in this study were established as: 49.2 per cent of the respondents reported family and friends as a source of information 40.8 per cent of the respondents reported radio as a method for accessing information 33.8 per cent of the respondents selected television as one of their significant mediums for getting information 28.1 per cent of the respondents selected local organisations as a method for getting information 19.6 per cent of the respondents chose talking newspapers as a source for information about services/products for blind and partially sighted people. While respondents also chose other sources of information, figure 4 above only shows the top five sources. The top five sources of information were also considered by sight level and age groups. 54
  • 55. 4. Quantitative research study Table 28. General sources of information by sight levels Whole sample Partially sighted Blind (N=88) (N=260) (N=172) Radio 41% 48% 37% Television 34% 26% 38% Friends/family 49% 34% 57% Local organisations 28% 45% 19% Talking newspapers 20% 33% 13% Note: This was a multicode question meaning some respondents may have chosen more than one response. This table shows the percentages of each group who chose particular responses. Table 28 shows that a higher proportion of blind respondents (48 per cent) use radio as their source of information compared to partially sighted respondents (37 per cent). There was also a difference between groups when comparing television as a source of information for the blind (26 per cent) and partially sighted (38 per cent) respondents. A higher proportion of the partially sighted respondents (57 per cent) used their friends and family as a source of information whilst 34 per cent of blind respondents used the same source. 45 per cent of blind respondents utilised local organisations for information whilst 19 per cent of partially sighted respondents utilised the same for information. Talking newspapers were used as a source of information by 33 per cent of blind respondents and 13 per cent of partially sighted respondents. Table 29. General sources of Information by age groups Whole Young adult Middle aged Older adult sample (N=56) (N=100) (N=104) (N=260) Radio 41% 50% 36% 40% Television 34% 32% 34% 35% Friends/family 49% 43% 53% 49% Local organisations 28% 20% 24% 37% Talking newspapers 20% 5% 19% 28% Note: This was a multicode question meaning some respondents may have chosen more than one response. This table shows the percentages of each group who chose particular responses. 55
  • 56. 4. Quantitative research study Table 29 shows that 50 per cent of respondents from the younger age group used the radio as a source of information, whilst the middle and older age groups used the same source comparatively less at 36 per cent and 40 per cent respectively. Television as a source of information was used by the younger (32 per cent), middle (34 per cent) and older (35 per cent) age groups at similar proportions. The younger age group reported using friends and family as a source of information slightly less than the other groups (43 per cent, compared to 53 per cent and 49 per cent). A higher proportion of older respondents reported using local organisations as a source of information (37 per cent, compared to 24 per cent middle age and 20 per cent younger). Likewise, use of talking newspapers as a source of information appeared to increase with age (5 per cent younger group, 19 per cent middle, 28 per cent older). 4.7.2. Radio as a source for information After family and friends, radio emerged as the most popular source of information for respondents. Amongst the 63 respondents who chose radio as one their preferred mediums for sourcing information on products/services for blind and partially sighted people: 16 people chose Sunrise Radio 14 people chose the BBC Asian Network 8 people chose Kismat Radio 6 people chose Sabras Radio 4 people chose Radio Punjab 2 people chose Virgin Radio 2 people mentioned getting their information from various digital radio stations 2 people chose the LBC Radio service 2 people chose Leicester Radio 1 person each chose Akash Radio, 87.9 FM, and Talk Sport Radio 1 person mentioned Asian radio stations in general. 56
  • 57. 4. Quantitative research study 4.7.3. Television as a source for information After radio, television proved to be the most popular source for information for blind and partially sighted Asian people in the UK. From the data collected, it is evident that Zee TV was the most popular channel amongst respondents, followed by Star Plus, B4U, 4TV and the BBC. Amongst the 22 respondents who chose television as one their preferred mediums for sourcing information on products/services for blind and partially sighted people: 6 people chose the ZEE television network 3 people each chose the BBC network, Star Plus entertainment channel, B4U network and 4TV (online resource for free television viewing). 2 people chose Sony Entertainment Network 1 person each chose varied sports channels and Alpha Punjabi. 4.7.4. Talking Newspapers as a source for information Talking Newspapers were the next most popular source for information amongst the target audience of this research. Amongst the 52 respondents who chose newspapers and magazines as one their preferred mediums for sourcing information on products/services for blind and partially sighted people: 38 people chose the Gujarati Talking Newspaper, produced and distributed by the Vista Community Centre in Leicester 6 people chose the Leicester Mercury Talking Newspaper, again produced and distributed by the Vista Community Centre in Leicester 4 people chose the Gujarati News-line 2 people chose the London based Kiran Talking Newspaper which is available in 3 languages – Hindi, Gujarati and Bengali 2 people chose Hindi Talking Newspapers in general. With the exception of Kiran Talking Newspaper, which has a Bengali, a Gujarati and a Hindi version, other talking newspapers are either targeted at specific language groups or at populations in particular localities. 57
  • 58. 4. Quantitative research study 4.7.5. Mainstream newspapers and magazines as a source for information Mainstream newspapers and magazines were also an important source of information for accessing data on products and services for blind and partially sighted people. Amongst the 13 respondents who chose newspapers and magazines as one their preferred mediums for sourcing information on products/services for blind and partially sighted people: 6 people chose the Daily Jung newspaper 2 people each chose the Ausaf Newspaper and RNIB Insight Magazine 1 person each chose a gardening magazine, The Daily Telegraph and The Daily Mail. 4.8. Conclusion This research project reports on interviews with 260 blind and partially sighted people from Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi communities spread across London, Birmingham, Leicester and Bradford in the UK. 4.8.1. Main findings The main findings of our research study are: Out of a sample of 260 blind and partially sighted people, only 8 per cent (21) of the respondents who participated in this study stated that they had no difficulty in following what was happening on the screen ie film/television programme. The remaining 92 per cent of the respondents resorted to other methods, such as using audio clues or asking family members or friends to explain to them what was going on, to help them understand what was happening in a film/television programme. Close to 50 per cent of the sample depended heavily on audio clues to understand a film/television programme. 19 per cent (48) of the respondents said they watched a Bollywood film on television everyday despite accessibility issues. No significant difference was found in the level of frequency of watching Bollywood films between blind people and partially sighted people. However, there was a difference when comparisons were drawn between various age categories of the viewers; respondents between the ages of 18-44 came across as more interested in watching Bollywood films on television than their older counterparts. 58
  • 59. 4. Quantitative research study About six per cent (14) of the sample stated that they watched a Bollywood film on DVD about once a day. Similarly as above, no significant difference was found in the level of frequency of watching Bollywood films amongst blind people and partially sighted people. However, there was a difference when it came to various age categories of the viewers; respondents between the ages of 18-44 were seemingly more interested in watching Bollywood films on DVD than their older counterparts. The number of people from the sample visiting a cinema to watch a Bollywood film in the UK was very low when compared to the incidence of people from the sample watching films on the television. About 15 per cent (13) said they watched a Bollywood film in a cinema about once a week. A significant number of respondents, 40 per cent (105), believed that their current sight level led to lack of complete understanding of the film and was a major factor that prevented them from going to the cinema to watch Bollywood films. 4.8.2. Current level of awareness of AD and a further likelihood of watching a Bollywood film with AD if introduced The research found that only five per cent of the respondents had any previous experience of AD. Only 16 per cent of respondents were aware of AD but were not aware of its features and what it had to offer. This indicates that there is a significant lack of awareness about AD amongst blind and partially sighted Asians in the UK. Overall, the study found that once introduced to AD, over 56 per cent of the respondents stated that they were more likely to watch a Bollywood film that was audio described than without it. However, a small percentage (14 per cent), of the respondents failed to express a keen interest in watching audio described Bollywood films. It is significant to point out that the middle-aged (36 per cent) and the older respondents (45 per cent) were more likely to watch a Bollywood film than many of their younger counterparts (19 per cent). The research findings suggest that there is a considerable amount of interest in Bollywood films amongst blind and partially sighted Asian people in the UK. This is despite the fact that a relatively small number of people are currently going to the cinema on a regular basis to watch Bollywood films. 59
  • 60. 4. Quantitative research study 4.8.3. Potential for audio described Bollywood films in the UK The findings do outline a strong case for the introduction of AD to Bollywood films for sound economic and business reasons. As of now, there are numerous accessibility barriers for blind and partially sighted people to be able to fully engage with Bollywood films in their current format. Clearly, it is not only the blind and partially sighted Asian community that stand to benefit from this introduction but the film industry as well, who could potentially be widening their audience base if AD is added to Bollywood films. It is also important to stress that the introduction of AD to improve Bollywood film viewing experience for blind and partially sighted Asian people in the UK, may also benefit a similar blind and partially sighted community living in the Indian subcontinent. For example, Pokharel and Mariotti (2004) estimate that India alone accounts for 6.7 million of the estimated 161 million blind or partially sighted persons worldwide. It should also be noted that the use of AD in Bollywood films will also have a significant impact on blind and partially sighted people of Asian origin living in Diaspora communities in North America, Europe, Africa and the Middle East (as well as those from non-Asian backgrounds that are interested in Bollywood films). It becomes crucial to mention here that none of the above can be achieved without the co-operation of the Indian film industry, popularly known as Bollywood. Consequently, the biggest challenge is to create awareness about AD amongst the key film companies in Bollywood and the potential it has to bridge the gap in accessibility for a blind or partially sighted person. 60
  • 61. 5. Qualitative research study 5.1 Executive summary The main purpose of this qualitative study was to provide insights into the Bollywood film viewing habits of blind and partially sighted Asians living in the UK and in India. It was further intended to shed some light on the barriers to viewing these films and to determine their views on the concept of audio described Bollywood films. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to understand the current mode and frequency of watching Bollywood films within the target group, and to gather views on the level and style of audio description (AD), language, and other preferences to help identify the potential for AD in Bollywood films. The research sought to establish whether the concept of audio described Bollywood films was able to generate a significant amount of interest in the UK and in India. Following on from this, a secondary aim was to establish the preferred method for viewing these films amongst the group. This in-depth qualitative research project investigated behaviours, attitudes and barriers to watching Bollywood films among 25 blind or partially sighted Asians living in the UK and 25 blind or partially sighted people in India. Respondents were aged between 8 and 85 years and the sample included regular and occasional viewers of Bollywood films. In the UK, participants were recruited from areas with a high percentage of Asian population as per the government population census of 2001. In India, interviewees were recruited from the All India Federation of the Blind, National Association for the Blind, and Blind People’s Association. The majority of people enjoyed watching Bollywood films or had done so before they developed sight problems. They found it hard to understand the film with their current visual impairment. Consequently, their enjoyment of the film was reduced. The outcome showed that almost everyone who participated in the study was positive about the addition of AD to Bollywood films. This was especially pertinent because only a minority of respondents currently use AD and it was essentially a new concept for many of those interviewed. Results from the qualitative study indicated that: Blind and partially sighted Asian people stated that they were more likely to watch Bollywood films if AD was provided. Enjoyment of the Bollywood film clip was much greater with AD than without it. 61
  • 62. 5. Qualitative research study AD improved understanding of the film clip for blind and partially sighted people, with people reporting a greater grasp of location, characters, expressions and the plot. People wanted AD during songs as well as in the standard story in order to follow what was happening on the screen. The majority of the interviewees preferred AD in Hindi, compared with description in English. People commented that this was the language of the film, hence making the ‘flow’ simpler and easier to understand and enjoy. Findings from the trials in the UK and India were similar in nature, with the only differentiating factor being that people in India asked for fewer details, such as details of the clothes that the characters were wearing in the film clip and their significance, in the description. This could be because of increased familiarity with Bollywood films and their overall set-up. The study showed that there is a huge unmet need for audio described Bollywood films in the UK and India with a clear preference for the description to be in Hindi. This provision has the potential to have a significant emotional impact on the lives of blind and partially sighted people who love films and view them as an all-encompassing experience providing a blissful escape from the daily humdrum of ordinary existence. 5.2. Introduction to AD and the relevant film industry Watching films and visiting the cinema are popular activities for many people, including blind and partially sighted people. Major UK distributors for Hollywood films such as Warner Bros Distributors, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures UK, Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, Paramount Pictures UK, Universal Pictures UK, Pathé Distribution and Sony Pictures Releasing increase the accessibility of their films by pro- viding subtitling for deaf and hearing impaired audiences and audio description (AD) for blind and partially sighted people on almost one hundred per cent of their UK releases. As per the information available on www.yourlocalcinema.com, more than 300 cinemas of the total 727 cinemas across the UK are now equipped with a system that provides an AD service. AD is delivered through a special headset that is collected from the box office and worn in the cinema during the screening. In addition, the majority of Hollywood DVD distributors include AD on their UK mainstream DVD releases. The Indian film industry, popularly known as Bollywood, produces close to 800 films per year, making it not only the dominant national film industry, but perhaps the 62
  • 63. 5. Qualitative research study largest in the world. Adlabs Films, Studio 18, Eros International, Yash Raj Films and UTV distribute the lion’s share of Bollywood and Indian film releases. Key territories include the UK, the US, South Africa, and the United Arab Emirates, aside from the home ground distribution. For the Asian diaspora spread across the globe, these films perhaps act as an important cultural connection to their roots. The Indian Film Industry too, is equally keen to reach out to its global audience of Indian origin. In 2006, out of 53 Bollywood releases in the UK, four grossed more than £1m and the segment accounted for almost 2 per cent of the entire UK market. (Factsheet on UK Cinema going, 2006, Film Distributor’s Association.) Bollywood films are released with English language subtitles in the overseas markets which primarily target foreign language speakers, but these subtitles also improve the accessibility for deaf and hard of hearing people. In contrast, AD is not provided on any Bollywood film. As a result, the films continue to remain completely inaccessible to blind and partially sighted people. Saksham Trust, a voluntary organisation based in New Delhi has experimented with the concept of audio described Bollywood films. It has produced audio described versions of popular films such as “Black”, “Munnabhai MBBS”, and “Hanuman”, amongst others. These films are produced as special products for blind people with a single mixed audio track which includes the AD. Video CDs of these films are sold at a nominal price to members of associations working for blind and partially sighted people in India. They can also be ordered over the phone or by email. But despite its popularity within the associations, the product fails to reach the majority of the target audience because of a limited distribution network. Through this research, RNIB sought to investigate the potential demand for audio described Bollywood films, both in the mainstream cinema and on mainstream DVDs, and make recommendations on how best to provide this service. While we understand that there is a worldwide audience for Bollywood films, the focus of this research was on establishing whether there was a demand for AD from blind and partially sighted Asian people living in the UK and India only. RNIB, as a UK charity, is interested in both: improving access to Bollywood films for blind and partially sighted people living in the UK and in working collaboratively with other organisations representing blind and partially sighted people around the world. As the Bollywood film industry is based in India, the opinions of the Indian domestic audience were also taken into account to add weight to this research. In reality, any introduction of AD on Bollywood films is likely to benefit blind and partially sighted people around the world who watch Bollywood films. 63
  • 64. 5. Qualitative research study 5.2.1. Aims and objectives The qualitative research aimed to: Explore Bollywood film viewing habits of blind and partially sighted people within the Asian community in the UK and in India. Investigate their attitude towards AD. Investigate their specific preferences and needs in relation to AD of Bollywood films. Investigate response to audio description over songs. Please note that while 50 interviews were completed, the findings are not necessarily representative of all those who watch or do not watch Bollywood films. However, these results provide valuable insights into people’s viewing habits and attitudes to Bollywood films and AD. In order to establish the existence of a potential market for audio described Bollywood films in the UK, a parallel quantitative study was carried out amongst 260 blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community who are interested in Bollywood films in the UK. Details of this study can be found in chapter 4 of this report. 5.2.2. Approach This study involved individual in-depth interviews with a total of 50 blind and partially sighted Asian people (25 people living in the UK and 25 people living in India). A Bollywood film clip with and without AD was played during each interview. All the interviews were conducted face to face, with the majority lasting between 30-45 minutes. In each case, a semi-structured questionnaire and topic guide were used as reference, with scope to explore other related issues or topics which arose during the interview. Informed consent to participate in the study and for the interview to be recorded for transcription was obtained from all participants. Respondent demographics were also obtained during the interviews. The topic guide is attached as Appendix 1. In brief, participants were shown a three-minute clip from a film without AD followed by questions based on the clip, to ascertain their understanding of the clip. The same clip was then played with AD in the language preferred by the respondent, (the choices being Hindi or English). This was then followed by the same set of questions, to gauge any change in their understanding of the clip. 64
  • 65. 5. Qualitative research study Respondents were then played the clip a third time, this time with the AD in the alternate language (Hindi/English). Respondents were then asked to provide views and information on AD language preferences. The clip was played on a laptop and large headphones were used to listen to the clip to maintain the aural clarity. The rationale for selecting this method was: People with visual impairments often suffer from additional disabilities including hearing impairments; hence a face to face interview was considered appropriate with large headphones being used to hear the clip to shut out the surrounding noise. The semi-structured questioning approach allowed considerable flexibility in the discussion, allowing the researcher to probe further when required. This was deemed to be the best method to capture how AD makes a difference in the viewing of films by blind and partially sighted people. 5.2.3. Sample The in-depth qualitative research project was completed with participation from 25 blind and partially sighted Asians living across the UK, and a further 25 blind and partially sighted people in India. The sample consisted of people with varying levels of visual impairment, of different ages and gender, regular and non-regular viewers of Bollywood films, regular or occasional users of AD and non-users of AD. UK sample Three geographical areas within the UK were chosen based on the regional distribution of the Asian community as per the government population census of 2001. (Fig.1) London Bradford and Leeds in Yorkshire Coventry and Birmingham in the West Midlands Altogether: 4 people in Bradford with varying sight impairments were interviewed at Bradnet, a local organisation for people with disabilities 9 people in Leeds were interviewed at the annual meeting of the Asian Blind Association 65
  • 66. 5. Qualitative research study 6 people were interviewed in Coventry at the fortnightly gathering of local community-based group 6 people were interviewed in London through referrals by Kiran Talking newspaper. Figure 1. Regional distribution of Asian communities Source: Office for National Statistics, April 2001 Census. The Census recorded an Asian community of 733,587 in London; 364,590 in the West Midlands; 215,227 in the North West; 210,172 in Yorkshire and the Humber; 163,106 in the South East; 157,035 in the East Midlands; 108,281 in the East; 48,805 in Scotland; 30,332 in the North East; 27,971 in the South West; 21,947 in Wales and 2,508 in Northern Ireland. The participants were found through the RNIB Black and Minority Ethnic support team’s networks within the Asian community, opportunistic sampling, and peer referrals. 66
  • 67. 5. Qualitative research study Indian sample Research trials in India were conducted with support from the All India Federation of the Blind and National Association for the Blind in New Delhi and Blind People’s Association in Ahmedabad. The distribution of the respondents was as follows: 11 people were interviewed at All India Federation of the Blind, New Delhi. 7 people were interviewed at the National Association for the Blind, New Delhi 7 people were interviewed at Blind People’s Association, Ahmedabad. The only differentiating feature between the UK and the Indian sample was the additional age bracket for respondents in India. Even though their participation was purely coincidental, respondents between the ages of 8-17 years from India added an extra dimension to the study and made the report even more comprehensive in terms of its sample. Consent to participate was obtained from the parent or guardian for children under 16 years. 5.2.4. Film material A three-minute clip from the Hindi film, “Saawariya” was used in this study. The film was released by Sony Pictures Entertainment in November 2007. The AD for the material was produced by Independent Television Facilities Centre (ITFC) Limited in association with RNIB specifically for the purpose of this study. The user trial presented the respondents with the audio described clip in two languages: Hindi, being the language of Bollywood films, and English, as it would be the first language of some respondents living in the UK. It should be noted here that, more often than not, a mix of the two languages was used for the interviews so the dominant language used has been specified as the language of the interview. In the English version, the clip included voiced English subtitles along with the AD so that a blind or partially sighted non-Hindi speaker who watches Bollywood films could understand the clip. The Hindi version only included a Hindi AD track. This difference was picked up by respondents, as discussed in the section on language preferences. In brief, the film is about a free spirited dreamer, who arrives in a surreal town and charms everyone with his naiveté and innocent charm. It is an anonymous town washed in blue light, where houses and buildings stand beside wide canals with gondolas floating by. Essentially, a romantic film, “Saawariya” was overwhelmingly visual, and one of the foremost reasons for choosing this film for use in the research was its heavily visual dramatic presentation, something most often missed by blind and partially sighted people. 67
  • 68. 5. Qualitative research study A song was deliberately included in the research material to assess how people would react to description over songs. The majority of Bollywood films have a significant amount of musical content and these song and dance routines are woven into the script. A film’s success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. 5.3. Results 5.3.1. A summary of characteristics of participants 50 blind or partially sighted people were interviewed in total; 25 people in India and 25 people in the UK. 41 people were interviewed in Hindi and 9 were interviewed in English The respondents were between the ages of 8 to 87 years. The sample was intentionally kept diverse in age as it could potentially influence the choice that the respondent would make with regards to style, format and language of AD. (Fig. 2, Fig. 3) Figure 2. Age spread of the 25 respondents in the UK Two people were aged 18-24; one was aged 25-34; six were aged 35-44; one was aged 45-54; six were aged 55-64; four were aged 65-74; four were aged 75-84; and one was aged 85+. 68
  • 69. 5. Qualitative research study Figure 3. Age spread of the 25 respondents in India Four people were aged 8-17; two were aged 18-24; six were aged 25-34; two were aged 35-44; two were aged 45-54; one was aged 55-64; three were aged 65-74; four were aged 75-84; and one was aged 85+. 5.3.2. Level of sight impairment The second question in the topic guide was included to gather information on what the respondents were able to see. The interviewees were asked to select all the options that applied to them. From the sample in the UK, 11 people were registered blind, 5 registered as partially sighted and 9 people were not registered in either of the two categories. We were unable to collect any such data from our sample in India as the method of certification in the country only mentions the kind of disability, ie visual impairment. 69
  • 70. 5. Qualitative research study Table 1. Level of sight impairment Multiple responses Frequency Per cent I can see well enough to recognise a friend 2 4% across the road. I can see well enough to recognise a friend 8 16% across a room I can see well enough to recognise a friend 18 36% who is at arms length away I can see well enough to recognise a friend if 26 52% you get close to his or her face I can see the shapes of the furniture in a room 30 60% In a room during daytime, I can tell by the light 36 72% where the windows are I cannot see anything at all 14 28% Prefer not to say 0 0% Total number of participants 50 From the sample, only 2 people said they would be able to recognise a friend from across a road, 8 said that they would be able to recognise a friend from across the room, 18 people confirmed that would be able to recognise a friend who is an arms length away and 26 people said that they would be able to recognise a person if they got really close to his/ her face. 30 people said that they would be able to identify shapes of furniture in a room; however there were 36 people in the sample who, during daytime could tell by the light where the windows were located. 14 people amongst the sample confirmed that they could not see anything at all. (Fig. 5) This table shows us that overall, the respondents tended to have severe sight problems, and there was a similar spread of answers amongst the Indian and the UK respondents. 70
  • 71. 5. Qualitative research study 5.4. Current viewing habits 5.4.1. Film viewing habits Most blind and partially sighted people interviewed in the UK watched Bollywood films at least twice a week on TV or on DVD with a number of them going to the cinema to watch these films. Three out of the four biggest cinema chains in the UK – Cineworld, Vue and Odeon, now routinely screen Hindi films. Overseas collections are now the second largest contributor to the revenues of the industry at 9 per cent. In 2007, the overseas collections were estimated at £8.5 billion, up from £7 billion in 2006, translating into a growth of 21 per cent from the previous year. But the proportion of blind and partially sighted people watching Bollywood films in India was much higher where these films are obviously more easily available on TV/DVD as well as cinemas, potentially indicating a larger market size. Satellite television has helped cinema reach out to a larger audience. There are more than 15 movie channels in India that broadcast movies round the clock. Two of the prominent movie channels reach 35-40 per cent of the 40 million Cable and Satellite (C&S) households in India each week. The four major general entertainment channels show 5-10 movies a week and reach 60-70 per cent of the C&S audience every week. Films and film based programming account for 25-30 per cent of programming content and are the key viewership drivers for all general entertainment channels. Films on TV have become big business, so much so that newly released films air on TV within six months of their debut in cinemas. (Source: WHO study, “‘Bollywood’ Victim or Ally”, 2003.) 5.4.2. Current methods of watching television/films A series of questions were asked to establish the level of difficulty respondents experienced when watching TV. Most respondents reported significant difficulty when watching TV. 34 people amongst our sample said that they found it difficult to use the remote control and 36 people had difficulty seeing the picture on the TV screen. 40 people said that they could not see fine detail on the TV screen and an equal number of people said that they found it difficult to see text on the TV screen. 34 people could see the light of the TV screen but 18 people from our sample could not see anything at all on the TV screen. These findings highlight how sight problems affect people’s TV watching experience. 71
  • 72. 5. Qualitative research study Table 2. When watching TV Multiple responses Frequency Per cent I have difficulty seeing the buttons on the remote 34 68% control I have difficulty seeing the picture on the TV screen 36 72% I have difficulty seeing the fine detail on the TV 40 80% screen I have difficulty seeing text on the TV screen 40 80% I am able to see the light of the TV screen 34 68% I cannot see anything on the TV screen 18 36% Total number of participants 50 5.4.3. Following films/television programmes on television with the current level of vision Some questions were asked to find out what coping strategies people used for watching TV. 16 people amongst the sample followed a programme/film on the TV using their residual vision and an equal number of people used stronger glasses. 24 people chose to sit closer to the TV screen and only 2 people said that they used a magnifier to help follow a programme/film on TV. 72
  • 73. 5. Qualitative research study Table 3. Following a programme on TV/DVD Multiple responses Frequency Per cent I use my residual sight to watch 16 32% I wear special stronger glasses 16 32% I get closer to the TV screen 24 48% I use a magnifier 2 4% I adjust the screen settings 6 12% I adjust the lighting in the room 6 12% I use a large screen TV 8 16% I ask my friends or family members to assist me by 38 76% explaining what happens on the screen I just try to pick up as much as I can from the sound 46 92% of the film or programme I use audio description to explain to me what hap- 8 16% pens on the screen Total number of participants 50 6 people changed TV settings and an equal number of people adjusted lighting in the room to enhance the quality of the image. 8 people used a large screen TV on a regular basis and only 8 people reported ever having used AD to follow a programme/film. The majority (38) of people depended on friends/family to help with what was happening on the screen. 46 people used audio clues as their primary means of understanding the plot of the programme/film. The use of audio clues and description by companions were the most used coping methods. 73
  • 74. 5. Qualitative research study Audio clues The majority of respondents chose audio clues as their primary means of understanding the screenplay of the film. Having said that, most respondents also agreed that Bollywood films are very hard to follow by sound only with their over exhibited dramatics. It was agreed by all that the films have important visual information integral to the plot, action and story being told. “I couldn’t [can’t] see the picture clearly but I have become accustomed to watching my films like this. Films used to be my favourite hobby but they don’t interest me much these days. How much can you imagine? I end up frustrated.” Female, 55-64 years, UK “At times, when I am watching a movie, the sound of the film suddenly goes up which is generally an indication for me that something has happened or is about to happen... I don’t come to know... I wait for someone in the film to say something and then a song starts... very tough to follow!” Male, 18-24 years, UK Description from companions After reliance on audio alone, the second most popular method of understanding or following a Bollywood film was asking family members or their friends to describe what was happening on the screen. However, a number of respondents also mentioned that they were reluctant to ask their companions as it made them feel dependant on the describer. “My sister, [who is] younger to me, tells me that the scene is set in a hill-station and the heroine is dressed in a sari, of course, unless someone in the film mentions that, I don’t come to know and this is not about one film, it happens in every second Hindi film, I hate dream sequences, because I never realise when they start and end. But I don’t want to ask my sister to tell me everything, at all times, I feel even more dependant, if I don’t understand, then I don’t understand!” Female, 35- 44 years, UK “What is the point... it spoils the film for them and for me...” Male, 45-54 years, UK One of the reasons reported for not going to the cinema to watch Bollywood films was that people found it hard to understand the screenplay without any additional explanation. People sitting in the immediate vicinity often complained about the distraction if a companion attempted to assist them with verbal explanations. Although, they often stopped complaining after realising that the person was blind or partially sighted. People reported that having to tell people about their sight problem like this was often embarrassing. 74
  • 75. 5. Qualitative research study “See, even if I could see, I will not go and watch every film in the cinema, I will only go for those films that I want to watch. But yes, very often, I don’t even go the cinema with my family even for the films I want to watch because many times we have been asked to keep quiet in the cinema. I feel odd.” Male, 25-34 years, India It is noteworthy that a few respondents who mentioned during the interview that they were not keen viewers of television programmes or films were older people with little or no assistance at home. They reported watching religious and news based programmes on television but no other specific programmes. This pattern might potentially be a reflection of their inability to comprehend and enjoy other television programmes on their own. The blind and partially sighted people interviewed reported relying heavily on their companions for a description of important details, thus highlighting the potential impact of description on the way blind and partially sighted people see their movies currently. “I went to see Khamoshi, the one with Manisha Koirala, with my son and daughter- in-law a long time back. I loved the music but had no clue what was going on. I could not understand why everyone around was snivelling. My son during the intermission explained what was going on... though I broadly knew what was going on, but the sequences of scenes in which a deaf and dumb couple first realise that their daughter is normal, made a lot of women cry, I just didn’t get it. Understanding a film is important to feel a part of the crowd.” Female, 45-54 years, India It is clear that for the majority of respondents, using audio clues while watching films and depending on companions to tell them what’s happening on the screen, were the two most popular ways of watching TV, but both the methods were seen as having serious drawbacks. “I don’t watch TV/film... I listen to them.” Male, 65-74 years, India “I don’t know the difference in watching and listening. It has always been the same for me. So it’s okay... I manage!” Male, 85+ years, UK Other coping mechanisms Respondents between the ages of 65-85 years and with a history of health problems leading to poor vision, were more likely to make adjustments themselves to try and improve the quality of the picture on the TV/cinema screen. Commonly reported ways of doing this were by using special stronger glasses, sitting closer to the TV screen, in some cases using a large screen TV and if nothing else worked, depended heavily on their residual vision and their imagination. 75
  • 76. 5. Qualitative research study “I was sighted earlier so I just sit there... trying to imagine... what happened, sometimes I am right, sometimes I am wrong!” Male, 55-64 years, UK 5.4.4. Knowledge of AD When asked, very few people said that they had either heard about AD or used it on a regular basis either in cinemas or on television. Of the 50 people interviewed, only eight people, five in the UK and three in India, said that they had heard about AD or used it on a regular basis. The majority were completely unaware of the concept until they had heard the film clip with AD during the research study. 5.5. What difference does AD make? 5.5.1. Initial impressions After watching the short clip with AD during the trial, the majority of the respondents said that if AD was generally introduced, watching television or films could be more relaxing and enjoyable. Respondents reported that the addition of AD would mean feeling more independent and less isolated as they would be able to watch a film with their friends and family without having to depend on their help. “It made me feel like a normal person, equal to anyone else around, I don’t need to ask!” Female, 25-34 years, India Participants in the interviews were extremely positive about the prospect of watching and enjoying a Bollywood film if an AD track was provided with the film. Many felt that this was the only way for them to have complete access to a film. “Films for me have always been one dimensional. Suddenly with this, you have added so many dimensions; I know there are flowers in the boat, there is a lantern; I know the boy keeps his hand over the girl’s in the song!” Male, 64-75 years, India 76
  • 77. 5. Qualitative research study 5.5.2. Objective measures of understanding This study aimed to get an objective measure of the difference that AD made to the understanding of a film for a blind or partially sighted person. Interviews revealed that the addition of AD improved the objective understanding of the film with regards to plot, characters and location. In order to obtain this measurement, the interviews included a 3-minute clip which included part of a song from a Bollywood film. The clip was played at three different stages; the trial started with the blind and partially sighted person watching the clip in its existing format as it was released in the cinema, without AD. In the following section, the clip was played with the AD in English or Hindi, depending on the preference of the participant; the final section consisted of the clip being played with AD in the alternate language. Synopsis of the clip from Saawariya It’s night time and the main lead is beside a canal playing with a football. He notices a mysterious girl standing alone on a bridge holding an umbrella. As he tries to strike up a conversation, she shies away. She runs into a dark alley and disappears. We see the girl in the alley being followed by a drunken man from whom she is desperately trying to hide. Finally, the main lead spots her and tries to woo her by singing to her. Each clip was followed by the following questions, What can you tell me about what happened in the clip? How many people do you think there were in the clip? (Fig. 4, Fig.5) What can you tell me about the location? (Fig. 6, Fig. 7) What is Raj carrying? (Fig. 8, Fig. 9) What is Raj doing? (Fig. 10, Fig. 11) What is the woman carrying? (Fig. 12, Fig. 13) How enjoyable did you find it? (Fig. 14, Fig. 15) Initially, without AD there was poor understanding of the film and many respondents were confused about the plot, setting and even the type of film. 77
  • 78. 5. Qualitative research study “Was the clip from a horror film? I thought so because the background music was such. Yes, I think, it was a horror film.” Female, 35-44 years, UK “Somewhere near a cemetery because the clip was eerie but then it all changes in the end when he starts singing!” Male, 45-55 years, UK “I got a hazy impression that there was a lady and that she came to somewhere, either she is searching for somebody or waiting for somebody... there were a lot of onlookers in another area... she came to a big building and there was a train that was passing by... could be a steam engine... the onlookers were doing something else but they were attracted to her by her scream... so something happened to her... the chap offered her help but she did not want his help. That was it really.” Male, 35-44 years, UK Responses indicated that for all respondents, despite variances between their sight impairments, needed additional help to gain a complete understanding of the clip. Simple questions like how many people were there in the clip, were incorrectly answered by 84 per cent of the respondents. The fact that there were only two voices led most people to believe that there were only two people in the scene and they were surprised when the clip with AD mentioned the presence of a third character making the events of the scene more logical. Even though the third character was silent during the scene, his presence was crucial to the plot and what followed after it. 78
  • 79. 5. Qualitative research study How many people do you think there were in the clip? (Fig .4, Fig. 5) (Open Question) Three people (2 correct answers without AD; 44 correct answers with AD) Other answers: Two people (32 answers without AD; 4 with AD) Two or three people (8 answers without AD) Three or four people (4 answers without AD) Six people (2 answers without AD) Not sure of the number of people (2 answers without AD) About four people (2 answers with AD) Correct answer: Three people Almost correct answers: Two people, two or three people, three or four people, about four people Without AD: Two people (four per cent of the total number of people interviewed) got the answer right With AD: 44 people (88 per cent of the total number of people interviewed) got the answer right 79
  • 80. 5. Qualitative research study People were also asked what they know from the clip about the location of the scene. What do you think the location was? (Fig. 6, Fig. 7) (Open question) Canal, bridge and alleyway (0 correct answers without AD; 42 correct answers with AD) Other answers (50 without AD; 8 with AD): Tall buildings/street (16 without AD) River (8 without AD) Inside a building or a warehouse (2 without AD) Cemetery (2 without AD) Railway station/railway line (6 without AD) Temple/palace (4 without AD) Around tall buildings (2 with AD) Somewhere outside (6 with AD) Not sure (12 without AD) Correct answer: A bridge, a canal and then an alleyway Almost correct answers: tall buildings, around tall buildings, river, somewhere outside) Without AD: no one got the answer right With AD: 42 people (84 per cent of the total number of people) got the answer right. 80
  • 81. 5. Qualitative research study What is Raj (male lead) carrying when the clip starts? (Fig. 8, Fig. 9) (Open question) A football (10 correct answers without AD; 48 correct answers with AD) Other answers (40 without AD; 2 with AD): Maybe a camera (2 without AD) A suitcase (2 without AD) Nothing (2 without AD) Not sure (34 without AD; 2 with AD) Correct answer: A football Without AD: 10 people (20 per cent of the total number of people) got the answer right With AD: 48 people (96 per cent of the total number of people) got the answer right. 81
  • 82. 5. Qualitative research study What is Raj doing? (Fig. 10, Fig. 11) (Open question) Playing with the ball (12 correct answers without AD; 36 correct answers with AD) Other answers (38 without AD; 14 with AD): Helping or following the girl (10 without AD) Following the girl (10 without AD) Not sure (18 without AD; 14 with AD) Correct answer: Playing/bouncing the ball Without AD: 12 people (24 per cent of the total number of people) got the answer right With AD: 36 people (72 per cent of the total number of people) got the answer right. 82
  • 83. 5. Qualitative research study What is the woman carrying when the clip starts? (Fig. 12, Fig. 13) (Open question) Umbrella (12 correct answers without AD; 38 correct answers with AD) Other answers (38 without AD; 12 with AD): Bangles (2 without AD) Shawl (6 with AD) Don’t remember (6 AD) Not sure (36 without AD) Correct answer: An umbrella Without AD: 12 people (24 per cent of the total number of people) got the answer right With AD: 38 people (76 per cent of the total number of people) got the answer right. 83
  • 84. 5. Qualitative research study Almost a hundred percent of the people were confident answering questions after having seen the clip with AD and got almost all the answers right. Some of the participants were also eager to offer details that they had picked up which were not part of the research questions. “I know, she is wearing a black skirt, they are in a flower laden gondola.” Female, 13 years, India “The woman is covering her head with a shawl because she is feeling shy.” Female, 25-34 years, India 5.5.3. Does better understanding also translate into increased enjoyment? Interestingly, while most respondents stated they had enjoyed the film “just a little” or “a fair amount” without AD, almost a hundred per cent of participants rated their viewing pleasure as “a great deal” when the clip was played with AD. Aside from benefits such as understanding the film on their own and forming their own opinion, respondents described emotional benefits such as, “feeling part of a group” and “less alienated”. They also talked about the joy of watching the film and being completely aware of what was going on without having to seek assistance. “I understood everything this time. I did not have to concentrate too much so there was no strain. For me watching a movie is pretty strenuous because I am partially sighted, I can see quite a bit but then I can’t see a lot. If I don’t want to miss anything I have [to] constantly look [peer] at the screen and I don’t enjoy that. This was easier... I did not feel any strain at all.” Female, 25-34 years, UK “It made all the difference to me because I got everything wrong in the first go... but then in the described version, I even found out what the girl is wearing... what is happening in the song... the choreography was explained to me... I felt like a regular person.” Female, 45-54 years, UK 84
  • 85. 5. Qualitative research study How enjoyable did you find it? (Fig. 14, Fig. 15) 10 4 22 18 46 A great deal (0 without AD; 46 with AD) Just a little (22 without AD; 0 with AD) A fair amount (18 without AD; 4 with AD) Not at all (10 without AD; 0 with AD) Without AD, majority of the people 22 people (44 per cent of the total number of people interviewed) said they enjoyed the clip just a little With AD, 46 people ( 92 per cent of the total number of people) said they enjoyed the clip a great deal Some of the respondents enjoyed little details, which had no relevance to the plot as such but were part of the props that the director had used to set the scene, such as a wall mural from the Mughal period, the elaborate head dress that the woman wore in the mural, the woman standing beside a tall glass window in front of the canal. A quick mention of these details gave an idea of the atmosphere that the director had created for the film. 85
  • 86. 5. Qualitative research study “This is the main bit that people miss... I did not know that there was a bridge...she was trying to hide when [she] saw another person, a drunken man. These are the important bits that make everything so interesting. You end up missing out on everything if you are like me ...I enjoyed it much more this time... “ Female, 55-64, India “[The description] makes my life simpler! [ I ] did not understand the story the first time... why did she scream... did someone attack her... is he hurting her?” Male, 55-64 years, UK “I did not know what was going on earlier... I thought that there was ghost where there was no ghost... nothing of the sort!” Female, 35-44 years, UK “My favourite film, Gandhi, I want to watch that with audio description. After hearing this, I am thinking about all the things that I must have missed from it!” Male, 85+ years, UK 5.5.4. Initial indication of the demand for AD Of the 50 people interviewed, only eight people, five in the UK and three in India said, that they had heard about AD or use it on a regular basis. The majority were completely unaware of the concept until they had heard the film clip with AD during our research study. The twenty people within the UK sample, who had never experienced or heard about AD, consequently had no knowledge of the features it had to offer and its availability on most digital TV channels and in many UK cinemas. One possible reason for this could be the large percentage of older people in our sample. Many older people seemed resigned to the current state and said that they were used to coping with their unmet needs. On further probing, it became quite apparent that the reluctance to try out a new concept stemmed from their fear of dealing with complicated technology. They mentioned that if the process to access AD was simple and easy to follow, they would be more than willing to go the extra mile, as it meant watching TV with no external assistance. When advised that once the TV set top box at their home had been set up to deliver AD on every programme that has AD, it was only a matter of switching the box on and off with no extra buttons to press, respondents were more than happy to try out the concept. The process of accessing AD on a DVD and in cinema was also explained to them; most respondents mentioned that they normally asked someone in the family to help with their DVD player. It was explained that it was a single step process to access AD in the cinemas, where they would be given a headset at the box office which would enable them to receive AD and all they would need to do is switch the headset on. 86
  • 87. 5. Qualitative research study However, respondents between the age of 18-44 years, who had never heard of AD and watched TV/films on a regular basis, did not seem concerned about the possible complications that the process might entail, and were keen to pick up further information on how to access AD in the immediate future. This could relate to their level of comfort with technology. The situation about awareness of AD was similar in India with twenty-two people being completely unaware of AD. However, currently there are only a few films available in India with AD and these are specialist products for blind people, hence availability is very restricted. 5.5.5. Preferred method for accessing described content Respondents were asked if they would prefer to watch audio described Bollywood films on television, on DVD at home or at the cinema. Participant’s first reaction was more or less unanimous that the medium was not that important and they would watch the film nevertheless. With further questioning it emerged that there was a split, with the younger participants opting for the cinema. “I would like them in the cinemas because that would mean that I can go with my friends to watch the film and not keep pulling on their sleeve asking them what’s happening.” Male, 25-34 years, UK Older respondents, in some cases with additional mobility issues, wished to have it on television or DVD, which they could watch at home. “I don’t like going out when it’s cold, and I am always cold, so I would rather watch it at home with a cup of tea.” Male, 65-74 years, UK “I am a little scared now that I can’t see very well, that I will trip and fall. And also, I get tired by the time I come back.” Female, 45-54 years, India Responses from the sample in the UK and India were very similar in nature; younger respondents between the age of 18-34 opting to watch audio described content in the cinemas and the older respondents wishing to have audio described content on DVD/TV. This was despite the fact that most cinemas in India are not easy to navigate for blind and partially sighted people. 87
  • 88. 5. Qualitative research study 5.6. Optimising AD for Bollywood films Despite low awareness about the concept of AD, a few respondents were forthcoming with their suggestions on how to improve the current description. Most responses were similar in nature – description over songs, details about plot, characters, props, location described in order of their significance to the understanding of the film should be included in the description. “Tell me more about what the boy was wearing... settings... ” Male, 18-24 years, UK “Can you tell me more about their clothes and what the characters look like... how young or old are they... what are they wearing... what colours?” Male, 14 years, India “I think the voice of the film should be lower because at times I could not hear the lady describing everything.” Male, 35-44 years, UK 5.6.1. Language preferences Research showed that the majority of participants preferred Hindi description to the English description. The reason stated most often was that as it is the language of the film, it made the flow simpler and more enjoyable. It also meant that people would not need to alternate between English and Hindi and hence would not have to concentrate that much. Perhaps surprisingly, choice for the language of AD was not influenced by age and there was a clear preference for AD in Hindi. “Hindi, I can understand English but when you have your own language... it is much easier and better. I prefer Hindi/Urdu.” Male, 55-64 years, UK “Hindi, it is a better one. It integrated better with the film. I can’t speak Hindi but I can speak Urdu and Punjabi so I can connect better with that. I prefer the Hindi one. English version was too intrusive because it was [voicing the] subtitles as well as [giving audio] description.” Female, 34-44 years, UK “Hindi – it’s a Hindi film so miss out the real sense of the Hindi film if people speak over it in English... ” Male, 55-64 years, India One of the factors for people not opting for the English version was the spoken subtitles in English. A majority of respondents mentioned that they were straining to hear the actor’s voices over the spoken subtitles. 88
  • 89. 5. Qualitative research study “I don’t think there is any need to have spoke subs[subtitles]... it takes all the enjoyment out of the film... I don’t speak Hindi at home, English is my first language but I do watch all my Bollywood films in Hindi.” Female, 35-44 years, UK “English was not as descriptive. It was wrong in places I thought... Hindi was better in terms of description. Hindi gave me an idea of the surroundings. The English one could not get the same essence, the poetry that the Hindi one had.” Male, 45-55 years, UK In India, virtually all participants expressed a preference for AD in Hindi. Similarly, in the UK, only 4 of the 25 people interviewed expressed their preference for the English version. 5.6.2. Describing over songs Bollywood movies are generally melodramatic, with lengthy extravaganzas containing a number of elements, including foot-tapping song and dance numbers, hapless lovers and infuriated parents, love triangles, corrupt politicians, kidnappers, extended family and siblings separated by fate, themes of sacrifice, dramatic reversals of fortune and convenient coincidences. Songs may be worked into the plot so that a character has a reason to sing. It may be a manifestation of a character’s thoughts or predicting an event such as falling in love. Song and dance sequences are often used as a tool for fantasy and often allow characters to do things and to go to places that would not be realistic in a traditional plot line. As mentioned earlier in the report, music in a Bollywood film is considered a huge selling point for the film. The songs, in most cases, dominate the promotional material. Film makers spend a significant amount of budget and time on the making of these songs and they are widely shown on all music channels in India such as MTV India, B4U and Channel V. This emphasises the importance of understanding a blind and partially sighted person’s perspective on the significance of providing description over songs in a Bollywood film. During interviews, a short audio described clip which included a couple of stanzas from the song, was included, to explore respondents’ views on AD of songs. To put it mildly, the reaction from the respondents was one of pure joy. “Oh, the gondola and the flowers and the lantern, I know they were there in the song. There was a mural of a queen from the Mughal period.” Female, 64-74 years, UK 89
  • 90. 5. Qualitative research study “You have explained the song... oh my god! Even my family wouldn’t do that for me!” Female, 25-34 years, UK The provision of AD over a song was extremely popular and people reported that it gave them an image of things that they wanted to see, rather than what they needed to see in a film. When asked if the description disturbed their enjoyment of the music, it was remarked that music could be enjoyed on the radio and if someone particularly liked the music then they could buy a music CD, but nothing could replace experiencing the songs during the film with complete knowledge of the choreography. 5.6.3. What to include in AD There was a difference of opinion between the two samples. Participants in India were more critical of the description than those from the UK. They wanted fewer details to be mentioned in the description and seemed to deduce more information from the audio clues than their counterparts in the UK. “I could have done without your telling that the girl is beautiful and she covering her head with the shawl. I know that from the song, already. But the rest is great.” Female, 24-35 years, India A possible reason for this is the greater familiarity with the genre of Bollywood films, with these films being easily available on television and being an inherent part of their daily lives in India. The following chapter discusses and sets standards/guidelines for writing audio description for Bollywood films. 90
  • 91. 6. Proposed AD guidelines for Bollywood films This chapter outlines proposed guidelines for the production and presentation of AD on Bollywood films. They are based on the standards provided by Ofcom for broadcasters within the UK who provide description on a percentage of their programming. The standards have been provided in Ofcom’s Code on Television Access Services. They have been slightly amended based on the findings from this research study on the preference of language for audio description and description over musical content. 6.1. What is Audio Description (AD)? AD is a service primarily aimed at blind or visually-impaired people. It comprises a commentary woven around the soundtrack, exploiting pauses to explain on-screen action, describe characters, locations, costumes, body language and facial expressions to enhance meaning and enjoyment for blind or visually-impaired viewers. 6.2. Users While people with visual impairments are drawn from all age ranges, a majority will experience loss of some or all of their vision later in life, for example, as a result of Macular Degeneration. Accordingly, audio describers should take account of the fact that most potential users of AD will have some sight, or will have had sight at some stage. 6.3 Best practice 6.3.1. What to describe To the extent relevant to the storyline, AD should describe characters, locations, time and circumstances, any sounds that are not readily identifiable, on-screen action, and on-screen information. 6.3.2. Characters Identifying and describing characters is vital to effective AD. Key features (eg “the tall man”, “district attorney Lopez”) should be identified as soon as practicable, to help identify the person and avoid the need for long-winded and confusing descriptions. 91
  • 92. 6. Proposed AD guidelines for Bollywood films But do not give the name away if the plot requires the character’s identity to be revealed at a later date. When describing characters, aspects such as dress, physical characteristics, facial expression, body language, ethnicity and age may be significant. Don’t shy away from using colours or describing a character as pretty, or handsome, where relevant to the story. Generally names (rather than “he” or “she”) are used more often than in normal speech, so as to avoid confusing the audience, particularly when there are several people taking part in a dialogue. 6.3.3. On-screen action Wherever possible try to describe at the same time as the action occurs. This is particularly important with regard to comic situations, where the audience, sighted and visually impaired, should be able to laugh at the same time. Wherever relevant, key back-references can be included. It may be necessary to set up the next scene during the current description. 6.3.4. Settings When describing locations, try to cover scene changes where possible; the locations; the time of day/season/date setting where appropriate; on-screen action; any sounds that are not readily identifiable; and onscreen information (eg signs, hieroglyphics, open subtitles for foreign languages, captions, and opening and closing credits).The description should not censor what is on screen. However, it should not be necessary to use offensive language, unless (for example) when referring to content that is integral to understanding the programme, such as graffiti scrawled on a wall. 6.3.5. What not to describe The description should only provide information about what can be seen on the screen. Information unavailable to the sighted viewer should not be added though discretion is always necessary. “A turreted bridge over a city river” would fall short if the sighted audience sees London’s Tower Bridge, even without an identifying caption. Generally, ‘filmic’ terms such as camera angles should not be used. 6.3.6. When to describe AD should not encroach on dialogue, important or complementary sound effects, or critical sound effects unless really necessary. Even then, AD should only be used to impart relevant information when the dialogue or other sound is inconsequential or to read subtitles or on-screen captions. To differentiate between subtitles and description the describer should do this by either the use of their voice (eg stating the obvious, “He says in Russian... ” or “A caption reads”’) or a second voice. 92
  • 93. 6. Proposed AD guidelines for Bollywood films During opening titles and end credits, care should be taken to avoid clumsy overlaps with song lyrics. 6.3.7. Language AD provides a real-time commentary, so should generally be in the present tense (he sits), the continuous present (he is sitting) or the present participle (“Standing at the window, he lets out a deep sigh”), as appropriate. Variety is important, particularly with verbs. “She scuttles into the room” rather than the simple fact “She enters the room” creates a clearer image for the viewer (a thesaurus is always useful). Adverbs are a useful shorthand to describing emotions and actions, but should not be subjective. Vocabulary should be matched to the genre of the film/programme. It should be accurate, easily understood and succinct. 6.3.8. Delivery Delivery should be steady, unobtrusive and impersonal in style (but not monotonous), so that the personality and views of the describer do not colour the programme. Avoid the term “we see”. However, it can be important to add emotion, excitement, lightness of touch at different points in different films/programmes to suit the mood and the plot development – the style should be matched to the genre of the film/programme. Diction should be clear and not hurried – every word should be clear, audible and timed carefully so that it does not overrun subsequent dialogue. The aim should be to enhance the enjoyment of the film/programme not to distract from it. 6.3.9. Balance Judgement is needed in striking an appropriate balance between the amount of detail that is conveyed, and the risk of overburdening the audience with detail and detracting from the enjoyment of the film/programme. Too much description, even where there is a lot of space for description, can make it difficult for viewers to absorb information. The film/programme should be allowed ‘to breathe’. On the other hand, long gaps in the dialogue may need to be explained if the viewer is not to be left confused, eg “the cowboy rides across the prairie into the distance”. If the ‘space’ for AD is short, it is better to focus on key moments and dynamics rather to rush the description or fill every available moment. For example, it may be distracting in dance or fight scenes to describe every piece of action. A consistent approach is important: if a description starts out as detailed, it should not suddenly become scant. 93
  • 94. 6. Proposed AD guidelines for Bollywood films 6.3.10. Describers Describers should be chosen to fit the genre, the nature of the film/programme and the intended audience. Ideally, the same people should be used to describe a series of films/programmes, both to ensure a consistent style (eg in terms of level of detail) and because the description forms a part of the film/programme for users. 6.3.11. Children’s programmes/films Language and pace of delivery for children’s film/ television need particular care. A more intimate style may be appropriate than would be the case for films/programmes aimed at adults. 6.3.12. Language and songs in Bollywood Films The description for a Bollywood film should be in the language of the film, ie Hindi. The main challenge for the describer working on a Bollywood film is where to place the description during songs. The describer must judge carefully when to intervene and when to stay silent during a song. AD should ideally take place where there is a reprise of the lyrics. When describing a dance sequence, it is important to convey the look and general movement of the dance rather than a step by step description. 94
  • 95. 7. Practical aspects to providing AD on Bollywood films In order to gauge the scope for such a project, it is important to gain a clear understanding of the practical issues involved in making Bollywood films accessible to blind and partially sighted people using AD. To this end, it becomes crucial to ascertain what factors, if any, could have severe implications on further development of this concept. A few of the factors are quite apparent to anyone with a basic understanding of the Bollywood film industry and its operational structure. These can be broadly classified in the following categories: Lack of awareness of AD within the target market in the UK and India Operational barriers for the industry to provide AD on its films Commercial considerations. 7.1. Lack of awareness of AD within the target market in the UK and India Without a doubt, India continues to be the primary market for Bollywood films, contributing over 70 per cent of the total revenue generated from a single release. The audience within India is more likely to influence trends within the industry than the UK audience, which is much smaller in size. In this context, it becomes significant to realise that currently there is very little awareness about AD amongst related segments of society in India. The relevant segments are: the film industry itself, blind or partially sighted people and organisations working with blind and partially sighted people which would ideally be driving this need in the public domain. Essentially the demand that would normally drive an industry to embrace a new concept is almost non-existent in this case. But this does not mean that demand for the product cannot be created by generating awareness within the target audience for audio described Bollywood films. The solution lies in generating awareness about AD amongst blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community within the UK and India. This consequently creates a demand for audio described Bollywood films in both countries, which the industry can then take steps to meet. 95
  • 96. 7. Practical aspects to providing AD on Bollywood films 7.2. Operational barriers to making audio described films available 7.2.1. Operational barriers to making audio described films available in India As a consequence of the above, it is no surprise that India currently has no delivery systems in place for AD either in cinemas or on television. In such a situation, the only way to make audio described films available to blind and partially sighted people in India would be through the DVD industry. The solution lies in installation of equipment enabling AD in trial cinemas in the four major cities – Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, and Chennai. These cinemas should be located strategically within each city, ie, in the vicinity of a major association working for/with blind and partially sighted people. In addition, a campaign should be launched, spearheaded by the Government of India, targeting private broadcasters, to consider ways of introducing AD on a certain percentage of their programming 7.2.2. Operational barriers to making audio described films available in the UK It is important to understand that the Bollywood film industry, including all its production studios, is based in Mumbai. Unlike any other film industry, all its production work including even minor production processes such as adding of subtitles, mastering of DVDs etc, are handled within the country. The absence of an AD industry in India makes it difficult to create AD for Bollywood films ‘in house’. The option to outsource this provision to describers within the UK prior to the UK release of a film seems a logical way to get the process of audio described Bollywood films started. This is also because the AD providers’ industry within the UK is well established and is aware of the nuances involved in the procedure. However, the turn-around time for the writing and the recording of AD is much longer than is currently available, as Bollywood films often arrive in the UK only around seven days prior to the release date. Keeping the above in mind, in the longer term, a local Mumbai based set-up for providing AD to Bollywood films would make the process operationally much simpler. The film industry will need to carefully consider the issue and make minor changes in its current operational structure to accommodate the time required to produce AD for a Bollywood film. 96
  • 97. 7. Practical aspects to providing AD on Bollywood films 7.3. Commercial considerations One of the significant considerations for the Bollywood film industry, aside from making changes in their current operational set-up to include AD in their films, would be to ascertain if the costs involved are offset by the expected sales and consumption of the service. An alternative would be to adopt the UK model where commercial considerations were not the main driver. Instead, the UK distributors for Hollywood films took on the task of providing AD on their films as a moral obligation to fulfil the needs of their blind and partially sighted viewers. One of the aims of the Bollywood quantitative research study was to give an indication of the approximate market size for audio described Bollywood films in the UK. The study was able to establish that blind or partially sighted participants were more likely to watch a Bollywood film with AD than without it. The next question arises from the current level of awareness about AD in this target population. It needs to be decided if further campaigns would bridge this gap in awareness. A previous research study commissioned by Ofcom in 2008 to measure awareness of the service both before and after the Ofcom-led Audio Description Awareness Campaign can be used as an indicative example of the difference that a campaign can make in creating awareness of AD within the general public. “Between 1st February and 14th March 2008, a campaign promoting audio description awareness was conducted by an alliance of broadcasters and the RNIB and facilitated by Ofcom. Promotional trials were screened across the majority of television channels over a six-week period. The results of the study revealed that amongst people with visual impairments, awareness levels increased from 43 per cent to 72 per cent following the campaign. Amongst the UK population, awareness increased from 37 per cent to 60 per cent.” [Access Services Audio Description: Research into awareness levels, Ofcom, 2008, Page 13] A campaign to create awareness of AD amongst blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community in the UK could lead to an increase in awareness levels about AD. The target audience would then be aware of the feature when a Bollywood film is released with description. The quantitative research study was able to establish the preferred methods for accessing information by blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community. The research revealed that the top five general sources of information were: 97
  • 98. 7. Practical aspects to providing AD on Bollywood films 1. Friends and family 2. Radio 3. Television 4. Local community-based organisations 5. Talking newspapers Further details on each of those sources can be found in the chapter on quantitative research study. 7.4. Conclusion The current RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Project was designed to identify the potential market for audio described Bollywood films within the blind and partially sighted Asian community in the UK and India. The results from the quantitative and qualitative Bollywood research studies clearly state that: Blind and partially sighted people from the Asian community in the UK and India who participated in the studies are more likely to watch a Bollywood film with AD than without it. The qualitative study was able to establish that blind and partially sighted people enjoyed watching a clip with AD significantly more than they enjoyed watching the same clip without AD. There was a clear preference for AD to be in the language of the film, ie Hindi, amongst the respondents who participated in the qualitative research study. Respondents asked for description over songs as well as the standard storyline as it helped them understand what was happening on the screen without any external assistance. The qualitative and quantitative research studies were unable to establish preference for any specific medium, such as television/DVD/cinema, to watch audio described Bollywood films. The younger respondents tended to prefer cinema viewing while older respondents clearly showed a preference for television/DVD viewing. 7.5. Recommendations Based on the conclusion and the barriers outlined above we propose the following recommendations: 98
  • 99. 7. Practical aspects to providing AD on Bollywood films Recommendation 1: Initiate partnership working with the Indian film industry RNIB to work closely with the Indian film industry, sharing the expertise and the experience, it has built up while working with the UK distributors of the Hollywood film industry. The aim being, to support the setting up of a system in the UK and India that can produce AD for Bollywood films. The uptake of a new concept is bound to be slow in the face of the barriers mentioned above. But in the past, RNIB has successfully established AD as a norm for all Hollywood films being released in the UK through vigorous campaigning and collaborating with the industry at each step. Taking this as a benchmark, the RNIB Bollywood Project should aim to continue being the contact point for the Bollywood film industry until all UK based distributors of Bollywood films have embraced the concept on one hundred per cent of their film releases in the UK and a major part of the key target audience is familiar with the concept of AD. The level of input could vary during this period, with RNIB taking a more pro-active approach for the first two years. This could be until AD is accepted as a norm by at least one of the key distributors in the UK, with others giving it serious consideration. It could be another 2-3 years before the entire industry comes on board. By the end of this five-year period, the target audience for audio described Bollywood films would be well aware of the concept of AD, not only through RNIB campaigns, but also through the wide availability of Bollywood titles with AD in UK cinemas and the home entertainment market. Recommendation 2: UK pilot of audio described Bollywood films Keeping in mind that all systems and infrastructures enabling the provision and delivery of AD in films are in place within the UK, it would be operationally simpler to pilot the product in the UK first, and then share the experience and expertise with the industry in India. If the AD track was available for UK cinema release, the track could then be utilised on the DVD and tested in the Indian DVD market. Recommendation 3: AD for all mediums The research study was unable to bring out a clear preference for any particular medium for accessing Bollywood films in the UK or India. A split between preferences was evident amongst younger cinema goers (18-44 years) and older home entertainment enthusiasts. This could potentially reflect possible mobility issues faced by older people in addition to sight problems. Therefore, the Bollywood film industry 99
  • 100. 7. Practical aspects to providing AD on Bollywood films should be encouraged to make AD tracks available across diverse film viewing platforms – cinema, DVD and eventually television. Making a specialist product available targeted solely at the blind and partially sighted community, would impede the progress of making AD widely available. As always, there will be operational barriers for specialist products such as gathering funds for production and distribution and poor acceptance in a wider market because of the stigma attached to disability. We therefore recommend that AD be made available on the mainstream DVD release of a film. If AD was to be made available as an optional audio track on the regular DVD release, it would not only increase the availability of accessible Bollywood films but also lead to a greater acceptance of AD amongst the general population in both India and the UK. Recommendation 4: Raising awareness amongst the target population in the UK 4(a) RNIB to plan awareness campaigns with the aim of familiarising the UK Asian blind community with concept of AD. These promotional activities should be planned bearing in mind the specific characteristics of the Asian community such as language preference of the target audience and their knowledge of Hindi. 4(b) RNIB to share findings of this research with the UK distributors of Hollywood films who are forming alliances with the Indian film industry and distributing Bollywood films in the UK, including Warner Bros. and Sony Pictures. 4(c) RNIB to create awareness within the UK cinema exhibitors about the possible arrival of audio described Bollywood films. This would enable cinemas to appropriately assign films to the specific screens that are equipped to handle AD. 4 (d) RNIB should work in partnership with organisations providing services to the different Asian communities in the UK to raise the level of awareness about AD for blind and partially sighted people. The evidence from the research indicates that there is a high demand for uptake of other specialist services like ‘talking newspapers’ for blind and partially sighted people within the different South Asian communities which provides a favourable context for the introduction of AD aimed at Asian communities via Bollywood films. These activities and campaigns would need to be planned and organised in conjunction with the relevant industries. 100
  • 101. 7. Practical aspects to providing AD on Bollywood films Recommendation 5: Raising awareness amongst the target population in India 5 (a) RNIB and associations working for/with blind and partially sighted people in India to work collaboratively with the specific sectors within the Government of India, with the Indian counterparts taking a lead role in creating awareness about AD and its eventual availability on Bollywood films in India. As AD is a medium for moving images, cinemas and television could play an instrumental role in creating this awareness. A specific media plan would be needed after a thorough analysis of various factors such as television ratings; suitable time slots for the target group and focus geographical regions in terms of demographics enabling efficient and effective communication with the potential users. Recommendation 6: Engage with the Bollywood film industry 6 (a) RNIB could participate in conferences and discussions relevant to the Indian film industry, non-profit organisations working in the field of visual impairment and access technologies in India. This would enable wider awareness and discussion on the subject with a larger audience. Once the discussion gathers momentum, it should be steered towards practical solutions to making the AD technology widely available. 6 (b) RNIB may wish to think about working in partnership with selected Bollywood film producers to set up a pilot project using AD in Bollywood films. Such a development would not only benefit blind and partially sighted people in the UK and India but others living across the globe. This could be done by organising workshops for selected Bollywood film producers to provide them with practical advice and support for implementing the ‘Bollywood Audio Description Initiative’. Recommendation 7: Possible introduction of a legislation in the UK RNIB may wish to explore with Ofcom the possibility of achieving a quota for AD on Bollywood channels broadcast in the UK. Recommendation 8: Accessible technology in the UK The evidence from the survey suggests that many blind and partially sighted people have difficulty operating current electronic devices providing access to AD. It is recommended that RNIB continues to work with electronics manufacturers and TV platform operators to ensure that they implement a ‘shortcut’ button on the remote control so people can more easily access AD. 101
  • 102. References Bose, M. (2007). Bollywood a History. Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing Ltd. Communications Act (2003) (c. 21) Part 3 – Television and Radio Services, Chapter 4 – Regulatory provisions. Available online: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2003/pdf/ukpga_20030021_en.pdf [Accessed: 13 May 2009] FICCI – Pricewaterhouse Coopers (2007) – Indian entertainment and Media Industry. Available online: http://www.pwc.com/en_IN/in/assets/pdfs/indian-entertainment- media-industry-growth-story-unfolds.pdf [Accessed date 14 August 2009] FICCI and Pricewaterhouse Coopers (2008) Indian entertainment and Media Industry: Sustaining growth report 2008. Available online: http://www.pwc.com/en_IN/in/assets/pdfs/indian-entertainment-media-industry- sustaining-growth.pdf [accessed 14 August 2009] International Indian Film Academy (2007) The Indian Film Industry [online]. Available online: http://www.iifa.com/web07/cntnt/theindianfilmindustry.htm [Accessed 13 May 2009] Information Centre, The (2006). Registered Blind and Partially Sighted People Year ending 31 March 2006. Available online: http://www.ic.nhs.uk/webfiles/publications/blindeng06 /RegisteredBlindPartiallySighted311006_PDF.pdf [Accessed: 13 May 2009] ITC Guidance on Standards for Audio Description (May 2000) Available online: ITC Guidance on Standards for Audio Description (May 2000) htttp://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/itc/uploads/ITC_Guidance_On_Standards_ for_Audio_Description.doc [accessed 14 August 2009] Leicester City Council (2009) Area Profile for the City of Leicester: Demographic and Cultural. Available online: http://www.leicester.gov.uk/index.asp?pgid=1009#Eth [Accessed 13 May 2009] Ofcom, Code on Television Access Services (2006) Guidelines on the Provision of Television Access Services. available online: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/tv/ifi/guidance/tv_access_serv/guidelines/. [Accessed 14 August 2009] http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/itc/uploads/ITC_Guidance_On_Standards_ for_Audio_Description.doc [accessed 14 August 2009] Ofcom (2008) – Access Services Audio Description: Research into awareness levels [Accessed 14 August 2009] 102
  • 103. References Office for National Statistics (2004) Ethnic group KS06. Available online: http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.do?a=3&b=2767 72&c=tower+hamlets&d=13&e=13&g=346968&i=1001x1003x1004&m=0&r=1&s=1243 701148545&enc=1&dsFamilyId=47 [Accessed: 13 May 2009] Pokharel, G.P and Marriotti, S.P (2004). Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002, Bulletin of the World Health Organization: 82 (11), 844 - 851. Sefton, T., Baker, M. and Praat, A. (2005). Ethnic minorities, disability and the labour market: A review of the data. Available online: http://www.rnib.org.uk/xpedio/groups/public/documents/publicwebsite/public_data review1.doc [Accessed: 13 May 2009] Tate, R., Smeeth, L., Evans, J., Fletcher, A., Owen, C., and Rudnicka, A. (2005), The prevalence of visual impairment in the UK: A review of the literature. London: RNIB UK Film Council (2007), Statistical Year Book. London, UK: UK FC 103
  • 104. Appendix 1: Questionnaire for qualitative study Instructions RNIB through this study seeks to establish whether there is a potential market for audio described Bollywood films in the UK. It also aims to establish preferences in relation to AD guidelines for Bollywood films, in order to increase viewing and viewing pleasure. It is a detailed interview on one to one basis. I will be completing the questionnaire based on your responses to the questions. I will be recording this interview solely for the purpose of transcribing the interview at a later date. The information I gather through this study will be treated as confidential and anonymous. It will be used solely for RNIB’s Bollywood Audio Description Project. If we use your quotes, they will not be attributed to your name. The interview will not take more than 35 mins to finish. If you would like to get in touch with me with regards to the Bollywood Project research study, I can provide you with my contact mail ID and my direct telephone number at RNIB: Sonali Rai Bollywood Project Officer Media and Culture Department RNIB Email: sonali.rai@rnib.org.uk Telephone: 020 7391 3270 104
  • 105. Appendix 1: Questionnaire for qualitative study Bollywood Audio Description Project: Qualitative one-to-one interviews 1. Which of the following age bands are you in: A. 18 - 24 B. 25 - 34 C. 35 - 44 D. 45 - 54 E. 55 - 64 F. 65-74 G. 75-84 H. 85+ 2. Which of the following describe what you are able to see? (Choose all the options that apply to you) A. I can see well enough to recognise a friend across the road. B. I can see well enough to recognise a friend across a room C. I can see well enough to recognise a friend who is at arms length away D. I can see well enough to recognise a friend if you get close to his or her face. E. I can see the shapes of the furniture in a room F. In a room during daytime, I can tell by the light where the windows are G. I cannot see anything at all. H. Prefer not to say Notes: 105
  • 106. Appendix 1: Questionnaire for qualitative study 3. Are you a registered blind or registered partially sighted? (Choose one option) A. Severely sight impaired (Blind) B. Sight impaired (Partially sighted) C. Neither D. Don’t know Notes: 4. When watching TV: (Choose all the options that apply to you) A. I have difficulty seeing the buttons on the remote control B. I have difficulty seeing the picture on the TV screen C. I have difficulty seeing the fine detail on the TV screen D. I have difficulty seeing text on the TV screen E. I am able to see the light of the TV screen F. I cannot see anything on the TV screen G. I do not find that I have any difficulty following what is going on the screen H. Other... 5. When you currently watch or follow a programme or film on DVD or on television (Choose all the options that apply to you) A. I use my residual sight to watch B. I wear special stronger glasses C. I get closer to the TV screen D. I use a magnifier E. I adjust the screen settings F. I adjust the lighting in the room G. I use a large screen TV H. I ask my friends or family members to assist me by explaining what hap- pens on the screen I. I just try to pick up as much as I can from the sound of the film or pro- gramme J. I use audio description to explain to me what happens on the screen K. I make none of these adjustments L. I never watch TV/ DVD(s) M. Other 106
  • 107. Appendix 1: Questionnaire for qualitative study View 1st user material 3 minute clip without AD 6. What can you tell me about what happened in that clip? 1. How many people do you think there were in the clip? 2. What can you tell me about the location? 3. What is Raj carrying? 4. What is Raj doing? 5. What is the woman carrying? 6. What is the woman doing? 7. How enjoyable did you find it? - just a little - a fair amount - a great deal - not at all - don’t know Why? 8. Any other comments View 2nd user material 3 minute clip with English AD 107
  • 108. Appendix 1: Questionnaire for qualitative study 9. What can you tell me about what happened in that clip? 1. How many people do you think there were in the clip? 2. What can you tell me about the location? 3. What is Raj carrying? 4. What is Raj doing? 5. What is the woman carrying? 6. What is the woman doing? 10. How enjoyable did you find it? - just a little - a fair amount - a great deal - not at all - don’t know Why? 11 How did the addition of audio description affect your experience of the film clip? 12. Any other comments View 3rd user material 3 minute clip with Hindi AD 108
  • 109. Appendix 1: Questionnaire for qualitative study 13. What can you tell me about what happened in that clip? 1. How many people do you think there were in the clip? 2. What can you tell me about the location? 3. What is Raj carrying? 4. What is Raj doing? 5. What is the woman carrying? 6. What is the woman doing? 14. How enjoyable did you find it? - just a little - a fair amount - a great deal - not at all - don’t know Why? 15. How did the addition of audio description affect your experience of the film clip? - Was there too much talking and information/ verbose - Was it more relaxing? 16. What additional items did you understand with the second audio described clip? - Location - Detailed information - Characters - Story/ Plot 109
  • 110. Appendix 1: Questionnaire for qualitative study 17. How did the addition of audio description affect your experience of the song in the film clip? Did you feel the description interfered with your enjoyment of the music? Did you feel enjoy the song more because you were aware of what happened on the screen? 18. Which of the audio described clips did you prefer: - Hindi - English - no preference - did not prefer either of the audio clips Why? General questions 19. Are there any ways the audio description could be improved to make your experience of the film better? 20. If a Bollywood film was shown with AD on TV, do you think you would watch it? What factors would influence your decision to watch it? ie: A. Language of the AD - Hindi / English B. Level of description (too wordy, not descriptive enough) C. Accessibility to AD(ed) Bollywood films A. Yes B. No Notes: 110
  • 111. Appendix 1: Questionnaire for qualitative study 21. If a Bollywood film was available with AD on DVDs would you watch it? What factors would influence your decision to watch it? ie: A. Language of the AD - Hindi / English B. Level of description (too wordy, not descriptive enough) C. Accessibility to AD(ed) Bollywood films A. Yes B. No Notes: 22. What is your source of information for products specially designed for Blind and partially sighted people? A. Newspapers & Magazines B. Internet C. Radio D. Television E. From friends or family F. RNIB G. From my local organisation working for Blind and partially sighted people H. Local authority / social service organisations I. Other local organisations J. Specialist magazines i.e. RNIB magazines K. Talking Newspapers L. Other Please ask for details of each of the option that the respondent selects,ie Respondent selects talking newspaper; please ask which talking newspaper specifically. 23. Any other comments 111
  • 112. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study RNIB Bollywood Audio Description Project Quantitative survey – January 2009 Questionnaire Number: Interview Date: (dd) ____: (mm) ____: (yy) ____ Start time: (hh) ____: (mm) ____ End time: (hh) ____: (mm) ____ Interviewer: City: Location of interview: Home (Code 1) Community centre (Code 2 ) Other (Code X) Specify: Type of interview: Face-to-face (Code1) Telephone (Code 2) Introduction Hello my name is ___________________I am from Agroni, an independent research organisation. We are working in partnership with the Royal National Institute of Blind people to explore the Bollywood film viewing/watching habits of blind and partially sighted people within the Asian communities in the UK. The main aim of the research 112
  • 113. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study is to talk to people like your selves to find your specific needs and preferences in relation to audio description of Bollywood films. I will appreciate if you could spare approximately 10 minutes of your time to give us your invaluable opinion. Everything you say will remain strictly confidential and you will not be identified in any way in our reports. Furthermore I can assure you that your participation in this research is completely voluntary and you have rights to not answer any questions that you feel uncomfortable with and you may ask for termination of interview at any point. Are you happy to proceed with this interview? Yes (Code 1) Continue No (Code 2) Thank and close Screening questions S1: Before starting the interviews, I would like to find out your preferred language for the interview. Would you like this interview to be conducted in? English (Code 1) Continue Bengali (Code 2) Continue Hindi (Code 3) Continue Urdu (Code 4) Continue S2: Please tell me how would you describe the present conditions of your sight? Blind (Code 2) Recruit to quota Partially blind (Code 2) Recruit to quota Neither (Code 3) Close S3: How would you describe your ethnicity? Bangladeshi (Code 1) Continue British Bangladeshi (Code 2) Continue Indian (Code3) Continue British Indian (Code 4) Continue Pakistani (Code 5) Continue British Pakistani (Code 6) Continue S4: Did you take part in any RNIB research in last 6 months? Yes (Code 1) Thank and close No (Code 2) Continue S5: Gender (Please note and circle) Male (Code 1) Female (Code 2) 113
  • 114. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study About respondents Q1: Which of the following age bands are you in: (Single code) 18-24 (Code 1) Continue 25-34 (Code 2) Continue 35-44 (Code 3) Continue 45-54 (Code 4) Continue 55-64 (Code 5) Continue 65-74 (Code 6) Continue 75-84 (Code 7) Continue 85+ (Code 8) Continue Q2: Which of the following describe what you are able to see? (multi code) Options Code I can see well enough to recognise a friend across the road 1 I can see well enough to recognise a friend across a room 2 I can see well enough to recognise a friend who is at arms length away 3 I can see well enough to recognise a friend if I get close to his or her face. 4 I can see the shapes of the furniture in a room 5 In a room during daytime, I can tell by the light where the windows are 6 I cannot see anything at all. 7 Prefer not to say 8 Notes/comments if any: Q3: Are you a registered blind or registered partially sighted?(Single code) Severely sight impaired or blind (Code 2) Continue Sight impaired or partially sighted (Code 2) Continue Neither (Code 3) Continue Don’t know (Code 4) Continue Notes/comments if any: 114
  • 115. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study About TV/ DVD viewing habits Q4. When watching TV you have any of the following: (Multi code) Options Code Difficulty seeing the buttons on the remote control 1 Difficulty seeing the picture on the TV screen 2 Difficulty seeing the fine detail on the TV screen 3 Difficulty seeing text on the TV screen 4 Able to see the light of the TV screen 5 Cannot see anything on the TV screen 6 Do not find any difficulty following what is going on the screen 7 Other X Specify X 115
  • 116. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study Q5. When you currently watch or follow a programme or film on DVD or on television do you use any of the following: (Multi code) Options Code Use your residual sight to watch 1 Wear special stronger glasses 2 Get closer to the TV screen 3 Use a magnifier 4 Adjust the screen settings 5 Adjust the lighting in the room 6 Use a large screen TV 7 Ask my friends or family members to assist me by explaining what happens 8 on the screen Just try to pick up as much as I can from the sound of the film or 9 programme Use audio description to explain to me what happens on the screen 10 Make none of these adjustments 11 Never watch TV or DVD(s) 12 Others X Specify X 116
  • 117. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study Skip to Question number 8, if the respondent chooses option 12 – I never watch TV or DVD(s) Q6. How often do you currently watch Bollywood films on TV? (Single code) About once a day (Code 1) About a couple of times a week (Code 2) About once a week (Code 3) About once a fortnight (Code 4) About once a month (Code 5) About once every 3 months (Code 6) About once a year (Code 7) Never (Code 8) Q7. How often do you currently watch Bollywood films on DVD? (Single code) About once a day (Code 1) About a couple of times a week (Code 2) About once a week (Code 3) About once a fortnight (Code 4) About once a month (Code 5) About once every 3 months (Code 6) About once a year (Code 7) Never (Code 8) 117
  • 118. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study Q8. What, if any, factors stop you from watching Bollywood films on TV or DVD? (Multi code) Options Code I am not interested in watching Bollywood films 1 I am not interested in watching TV or DVDs 2 I do not own a TV 3 I find it too difficult to use a TV 4 I do not own a DVD player 5 I find it too difficult to use a DVD player 6 I have no access to a television 7 I have no access to a DVD player 8 I do not have time to watch TV or DVDs 9 I find it difficult to follow Bollywood films because of my sight problem 10 Nothing stops me from watching Bollywood Films on TV or DVD 11 Other X 118
  • 119. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study About cinema viewing habits Q9. How do you currently watch or follow a film in the cinema? (Multi code) Options Code I use my residual sight to watch 1 I wear special stronger glasses 2 I get closer to the TV screen 3 I use a magnifier 4 I adjust the screen settings 5 I adjust the lighting in the room 6 I use a large screen TV 7 I ask my friends or family members to assist me by explaining what happens 8 on the screen I just try to pick up as much as I can from the sound of the film or 9 programme I use audio description to explain to me what happens on the TV screen 10 I make none of these adjustments 11 I never go to the cinema 12 Other X 119
  • 120. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study Q10. How often do you currently watch Bollywood films on the cinema? (Single code) About once a day (Code 1) About once a week (Code 2) About a couple of times a week (Code 3) About once every two weeks (Code 4) About once a month (Code 5) About once every 3 months (Code 6) About twice a year (Code 7) About once a year (Code 8) Never (Code 9) Q11. What, if any, factors stop you from watching Bollywood films on TV in the cinema? (Multi code) Options Code I am not interested in watching Bollywood films 1 There is no local cinema that plays Bollywood films near where I live 2 I find it difficult to travel to the cinema 3 I have no time to go to the cinema 4 I find it difficult to follow Bollywood films because of my sight problem 5 Nothing stops me from watching Bollywood Films in the cinema 6 Other X 120
  • 121. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study Interviewer gives a short introduction to AD: Audio Description is like a narrator telling a story. It is an additional commentary that describes body language, expressions and movements between programme dialogues – giving people sight through sound. It ensures that people with a sight problem can follow the action on screen more easily. The interviewer then plays an example of an audio described clip Q12: Had you ever heard of audio description before today? (Single code) Yes, I have heard of it but I don’t know what it is (Code 1) Yes, I have heard of it and I know what it is (Code 2) Yes, I have heard of it and I use it (Code 3) No, I had never heard of it (Code 4) Not sure (Code 5) Q13: What is the likelihood of your watching an audio described Bollywood movie in comparison to watching a non-audio described Bollywood movie? (Single code) More Likely (Code 1) Not sure (Code 2) 121
  • 122. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study Q14: What are your sources of information for products specially designed for Blind and partially sighted people? (Multi code) Options Code Newspapers & Magazines 1 Internet 2 Radio 3 Television 4 From friends or family 5 RNIB 6 From my local organisation working for Blind and partially sighted people 7 Local authority / social service organisations 8 Other local organisations 9 Specialist magazines i.e. RNIB magazines 10 Talking Newspapers 11 Other X Please probe for details of each of the option selected by the respondent. For example if the respondent selects talking newspaper; please ask which talking newspaper specifically. Any other comments Respondents’ details For quality control purposes our office randomly contacts some respondents to ensure that the interview was conducted accurately and ethically (show thank you leaflets). There is no guarantee that you will be selected for the random checking. However, I will appreciate if you could give the following information in case my office would like to talk to you about my conduct as part of Agroni’s standard “Quality Control/Respondents’ Care” procedures. 122
  • 123. Appendix 2: Questionnaire for quantitative study Full name: ________________________________________ Address: _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Telephone: ____________(Home)______________(Mobile) Thank you Further RNIB research RNIB is occasionally looking for people to participate in future projects. Would you be happy for us to pass your details to RNIB for any future research projects? Yes (Code 1) No (Code 2) Declaration by the interviewer I certify that this face-to-face/telephone* interview has been personally carried out by me with the respondent above. I further declare that all information is truthful and correct as told by the respondent. I understand that any discrepancies discovered during the back-checking/quality control of this questionnaire will result in the cancellation of this interview. Signature of the interviewer Date *Delete as appropriate 123
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