Leadership & change management, lecture 6, by Rahat Kazmi
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Leadership & change management, lecture 6, by Rahat Kazmi

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This Lecture was prepared for my MBA students in London. It will benefit students, lecturers or managers who like to polish up their leadership skills. Feel Free to download this lecture in pdf, ...

This Lecture was prepared for my MBA students in London. It will benefit students, lecturers or managers who like to polish up their leadership skills. Feel Free to download this lecture in pdf, however, if you need the ppt slides, please send me a payment of £1 by paypal at: srahatkazmi@gmail.com and I will happy to send you the lecture.


Hope it was beneficial to you.

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Leadership & change management, lecture 6, by Rahat Kazmi Leadership & change management, lecture 6, by Rahat Kazmi Presentation Transcript

  • LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT - CHANGE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES CHANGE TECHNIQUES LECTURE 6 BY RA HAT KAZMI PREPARED BY: RAHAT KAZMI SEPTEMBER 2010Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Objectives  To discuss various types of “Change Techniques”  To Cover the Methods of these Changes  To Give and take examples of these change techniques  To have concluding discussion about each change techniqueFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Change Techniques  Boiling the frog: Incremental changes may well not be noticed.  Burning bridges: Ensure there is no way back.  Burning platform: Expose or create a crisis to get things going.  Challenge: Inspire them to achieve remarkable things.  Coaching: Psychological support for executives.  Command: Tell them what to do.  Destabilizing: Shake people of their comfort zone.  Evidence for change: Cold, hard data to show need for change.  Evidence stream: Show them time and again that the change is happening.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Change Techniques  Education: Learn them to change.  Facilitation: Use a facilitator to guide team meetings.  First steps: Make it easy to get going.  Golden handcuffs: Keep key people with delayed rewards.  Institutionalization: Building change into the formal systems and structures.  Involvement: Give them an important role.  Management by Objectives (MBO): Tell people what to do, but not how.  Management causality mapping: Helping a team see its own role.  Open Space: People talking about what interests them.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Change Techniques  Rationalization trap: Get them into action first.  Re-education: Train the people you have in new knowledge/skills.  Restructuring: Redesign the organization to force behavior change.  Reward alignment: Align rewards with desired behaviors.  Rites of passage: Use formal rituals to confirm change.  Setting goals: Give them a formal objective.  Shift-and-sync: Change a bit then pause to restabilize.  Socializing: Build it into the social fabric.  Spill-and-fill: Incremental movement to a new organization.  Stepwise change: Breaking things down into smaller packages.  Visioning: Create a motivating view of the future.  Whole-system Planning: Everyone planning together.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Boiling the Frog Method:  Make the changes very quietly and slowly without telling anyone, so each small change is hardly noticeable. For example:  Make temporary changes that become long-term.  Slip things in whilst people are distracted elsewhere.  Bury changes in larger items.  Gradually isolate unwanted people and organizations.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Boiling the Frog Example:  A company that wants to reduce the amount of social space in a building nibbles at it during moves, taking small amounts out for needed desk space. It also puts meeting equipment such as tables, flipcharts and network points in what were once just rest areas. Before long, the occasionally-used soft areas are in constant use.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Boiling the Frog Discussion:  There is a story that if you drop a frog into hot water, it will jump out. But if you slowly warm up the water, then the frog will stay there until it boils to death.  People notice change largely through contrast. The larger the perceived contrast, the larger the change is assumed to be. So if you change in a number small moves, you may well be able to slip the whole thing under the wire without being noticed.  There are no guarantees with this method. Vigilant resistors may spot what is happening and mobilize a counter-response. If this happens, you may have to give up the frog method and be more open about the change.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Burning Bridges Method:  When you have made a change, ensure that there is no way back to previous ways of working. Example:  A company that is moving to a new low-cost operational model fires its high-cost sales force, sells its fancy headquarters and moves to a plain and simple out-of-town low-cost factory.  An organization that is instituting new software deletes the old software from the system, thus forcing people to use the new software.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Burning Platform Method:  Show how staying where you are is not an option, and that doing nothing will result in disaster.  Look for a crisis that you can highlight. They are often lurking nearby, forlorn and unnoticed.  You can also engineer your own crisis that forces change. Example:  A company floats off a slow backwater division, forcing it to compete without the shelter of the parent company.  An organization educates its workforce in business finance and shows its dire financial situation.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Burning Platform Discussion:  When the oil platform Piper Alpha in the North Sea caught fire, a worker was trapped by the fire on the edge of the platform. Rather than certain death in the fire, he chose probable death by jumping 100 feet into the freezing sea.  The term burning platform is now used to describe a situation where people are forced to act by dint of the alternative being somewhat worse. The crisis may already exist and just needs to be highlighted.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Challenge Method:  Stimulate people into change by challenging them to achieve something remarkable. Show confidence in their ability to get out of their comfort zone and do what has not been done before.  This works particularly well with small groups, as well as individuals. Once the group has bought the challenge, then they will bounce off each other to make it happen.  This is most effective when the people create their own stretch goals, so rather than telling them to do something, challenge them to achieve greatly, then, when they are fired up, ask them how far they can go.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Challenge Example:  A manufacturing managers challenges his team to break company records in building a new product at much reduced costs. He does not give them actual targets, but they set their own goals of halving normal assembly costs. Using concurrent engineering in collaboration with the design group and DFM (Design for Manufacturing) techniques, they reduce parts count by 80% and turn what would otherwise be a 6 hour assembly time into 30 minutes.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Coaching Method:  When you have individual people who are having difficulty in managing to adapt to change, then hire an executive coach to help them through this time.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Coaching Example:  An executive used to a command-and-control environment where people did what he said without question finds himself in a more empowered environment, where he is supposed to be supportive and trust others more. The company, realizing his difficulty with this, get him a personal coach for six months. Together, he and his coach explore his deeper motivations and beliefs about other people, and find practical ways to change these.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Coaching Discussion:  Coaches have the time and skills to understand the individual person and uncover their internal problems which are causing them problems.  In many ways, coaches are actually therapists. However, in many business circles, it is not acceptable to be in therapy.  This is an expensive method, so it is usually only afforded to senior executives.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Command Method:  Enforce change by telling people what to do and what is going to happen.  Do not accept any input or objection from them. If they do object, punish them.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Command Example:  A person arrives for work on Monday to find that they no longer have a job.  A sales person is summarily moved to another region, selling different products.  A manager is demoted to a lower grade in a restructuring of the organization.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Command Discussion:  Commands are the least considerate of the psychological factors and simply use the principle of force. Typically in organizations it means giving the person marching orders, telling them to change rather than convincing them. The person turns up for work and are simply told that change is going to happen to them.  The result of such methods is that people are very likely to fall into the Kübler-Ross cycle. This can make commands seem effective as those in shock and denial may seem to have accepted the change without fuss.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Command Discussion:  It is an approach favoured by managers whose style is largely task-oriented and transactional.  Command does have its place when urgency is total and there is no time for other methods. However, the backlash later can be very costly.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Destabilizing Method:  Stimulate the need for change by creating instability that leads people to seek somewhere other than where they are at present. For example, you can:  Make the current safe place less safe.  Show that which is held to be true is not true, at least not in all important areas.  Open the doors of the house to show the real terrors just outside.  Get in angry customers to berate people for poor products and service.  Show them the realities of financial instability.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Destabilizing  Show them competitors products (and how much better they are).  Reorganize to break up cosy groups.  Give them jobs that are outside of their current skills. Example:  A company seeking to re-stimulate a marketing team cannibalizes the existing team, taking key players out to work on new product areas, whilst requiring remaining people to keep the show on the road.  A company takes away a comfortable cash cow from one of its divisions, forcing it to think harder about how to contribute in the future.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Destabilizing Discussion:  When people are comfortable (in their comfort zone), there no driving need for them to change. If they are shocked too much then they may freeze or rebel. If, however they are simply made less comfortable by some destabilization technique, then when change is announced they more likely to be ready for it and are less likely to resist.  We all have deep needs for safety, control and certainty. If these (and other needs) are all met, then an announcement of change will cause resistance as the change threatens these. If, however, they have already been shaken, then there is less to react against when change is announced (especially if the change promises to restore these).Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Evidence Method:  Find evidence that supports the need for change.  Use data and statistics to create impressive graphs and charts. Example:  A organization shows its people its financial performance in a set of alarming graphs.  A dissatisfied major customer is brought in to talk to the board.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Evidence Discussion:  When you have incontrovertible evidence staring you in the face, where the numbers are showing the company in the red or sales sinking into the sunset, it is difficult to put your head in the sand and wish it away.  Cold, hard evidence is a good way of changing minds as counter-arguments require better data or sufficient strength to show the data as invalid.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Evidence Stream Method:  Get people to accept that a change is real by providing a steady stream of evidence to demonstrate that the change has happened and is successful.  Plan for change projects to reach milestones and deliver real results in a regular and predictable stream of communications that is delivered on a well-managed timetable. This is as opposed to the early big bang followed by a long period of relative silence.  Communicate through a range of media. Get people who have been involved to stand up and tell their stories of challenge and overcoming adversity. Ensure the communications reach everyone involved, and do so multiple times.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Evidence Stream  Keep posters and data charts up to date. Regularly show progress, demonstrating either solid progress against plan or robust action to address any slippage. Example:  A global company that is implementing a project-based system of work regularly prints photos of teams and tell success stories in the company newspaper.  A police force that is cracking down on low-level crime regularly sends officers out to local community meetings with stories of the actions taken and prosecutions that have been successful.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Evidence Stream Discussion:  Evidence is a powerful tool for persuasion, particularly when people are doubtful whether something is real. This is particularly powerful when presented by people who are trusted by the audience for the information.  Lack of evidence is evidence of nothing happening. Aging charts and posters will be seen as evidence of change projects that have either died or are quietly fading away. When people hear nothing, they assume nothing is happening.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Evidence Stream  A common trap in change management is to put lots of effort (and money) into a big bang kick-off, with lots of announcements, hand-outs, posters, and other marketing. This is successful in getting attention. It also sets expectations. What often happens next is that the quick wins are quickly harvested, leaving a long dead space before the more difficult work starts to complete. In this gap, commitment can easily wane as the initial flush is forgotten and the tough stuff starts to bite.  A steady stream of evidence is needed because people are not always convinced by a few pieces of early evidence. However, if they see evidence in every direction that they turn and that new evidence continues to appear over a period of time, then eventually even the most hardened opponent will have to concede that the change is real and is here to stay.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Evidence Stream  How long the evidence stream should be is a good question. In some cases, it need only be repeated three to six times, but more often something more like weekly evidence for six months is worth the communications effort. Even better is that the communication becomes institutionalized and that provision (and attention to) evidence of whatever change is going on is a norm.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Education Method:  Teach people about the need for change and how embracing change is a far more effective life strategy than staying where they are or resisting.  Teach people the methods of change, about how to be logical and creative in improving processes and organizations. Example:  A 3-day class is set up in process improvement in which people apply methods to a designed problem.  Coaches work with teams, supporting their process of change.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Education Discussion:  A gentler way of helping people see the need for change is via educative means. This includes presentations, communications and full- on training sessions.  Education, done well, is more of a process of elicitation, drawing out understanding from the other person rather than talking at them. The root of the word is the Latin duco, meaning to lead, and is the same as duke. Leading in change is itself often a process of education, and may be done in many situations.  An issue in change is that people often feel powerless. Education gives them the power to change.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Facilitation Method:  Use skilled facilitators to support change activities (if you dont have any, either hire them in or train your own).  Facilitators can be used to guide various group events, from brainstorming and planning to improvement projects and change activities.  Facilitators can also act as team coaches, helping people to improve within themselves and work together in better ways.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Facilitation Example:  A team wants to do some process improvement, but do not know how, so they take on a facilitator who manages this process for them, guiding them through the analysis and solution processes.  A leader wants to engage in a heart-to-heart discussion with her team. She gets a facilitator to manage the meeting for her. Afterwards, she sits down with the facilitator to discuss how well the meeting went and to plan a follow-up session.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Facilitation Discussion:  Often in change people know what needs doing, but they do not know how to change or work together in the new context. Facilitators literally make things easier. They do this in meetings and group sessions by owning the process whereby decisions and other activities are done, although they never own the content. Thus, they will help you make a decision, but they will not make the decision for you.  Normal coaching feeds people, helping them solve problems without teaching them how to solve problems.  Developmental Facilitation seeks to teach people to fish, for example by having sessions at the end of meetings where dysfunctional behaviours are surfaced and discussed.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • First Steps Method:  Make the first steps of change particularly easy. Make them the most obvious thing to do. Then make the next steps easy.  Keep the people focused on the next steps. Before long, they will have climbed a mountain. Example:  Instead of asking a person to move to another site, the company first gets them to finish the task on the first site.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • First Steps Discussion:  Actually starting something is often the hardest thing. The Greek poet Horace said, „He has half the deed done who has made a beginning.‟  People look at the effort of the transition of change as a single monolithic effort. It seems as a great big step to make. It is the overwhelm that this creates that often stops people from getting started.  Taking the reverse approach is what works. Making the next step so small and easy takes away all reasonable objections to enacting it.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Golden Handcuffs Method:  When you want someone to stay with you who may be tempted to leave, make it worth their while to stay by putting significant benefits in their middle-term future. Example:  A company is closing down a division and needs a few key players to stay engaged until the bitter end. They offer them significant bonuses to stay on to the final date, even though they could leave for a new job earlier.  An engineer is kept on a dull project by promising him that he will work on a sexy new project that is starting in six months time.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Golden Handcuffs Discussion:  When loyalty and the joy of the job are not enough to keep people, then they may need some financial or other rewards. However, paying them today could still lead them to leave. The promise of future reward, however, may be enough to keep them engaged.  The promised rewards cannot be too far out or they would not be enticing -- usually reasonable reward needs to be within a twelve- month timeframe.  When a reward is gained, this could be a point at which the person leaves. If you want them to stay, you may need to keep a rolling handcuff system.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Institutionalization Method:  Make changes stick by building them into the formal fabric of the organization, for example:  Make them an organizational standard, building them into the systems of standards.  Put them or aspects of them into the primary strategic plan.  Build them into people personal objectives.  Ensure people are assessed against them in personal reviews.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Institutionalization Example:  An R&D organization creates a review process to be implemented before products are released to manufacturing. They put the process into their ISO9000 system, which ensures it goes through the organizational audit system and any non- conformances will be identified.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Institutionalization Discussion:  The formal systems and structures within the organization are those which are not optional. People do them because they are business as usual and because they will be criticized or otherwise punished if they fail to do them.  After a while, institutionalized items become so entrenched, people forget to resist and just do what is required, even if they do not agree with them.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Involvement Method:  Get them involved in the change. Invite them to participate in discussions. Give them things to do. Example:  A manager whose cooperation with change is essential is given a leading role where they are co-opted onto the main steering committee and are required to go out to various places in the organization and help persuade others.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Involvement Discussion:  When people are a part of something, they bond with it, making it a part of their identity. When they become attached then they attach their fate and objectives with that something.  In this way, when they attach themselves to a change, if the change succeeds, they succeed, and vice versa. In some sense, they become the change and the change becomes them -- this is what full bonding is: an undifferentiated merging of identities.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Management by Objectives (MBO) Method:  Set formal objectives for people that they will have to achieve, but do not tell them how they have to achieve this.  In particular, if you can, give people objectives that they can only achieve by working in the intended change.  Give them relatively free rein in how they go about achieving the objectives. Particularly if you want encourage a change in behaviour or attitude, then you might encourage them to look outside the box for creative new ways of achieving the objective.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Management by Objectives (MBO) Example:  A company that is seeking to get people to work more collaboratively than individually gives its people objectives that they cannot achieve alone. There is no explicit requirement to work together, but the people soon find that they only way to succeed is to collaborate. Discussion:  MBO uses a what-how approach. The people in question are told what to do, but not how. The how thus becomes a part of their contribution to a successful conclusion.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Management by Objectives (MBO) Discussion:  MBO has received bad press in the past. This is typically where it has been badly implemented, for example when managers used it as an excuse to give people tasks that were impossible. This may happen as a result of laziness on the part of the particular managers in question or may even be a deliberate ploy, such as to force people to work beyond their normal work hours.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Management Causality Mapping Method:  Here is a basic mapping that can be used. You can also get more complex (depending on what the team is ready to accept). A good sequence that minimizes resistance is as follows:  What the organization and my people say and do.  What thinking and choosing leads them to this.  What we as a management team say and do (is this the same as our people?)  Our methods of thinking and choosing that lead to our actions and words.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Management Causality Mapping  Pause here to reflect on discuss how what we say and do affects what the people in the organization say and do.  Next it is time to get personal:  What I say and do.  How I think and choose that leads to what I say and do.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Management Causality Mapping  When it is realized how dysfunctional current thinking and behaviour is, you can then move to discussing how these should change. Discussion:Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Management Causality Mapping Discussion:  This process is based first on the following simple model, that what people say and do is based on what they think and choose.  The extension to this (in the dotted lines in the first diagram) is that what people think and choose is based on what other people say and do, in particular significant others such as managers, friends and social leaders.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Open Space Method:  Gather up to several hundred people in a large, open space, such as a conference centre. You need at least half a day, although Open Space sessions can be up to three days long.  Explain the rules briefly and state the overall theme around which you want people to talk.  This should be very general and enable many different interests and concerns.  Individual people stand up, explain briefly a subject in which they are interested (for a big room, give them a microphone), write their name and the subject on a flipchart page, then sit down again. This process is continued until no more people want to stand up.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Open Space Example:  A company implementing a cultural change programme holds an Open Space session with the general theme of culture. Groups start talking about belief systems, management culture, trust, national differences and so on.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Open Space Discussion:  Open Space (or, more fully, Open Space Technology, or OST) is a simple but very useful way of getting people to openly discuss issues that are of concern to them.  It started when Harrison Owen was running conferences and found that people preferred talking to others during the breaks than listening to speakers. He then began running conferences without speakers.  In change, this is useful for getting people talking together. For example, you can use it to get people to talk about their fears and concerns.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Rationalization Trap Method:  Get them doing something for some trivial reason. Ask them nicely. Put something in their way that they will naturally do.  Then help them explain to themselves why it is important and why they are doing it.  When they have bought doing small things, get them doing increasingly significant things.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Rationalization Trap Example:  A senior manager who has been doubtful is asked to speak at a meeting about the importance of a change project. She does so, and later is seen in a corridor, reinforcing the importance of the change with several other managers. With more encouragement and being given a slide set to help, they are soon presenting to the executive board on the subject.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Rationalization Trap Discussion:  People have a deep need for consistency, and when they do something they need to have consistency and alignment between their actions and their beliefs. When there is inconsistency, they must either change what they are doing or what they belief in order to restore consistency.  It is important that the person is unable to rationalize why they acted in this way by thinking about the encouragement they were given. Thus, for example, the person should not be paid or commanded to act, otherwise they may rationalize that they did it for the money or the boss, not because they really believed it was the right thing to do.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Re-education Method:  When making a change that requires different skills, provide education that ensures people have the skills and knowledge they need in their new jobs.  For knowledge education, you can use computer-based courses as well as more traditional methods. A good way of ensuring people have required knowledge is to put them through some form of test at the end.  For skill education, there is little substitute for actual practice, and education courses should included a significant practical element, for example with role-plays of the new situations.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Re-education Example:  An organization finds that sales have dipped significantly and so decide to re-train a number of office-based people in selling.  After putting them out on the road, several of these are still having difficulties, so further coaching is provided. Those few who are unable to change and who want to stay with the firm are re-integrated back into the office, albeit in lower salary positions.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Re-education Discussion:  A big question when you need new knowledge and skills is whether to fire and re-hire or to re-train your existing workforce. Fire and hire may seem cheaper, but there are also costs. Retraining can give great benefits in loyalty (even to those not affected).  On the other hand, re-training may not work. People may not have the appropriate aptitude (or motivation) and the result can be wasted money and incompetent workers.  To make this approach work, the people being trained should first be assessed both for aptitude, ability to learn and motivation.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Restructuring Method:  Reorganize. Change the shape of the organization in ways that force behavioural change.  Break up ineffective teams. Put moves and shakers in charge. Flatten the organization to stop micromanagement. Create self- managed teams to get people to take responsibility.  When doing this design work, think carefully about what behaviours it might create that are not so desirable. A good way of managing this is to create interlocking feedback systems to prevent deviation from desired behaviour.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Restructuring Example:  A car manufacturer breaks work into separate units and gives them to teams. It then publicizes the quality of the work of all teams. Teams compete to have the best quality and, of course, overall quality goes up!!Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Restructuring Discussion:  Just as function follows form, so also will changing the shape of the organization will change how people behave.  Groups that can cohere into separate units are likely to become very internally motivated. Motivation is good, but the internal facing may be away from the organization, so you must ensure that group goals are aligned, for example by regular external communications.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Reward Alignment Method:  When you make a change, ensure that you align the reward system with the changes that you want to happen. Example:  A company wants to increase team working. To support this, they remove individual bonuses and only give bonuses for team success.  An organization that wants to increase its customer base, pays sales people for each new customer they gain. They also want to retain customers, so they also cut bonuses when a customer assigned to a sales person defects to a competitor.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Reward Alignment Discussion:  A surprisingly common trap in change is to ask (or even demand) that people change, yet the reward system that is driving their behavior is not changed. Requesting teamwork and rewarding individuals is a very common example.  Many people are driven by extrinsic rewards, and the saying Show me how Im paid and Ill show you how I behave is surprisingly common.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Rites of Passage Method:  When a change is completed, celebrate with a party or some other ritualized recognition of the passing of a key milestone.  You can also start a change with a wake (which is a party that is held to celebrate the life of someone who has died) to symbolize letting go of the past.  Create new rituals to help shift the culture to a new form. Use these, if possible, to replace the rituals that already exist.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Rites of Passage Example:  When an acquisition begins a change, a ritual celebration is used to mark the passing of the old organization, in which the events and heroes of that time are marked out and recognized.  Whenever a training class is completed in a change program, all people on the class are given a certificate by the CEO of the company, who congratulates them on joining the new company.  An airline changes the standard set of greetings that are used with customers, both to symbolize the new approach and also to embody new philosophies.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Rites of Passage Discussion:  Rituals are symbolic acts to which we attribute significant meaning. A celebration to mark a change is used in many cultures, ranging from rites of passage to manhood for aboriginal tribes to the wedding ceremonies of Christian and other religions. Such ritual passings are often remembered with great nostalgia, and even the remembrance of them becomes ritualized.  Ritual allows people to acknowledge and move on, letting go of a past that has had an emotional tie that may be have been holding them back.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Setting Goals Method:  Set the person a goal or formal objective that requires them to change.  Goal-setting may be used incrementally, where you set the person a goal to do something that forces them to let go of some small thing. Then you set a further goal and then one further again. In this way, you are getting the person to walk by focusing on one step at a time.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Setting Goals Example:  A person is given a formal objective to redesign their working practices to come into line with new company regulations.  A marketing manager is given the objective to introduce a new direct-sales method.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Setting Goals Discussion:  The principle here is to use the organizational goal-setting process to motivate people to change. If I give you an objective to do something that you have never done before, then you will need let go of something you have now in order to do that new thing.  When a person does something, they have to justify it to themselves. When they do something that is outside of their beliefs then they have to either discount it or maintain consistency by changing their beliefs. Thus just getting somebody to act may be enough to change them.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Shift-and-Sync Method:  Make a planned set of changes and then pause to make sure the whole system is still working. Fix small problems to ensure the whole show is still working together as one before setting off on the next change. Example:  An organization which is slimming down its headquarters does it one department at a time, with a one month break between each departmental restructuring. During this time, remote divisions are scanned to see what changes they feel, and the structure of the department just changed may be readjusted to optimize service.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Socializing Method:  Seal changes by building them into the social structures.  Give social leaders prominent positions in the change. When they feel ownership for it, they will talk about it and sell it to others.  Create rituals, utilize artifacts and otherwise build it into the culture. Example:  An organization that is introducing new working practices gets the trade union engaged (after a long negotiation), including giving its officials a new and more prominent role. Before long, all dissent disappears.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Shift-and-Sync Discussion:  A danger with large changes is that when things stabilize again, although parts of the system may work -- even the whole of the part that was changed, it is possible that the change may now be out of sync with its environment.  Shift-and-sync is a method used in software development, where changes to a large software product are regularly realigned and tested, to ensure that the system does not lose connection with its environment. The same principle is used here in human change, where small changes are punctuated with pauses to resynchronize and realign.  Pauses in a change program are also very helpful for letting people recover from the tension of change.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Socializing Discussion:  Society is almost invisible and people accept its rules without even noticing that they are doing so. A change that is socialized becomes normal and the way things are.  When something becomes a social norm, people will be far more unlikely to oppose it as to do so is to oppose the group and its leaders.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Spill and Fill Method:  When you are starting up a new organization and closing down an old organization, do this in a tapered way, moving a few people over at a time. Be careful here with your best people: they both need to be involved in setting up the new organization and also nursing the old organization to its grave, ensuring a smooth handover.  If you can, do the move in planned phases of activity, proving each new part before you move people over to the next phase.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Spill and Fill Example:  A manufacturer is closing down one production line and opening up another. They start by moving only a few key people over to get the new line set up. They then move more to prototype and prove the operational processes. Then they slow down the old line as they move people over to start up the new line. As the new line gains speed, people are continually moved across.  Some of the best people are retained on the old line to keep it going to the end and to work in the various different roles that are left open. They are rewarded with a bonus for their loyalty and given good roles when they finally move over.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Spill and Fill Discussion:  This approach does not suit all change situations -- it works only where there is a move between two organizations, and when this move can be done gradually.  A benefit of this approach is being able to provide a smooth change. This is particularly important if both organizations are delivering a product or service to a single customer base. The stepwise approach also allows each new change to be trialed and proven before the next stage. Doing a change all in one can be rather risky, as failure of the new organization can be disastrous.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Stepwise Change Method:  Have clear steps in the change. Break the work into distinct packages and talk about each separately. Communicate about the change not as a single, monolithic entity, but as a set of activities, each of which gains specific value.  When a step has been completed, tie up all the loose ends and celebrate the completion almost as if it were the end of the change. Then start the next step.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Stepwise Change Example:  A company that is introducing new IT systems breaks the change work down by introducing one package at a time. It also does this in pieces for separate departments. At the end of each implementation, they have a celebratory lunch.  A company developing a new product brings it to market initially as a simple device that is easy to understand. Then each new version adds increasing functionality.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Stepwise Change Discussion:  Video game manufacturers know how to attract and keep the attention of people in a challenging game. A key trick they use is to break the game down into stages and levels. After a quest or fight, there is a period of respite. The player gains treasure and experience points and goes up to the next level. They also get a sense of closure about the previous stage and can look forward to what comes next.  Breaking things down into individual and separate steps has a number of advantages.  Smaller changes are easier to plan and manage. With less interdependencies, each step is a coherent whole and is less likely to unravel.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Stepwise Change Discussion:  When people look at a big change, they are easily overwhelmed by the size of it and cannot see past the endless pain and suffering they associate with it. When things are broken down into smaller pieces, and especially when most talk and attention is about the next stage, then it does not look anywhere near as bad.  A pause between stages gives time to re-think and replan. When you are in the thick of the change, things can start to unravel and you have insufficient time to regroup.  Ending a stage with a celebration lets people pause and relax. It also helps create a sense of closure and reduces any tendency to revert to old ways.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Visioning Method:  Create a motivating vision of the future.  Share it with others.  Live it until it comes true. Example:  A management team creates a vision of their company winning an industry award for excellence. This results in them setting up a small team to study what is needed, which leads to a program of change in which they improve significantly. When they win the award, it is secondary.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Visioning Discussion:  Visions work only when they act to motivate and inspire the large numbers of people that are needed to make the change happen. For the vision to be motivating, then it must be memorable. For it to be memorable, it must be surprising and short. To be surprising, it should be different from everyone elses vision. To be believed, it must be a regular part of the conversation of senior people.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Whole-System Planning Method:  Gather together the participants in the Whole-system Planning in a large room, where everyone can work together as equals. The number of people are sufficient to represent all groups, but small enough to discuss matters as a whole. Typically, this ranges from 20 upwards, sometimes to several hundred, although 50 may be a more normal number. It is also important that there are people from all areas who can make serious decisions and take away actions with them.  The format and content may vary significantly, but here is a common framing.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Whole-System Planning Past:  The first day is focused on the past. Delegates tell stories of success and struggles. The older members of the company tell about its beginnings and the wild days. Younger members tell how it was to join more recently. The past is honored and recalled with its full range of emotion, from nostalgia to humor and also to the less comfortable times. Depending on the age of the company, this section may be shorter, but it must not be made too short.  Attention to the past also can be used to take a view of the culture of the organization, understanding its roots and why it holds its present form.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Whole-System Planning Present:  The next day is focused on the present. The external forces on the organization are explored. Competitors, new legislation, technical changes, environmental effects, the pressures of globalization are all looked at openly. Customers and markets are also considered, with information about how market share is going up or down, how products and services are faring, what customers are saying about the company (quotes and examples are good here). Focus then moves further in, to how the organization is responding to these forces, how it is coping, how it is structured. Strengths and weaknesses are explored, in all departments as well as in the leadership.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Whole-System Planning Future:  Finally, on the third day, the focus is on the future. This may well start with a visioning exercise to determine a desired future state. This vision is shared and developed and given local meaning for all involved.  Plans are then built to reach from today to this desirable future. These may start with overall strategic thoughts, developed collaboratively, then broken down into more localized plans that are discussed in smaller groups.  Finally, the management structure for how the changes will be assured is identified, for example with a regular re-convening of key members of this group and perhaps less frequent full conferences to re-synchronize and re-plan as needed.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Whole-System Planning Example:  An organization that includes many diverse and powerful sub- groups uses a Whole-system Planning conference to bring these people together to understand one another and build the main bones of a plan to realign the organization around current and future realities. Discussion:  The Whole-system Planning approach is particularly useful for collaborative change settings where you want to engage a large audience in actively planning for the future and then taking forward those actions.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Whole-System Planning Discussion:  Celebrating the past can seem like a waste of time, but it has several benefits. First, it is an excellent socializing process. It brings people together in a common frame. It also plays strongly to older members of the group, many of whom may have strong social, if not political, influence. When they feel recognized, people from this group who may resist are far more likely to now collaborate. It is also an easy beginning to presage the increasingly hard work beyond. Having invested in this, people will already feel a part of the change. This activity also tends to show how everyone is intimately connected in many ways, and that any one individual cannot hide or sit back whilst others take the heat.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  • Whole-System Planning Discussion:  A focus on the present identifies the current issues from which there is no escape. It highlights the inescapable burning platform which forces people to contemplate change. It also identifies those things which are good and which must be kept.  Of course not all plans may be created in detail, but the overall shape can be built together. In particular, where there are interdependencies, having everyone in the same room lets you quickly and easily walk across to another table to negotiate and agree how you will work together.  There are a number of variants on the principle of Whole-system Planning, including Search Conference, Future Search and Real-time Strategic Change.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
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