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LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE          MANAGEMENT          REFLECT YOUR MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS          WITHIN AN ORGANISATION  ...
Reflect your Managerial                 Effectiveness within an                                                      Organ...
Objectives                 After today you all                   will know what is                   expected of you      ...
What Is the Meaning of Managerial Effectiveness?      Managerial effectiveness is a leader’s       ability to achieve des...
Transformation of a Managerial Role   Traditionally, performance has been    viewed as a function of ability and    motiv...
Gauging Managerial Effectiveness      Managerial effectiveness is gauged by the results a       leader achieves.      Re...
The Skills of an Effective Manager      Technical, People and conceptual skills that can make him       an effective lead...
The Skills of an Effective Manager     They include the ability to see the organization in the      context of its indust...
Achieving Results    Senior management is responsible for identifying the     core competencies of the organization.    ...
An Example of Managerial Effectiveness      The results of a marketing project led by a finance       manager, for exampl...
A Competitive Edge      Managerial effectiveness has the potential of       creating efficiencies that create a sustainab...
McGregor’s Theories, X & Y Theory X is the carrot-and-stick assumptions:  The average person is lazy and has an inherent ...
McGregor’s Theories, X & Y   Theory Y is the integration of individual and     Organisational   goals:      For most peop...
Theory Z by Ouchi   Theory Z organization is described by:      Long-term employment, often for a lifetime      Relative...
8 Styles of Managerial Behaviour      According to Reddin (1970) in his 3-D model of managerial effectiveness there are   ...
Embracing change      Less-Effective Managers                   Highly Effective Managers         Dislike change         ...
Attending to External Realities      Less-Effective Managers                   Highly Effective Managers         Focus th...
Creating Power      Less-Effective Managers                   Highly Effective Managers         Consider their power to g...
Promoting a coaching style      Less-Effective Managers                 Highly Effective Managers         Spend relativel...
Expanding Job Responsibilities      Less-Effective Managers                 Highly Effective Managers         See their p...
Creating ExpertiseLess-Effective Managers                        Highly Effective Managers   Recognize the importance of ...
Driving Out Fear Less-Effective Managers                        Highly Effective Managers    Work from a primitive philos...
Exhibiting Readiness as An Entrepreneur Less-Effective Managers                      Highly Effective Managers    Want in...
Keeping Balance Less-Effective Managers                      Highly Effective Managers    Seldom distinguish consequentia...
Demonstrating Emotional Maturity Less-Effective Managers                        Highly Effective Managers    Have difficu...
Providing the Long-Term View Less-Effective Managers                      Highly Effective Managers    Even those who tal...
Standing for An Idea Less-Effective Managers                       Highly Effective Managers    Are unaware of what value...
What is Expected of an Effective Manager?       The constant changes around us demand new behaviours and        actions. ...
Effectiveness – Comparing Management and Leadership                     MANAGEMENT                              LEADERSHIP...
Top 10 skills, Managers Need for Organizational Success       INTER PERSONAL                             ADVISING      ...
Then and Now   Reductionism                 “The New                      Holism   Parts                                  ...
Quote            “None of us is as smart as all of                          us.”                                          ...
References         Laurie J Mullins (2007) Management and Organisational behaviour, 7th edition         Richard L Daft (...
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Leadership & change management, lecture 4, by rahat kazmi

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This Lecture was prepared for my MBA students in London. It will benefit students, lecturers or managers who like to polish up their leadership skills. Feel Free to download this lecture in pdf, however, if you need the ppt slides, please send me a payment of £1 by paypal at: srahatkazmi@gmail.com and I will happy to send you the lecture.


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  1. 1. LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT REFLECT YOUR MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS WITHIN AN ORGANISATION LECTURE 2 BY RAHAT KAZMI PREPARED BY: RAHAT KAZMI SEPTEMBER 2010Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  2. 2. Reflect your Managerial Effectiveness within an OrganisationFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  3. 3. Objectives After today you all will know what is expected of you in an organisation towards your managerial effectivenessFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  4. 4. What Is the Meaning of Managerial Effectiveness?  Managerial effectiveness is a leader’s ability to achieve desired results.  How well he applies his skills and abilities in guiding and directing others determines whether he can meet those results effectively.  If he can, his achievements are poised to help the organization gain a competitive edge against rival organizations heading into the future.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  5. 5. Transformation of a Managerial Role Traditionally, performance has been viewed as a function of ability and motivation. Failure to boost performance reflects not a lack of motivation or ability, but an inaccurate reading of the managers role. Role of a Manager has changed significantly from what was needed yesterday. Especially in our fast-paced, information-limited, and highly competitive technology-based organizations.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  6. 6. Gauging Managerial Effectiveness  Managerial effectiveness is gauged by the results a leader achieves.  Results are generally believed to be influenced by the organization’s established culture.  A good leader must adapt to the organization’s culture and make sure her skills are aligned with organizational goals in order to achieve positive results.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  7. 7. The Skills of an Effective Manager  Technical, People and conceptual skills that can make him an effective leader, according to theoretical models of leadership.  Technical skills include specialized training, skilled performance of specific tasks, expertise in a specific field or industry and the ability to apply specialized knowledge to tasks and objectives.  People skills include the ability to work well with others, motivate workers, resolve conflicts, delegate roles and communicate objectives clearly.  Conceptual skills are broader and more self-actualized.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  8. 8. The Skills of an Effective Manager  They include the ability to see the organization in the context of its industry.  The ability to understand how each part of the organization functions as a whole.  The ability to visualize a future course of action based on current organizational and industry trends.  The ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations.  The ability to understand the interrelationships at work in the organization.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  9. 9. Achieving Results  Senior management is responsible for identifying the core competencies of the organization.  And making sure those competencies are complemented by its managers and its overall workforce.  It is up to senior management to strategically place a manager in the department where his/her skills and competencies will reflect the current and future needs of the organization.  In order to effectively achieve results that benefit the organization in the short- and long-run.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  10. 10. An Example of Managerial Effectiveness  The results of a marketing project led by a finance manager, for example, would not be as strong as the results achieved by a marketing manager  who is well-versed in market strategy and research. Choices such as these significantly affect an organizations overall performance.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  11. 11. A Competitive Edge  Managerial effectiveness has the potential of creating efficiencies that create a sustainable competitive advantage against rival organizations.  And increase opportunities for future enterprise.  It also fosters individual growth in the manager and his/her followers  And, over time, generates shareholder value for the organization.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  12. 12. McGregor’s Theories, X & Y Theory X is the carrot-and-stick assumptions:  The average person is lazy and has an inherent dislike of work  Most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened  The average person accepts responsibility, prefers to be directed, lacks ambition and values security.  Motivation occurs only at the physiological and security levels The central principle of theory x is direction and control Using a centralised system of organisationFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  13. 13. McGregor’s Theories, X & Y Theory Y is the integration of individual and Organisational goals:  For most people work is as natural as play and rest  People will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed  Given the right conditions, the average worker can learn to accept and to seek responsibility. Mullins (2007)Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  14. 14. Theory Z by Ouchi Theory Z organization is described by:  Long-term employment, often for a lifetime  Relatively slow process of evaluation and promotion  Development of company specific skills, and moderately specialised career path  Participative decision-making by consensusFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  15. 15. 8 Styles of Managerial Behaviour According to Reddin (1970) in his 3-D model of managerial effectiveness there are eight styles of managerial behaviour-four effective and four ineffective styles More effective style in terms Less effective styles in terms of tasks and relationships: of tasks and relationships:  Bureaucratic-main interest is in  Deserter-passive and negative rules and procedures manager  Benevolent autocrat-managers  Autocrat-lacks confidence in achieve tasks without resentments others. Interested only in tasks  Developer-having implicit trust in  Missionary-interest lies only in people to develop them preserving harmony  Executive-a good motivator, sets  Compromiser-too easily high standards, favours teams influenced by pressure. A poor decision makerFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  16. 16. Embracing change Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  Dislike change  In contrast, recognize  Prefer predictability turbulence, flux, and ambiguity as facts of life.  Order and stability.  They know the environment  They believe that turbulence will never "settle down.“ in their firms is temporary.  Many of these managers are  They blame it on senior energized by turbulence, management. because it creates  They prefer to wait until opportunities. "things settle down“ before  Some of these Managers tackling big problems. would soon be bored by a predictable, stable work situation.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  17. 17. Attending to External Realities Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  Focus their time and  Attend to the organization, attention on the routines of they are trying to accelerate the internal organization. it and cut the bureaucracy.  Their memos and meetings  In addition, much of their revolve around budget attention, in and out of variances, paper flow, meetings and memos, procedures, and personnel. focuses on external issues.  They are hypersensitive to  Such as changes in markets company politics and technology.  Many take it upon themselves to regularly meet with customers, suppliers, and consultants.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  18. 18. Creating Power Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  Consider their power to get  Distinguish formal authority things done severely limited. and power.  They believe that real power  They recognize that top resides with top management. management has more formal  They say, "It doesnt pay to try authority. to get things done until senior  They believe that power, like management gets its act respect, is earned, not given together." out.  They also believe that power  Since these managers view comes from job titles and power as the ability to positions on organizational influence people and get things charts. done.  Anyone can have power.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  19. 19. Promoting a coaching style Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  Spend relatively little time  Want people to devise new coaching their people. ways to do things.  They see coaching in terms  Encourage them to "challenge of delegation. the system" .  Assigning well-defined tasks  With an eye to improving and carefully following up. efficiency, containing costs,  Under this kind of leadership and enhancing revenue. staff leave their brains at  Once they outline the home fundamental dos and donts:  these managers get out of the wayFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  20. 20. Expanding Job Responsibilities Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  See their primary responsibility  Envision opportunities and as meeting the demands of accomplishments. bosses, job descriptions, and  Seek out and grab new annual goals. responsibilities.  They assume that it’s up to the  They constantly think about how boss to expand their job they can make things better. responsibilities and goals.  In effect, they’re continually  And often complain of being in reshaping their jobs. dead-end positions.  When responsibilities are increased, they often complain about feeling overburdened.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  21. 21. Creating ExpertiseLess-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers Recognize the importance of expertise  See their roles as developing experts but are "too busy" to grow (or hire) it. and expertise throughout the organization. They see developing expertise as someone elses job.  They promote specific skills and "deep talent" in everything from computers to They discourage curiosity (under the business literacy. guise of "keeping people focused").  They encourage subordinates to find applications for new technologies. Discourage efforts to keep abreast of developments in the technical field, the  Promote mentoring and education programs to ensure professional company, and the industry. vitality. In dealing with lower levels and other  They concentrate on helping people departments, they see their role as understand the business and emphasize moderating and filtering information the importance of widening information flow. flow.  And building internal systems to pump This will give people what they need to more knowledge through the know to do "most things right." organization.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  22. 22. Driving Out Fear Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  Work from a primitive philosophy of  Acknowledge the corrosive effect of fear. fear  While they keep high standards and exhibit  They think fear is the best motivator in a sense of urgency. business.  Making it safer to challenge the process so  They also use— as a matter of style— long as it’ll benefit organizational goals. intimidation, rudeness, abruptness,  They’re comfortable working with individuals with ideas and values. broken promises, a rush to judgment.  They see their role as defusing personal  A general tone of "the workplace is a fears about confrontation, loss of influence, jungle." and being left behind by changes in technology and organizational structure.  Use fear to "motivate" others.  They use a variety of techniques, including  Demonstrate their own fears by open-door policies, supportive feedback, dampening others ideas. and training programs.  Especially when they differ from the  They believe leaders must reduce fear and prevent it from enhancing the workplace managers preferences, or from and implementing change. standard operating procedures.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  23. 23. Exhibiting Readiness as An Entrepreneur Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  Want initiative and creativity from  Want initiative and creativity from their their work associates. work associates .  Speak of their employees need to  Speak of their employees need to "think and act like businesspeople.“ "think and act like businesspeople .  Typically refuse to share financial  See their role as developing a culture in which everyone has the information to details with other levels and make decisions and take risks. departments.  Are compensated for getting the  Guard the processes for allocating information and acting on it. resources.  Know this approach flies in the face of traditional compensation schemes.  Don’t share decisions about alliance  Organize projects to encourage opportunities and results of marketing ownership and accountability by the or competitive analysis studies before group doing the work. thoroughly scrubbing them.  They constantly seek to find and strengthen ways to enable and motivate everyone in the group to act as an ownerFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  24. 24. Keeping Balance Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  Seldom distinguish consequential  Distinguish high- and low-impact changes from insignificant ones. interventions.  Often they “play it safe” while  They recognize that high-impact appearing busy. change often involves a restructuring  For example, one director saw of operations. switching to a different vendor as a  Not just manipulation of superficial high-impact change even as he forms. stayed with the same unresponsive distribution channel.  For example, they’re reluctant to layer new technology on an old system, at  Fiddle around the edges of a least until the process is overhauled. problem, psychologically "hanging out in familiar places."Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  25. 25. Demonstrating Emotional Maturity Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  Have difficulty maintaining their  Project a combination of urgency, composure under stress. passion, composure, and confidence  Allow their immediate personal needs during tough times. to distort the way they see themselves  Are not afraid to work collegially with as managers. anyone (regardless of department or  They’re also turf- and status-conscious. level).  They see little value in mingling with  Or doing whatever is needed to get people in “lower” levels and pitching the job done in to perform non traditional tasks during a crunch.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  26. 26. Providing the Long-Term View Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  Even those who talk about “vision,”  Also talk about vision, but their seem unable to draw a coherent, approach is to make and share best practical “big picture” context for bets about where the world is going. themselves or their colleagues.  Know where the organization ought to  They doubt the value of providing go, and how all that might affect shape and overview to events. daily work.  They invite discussion of changes in technology, markets, and the business environment.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  27. 27. Standing for An Idea Less-Effective Managers Highly Effective Managers  Are unaware of what values they  Stand for one or two ideas—self- represent. management or speed.  Short of “making plans” or “meeting  Are tough, persistent, and consistent in budget.” how they express those ideas.  There’s little coherence in the pattern  They’re also eager to enrol others in of their decisions. the same point of view.  On one hand, they seem to favour  They go to great lengths to avoid everything—cost-reduction, quality, acting or appearing opportunistic. innovation, service—but their decisions lack consistency and continuity.  Indeed, they often take contradictory positions, depending on the political circumstances, and are susceptible to programs-of-the-monthFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  28. 28. What is Expected of an Effective Manager?  The constant changes around us demand new behaviours and actions.  It’s much more critical that we understand how our management style influences our effectiveness.  Without an accurate perception of our roles, all the advice and how-to’s in the world are worthless.  Inaccurate role perception explains why so many mangers-- no matter how many seminars they attend and management tapes they audit--can’t translate their knowledge into higher job performance.  And if they dont understand their role, managers wont be able to accumulate the skills and capacities they need to channel their motivation in the right direction, let alone to motivate others toward the proper goals.Follow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  29. 29. Effectiveness – Comparing Management and Leadership MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP Creating vision and Planning and Budgeting . DIRECTION Keeping an eye on the Bottom line Strategy. Keeping eye on horizon Organizing and staffing Creating short culture and values ALIGNMENT Directing and controlling Helping others Grow Creating boundaries Reducing Boundaries Focusing on Objects – Producing / Focusing on people – inspiring Selling Goods and services And motivating followers RELATIONSHIPS Based on position power Based on personal power Acting as Boss Acting as Coach , facilitator , servant Emotional distance Emotional Connections (Heart) PERSONAL Expert mind Open mind (mindfulness) Talking Listening ( communication) QUALITIES Conformity Non Conformity (Courage) Insight in to Organization Insight in to self ( integrity) Creates Change , OUTCOMES Maintains stability often radical change
  30. 30. Top 10 skills, Managers Need for Organizational Success  INTER PERSONAL  ADVISING  LISTENING  INTERVIEWING  PERSUASION /  CONFLCIT MOTIVATION MANAGEMENT  PRESENTATION  WRITING  SMALL GROUP  READING COMMUNICATION The above is according to a survey of Top Fortune 1000 companiesFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  31. 31. Then and Now Reductionism “The New Holism Parts Whole Structured Corporate Creative Rational Skillset!” Intuitive Prove it! Open mind Hierarchy Synergy Categories Individuals Left Right Seperate Connected Future/past brain brain Now Precise Chaotic Static Logical Intuitive Dynamic Male Sequential Imagination Female Rational Emotional Nosy Selfcorrecting Analytical Synthesizing Seperate notes Objective Subjective Harmony Mechanic Looks at parts Holistic OrganicFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com Paul Wilson
  32. 32. Quote “None of us is as smart as all of us.” Warren BennisFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
  33. 33. References  Laurie J Mullins (2007) Management and Organisational behaviour, 7th edition  Richard L Daft (2007) Organization theory and design, 8th edition  John Pearson and Robinson (2005) Strategic management; Formulation, implementation and control, 7th edition  IAM Diploma in Administrative Management: Study guideFollow him on Twitter: twitter.com/srahatkazmi orJoin Facebook Fan’s page : facebook.com/TrainingConsultantVist the website: www.softskillsexperts.com
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