The Tourism Industry <ul><li>The tourism industry is one of the biggest industries in the world today. a multi-billion-dollar industry with 700 million international travellers per year around the world. Tourism is a motor for employment and income creation and, especially in poor countries, a vehicle for development. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1950 -2004 the number of international tourist arrivals has risen from 30,000,000 to over 700,000,000 each year. And over half of these arrivals happened in Europe. In 2004, 400,000,000 people arrived in European countries, compared to the second biggest tourist area, America, with only 100,000,00 arrivers. Being able to travel all over the world opens opportunities that we've never had before. We can travel to India, Asia, America, Australia, anywhere on the world just to enjoy ourselves. However we don’t travel just for fun. Many people move to countries for employment as where they live they cant find jobs or the pay is not high enough. By moving to a popular tourist area such as Spain, workers can get jobs as cleaners and hotel workers. Many jobs to do with tourism are in the tertiary sector which means that they are providing services for tourists and without tourism, hundreds of thousands of people would lose their jobs. </li></ul>Money spent by tourist in 2000
How Has Tourism Changed? <ul><li>There have been many changes in tourism over the years. The main cause of this change is the fact people have more money to travel further and technology has evolved to allow us to travel practically anywhere in the world. Tourism has continuously risen since 1950 and it will continue to rise to around 1,580,000,000 international tourist arrivals by 2020 . </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, across the global economy, travel and tourism accounted for around 11 per cent of world exports, goods and services, surpassing trade in food, textiles, and chemicals. </li></ul>
Advantages <ul><li>Advantages for tourism: </li></ul><ul><li>Money and Income: each year millions of pounds are generated by tourism. LEDC’s really benefit from this money as it is one of the only sources of income for their countries. Without tourism these countries would be in even more debt and poverty than they are to day. For this reason, tourism is an excellent money provider. With tourism a country can quite easily change from a LEDC to a MEDC. Also MEDC’s also rely on LEDC’s. Without these countries, the MEDC’s would have to grow the businesses in there own countries, which would generate less profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Local businesses: local businesses get a chance to sell their products on a larger scale. For example fishermen. The can sell their products at a higher price because tourist are willing to pay more for fresh, traditional produce. This means the fishermen can get more profit and can benefit by buying a larger boat to get more fish. The only problem is that they may lose their local customers and because many people would be fishing more, there would be a much greater risk of over fishing throughout the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs all year round: Tourism provides jobs all year round, for people of all ages. For example in the Alps, in the winter people can get jobs as ski, or snowboard instructors. And in the summer they could be tour guides on mountain trails., because jobs are available all year round, more money is produces annually, which is good for the country. Some countries and resorts like St Ives, which is in the south west of England, have seasonal jobs, like shops on the beach front, which tend to usually generate more money in the hotter months. In places that have seasonal jobs, on average the number of un employed people goes up as the number of tourists goes down. </li></ul>As the night that tourists stay decreases, the unemployment rises. 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 Number of nights tourists stayed Un employed in thousands 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
<ul><li>Links countries together: The more people visit a country, the more known it becomes. 50 years a go hardly anyone had heard of the Maldives, however nowadays it’s a popular resort. But not only can we use tourism for travelling , but tourism can be used to link countries together. Mainly because of trade. For example, coffee is a world wide selling product , but it can only be grown in hot countries, therefore the coffee farmers can ship their products round the world. Businesses can increase from more people buying their produce which will benefit thousands of families. Tourism can generate money for countries, people and conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Eco friendly projects: More and more people are becoming aware of how global warming is such an issues. We can understand that our homes will flood and that temperatures will rise. Because of this many countries are now trying to resort to eco friendly projects which are sustainable. For example in Peru ,in the north of South Africa, is trying to create a reserve. A Reserve is a place set aside for a for a purpose, e.g. a nature reserve. By doing this the eco-tourist companies (tourists who focus on plants and environmental issues.) are involving local businesses and local residents get around 60%orf the profit created by the reserve. Locals can use their skills and knowledge of the area by becoming tour guides and setting up businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is a massive part of culture: loads of people come to Europe for its tourist attractions and famous landmarks. People travel across the world to see places like the: </li></ul><ul><li>Grand canyon </li></ul><ul><li>Theme parks in Orlando- Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Paris – Eiffel Tower </li></ul><ul><li>Rome – Coliseum </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney Opera House- Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Without tourism we would never experience change of culture, see amazing sights or have change in temperatures. </li></ul>Advantages continued…
What are the disadvantages? <ul><li>There are many disadvantages with tourism: </li></ul><ul><li>Litter: dropping litter destroys the environment and can harm animals. Every year beaches in Spain and other coastal resorts have to spend millions on getting beaches cleaned every night, so that they are welcoming to tourists in the morning. Leaving rubbish can also harm wildlife, for example: animals can get caught in carrier bags. We could save a lot of money if tourists just binned their rubbish rather than dropped it on the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming: ( see global warming page ) I feel one of the main problems with tourism is global warming. Every time a plane flies in the sky it releases Co 2 (carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere. Co 2 is one of the main contributors to temperature rise. Unfortunately, planes produce far more carbon dioxide (CO2) than any other form of public transport, and CO2 is now known to be a greenhouse gas, a gas which traps the heat of the sun, causing the temperature of the Earth to rise. Scientists predict that in the near future the climate in Britain will resemble that of the Mediterranean, ironically a popular destination for British holidaymakers flying off to seek the sun. If global warming continues, we may also find that many tourist destinations such as The Maldives ( see Maldives page ) have disappeared under water because of rising sea levels. This means damage costs will rise and prices of holidays will rise dramatically. </li></ul><ul><li>Low paid jobs: many people move countries to get jobs in popular holiday resorts such as Benedorm. Hotels are prepared to pay their staff next to nothing in order to get as much profit as possible. Staff never complain because they'll just be fired and someone else would take their place. They work around 12 hours a day and are paid only a few pounds. However all the money that's collected from low paid jobs may not go to the locals. Many MEDC’s set up their business in LEDC’s such as shops and hotels, to get extra profit. They pay the locals less for buildings to rent for their businesses then charge tourists loads of money for their products. The LEDC’s can’t compete with the huge businesses so the profit all goes back to the richer countries. </li></ul>
What are the disadvantages? Continued… <ul><li>Loss of tradition: small countries such as Jamaica are experiencing a loss of tradition along with many other small islands. When tourist come to these places they like to see a change of culture, that’s mainly why they visit. However the busier the islands get , the more hotels and resorts have to be built to accommodate the tourists. This means more and more farming land and local business have to be destroyed , leading to a lack of tradition. People who still have traditional jobs like carving coral and wood, can barely survive as people aren’t prepared to pay for their products. This means they have to change to a life which they aren't familiar with and have to work in hotels. Tourism is changing the way these people live and it’s not for the better. Many companies, like airports argue that the way of life in smaller countries should be replaced as they feel that the countries would benefit from becoming MEDC’s. However manta locals disagree. </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet areas over crowded: small areas of land can soon turn into churning cities of hotels and people. All of this happens because of tourism. This can also be related to Environmental damage. Deforestation occurs all the time to make room for hotels and houses, to accommodate more and more people. Each year , around 5,00o hectares- an area about half the size of Paris are cleared, for example: golf courses. Without tress the level of carbon dioxide will raise more, as there wont be any trees to use it and in return give out oxygen. This will also increase temperature rise all over the world. Sea levels will rise and small islands like the Maldives will no longer exist. By carrying on the way we are with tourism, some of the most amazing and most inspirational places on earth will be destroyed and all because of us. There wont be such things as the Everglades or the Keys, or there wont be mountains As the snow will always be melted (see Alps page). Is this a world that we want to live in? </li></ul>
Global Warming <ul><li>Global warming is one of the ,most talked about issues. </li></ul><ul><li>What causes global warming? Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Coal-burning power plants are the largest U.S. source of carbon dioxide pollution -- they produce 2.5 billion tons every year. Automobiles, the second largest source, create nearly 1.5 billion tons of CO2 annually. Here's the good news: technologies exist today to make cars that run cleaner and burn less gas, modernize power plants and generate electricity from non-polluting sources, and cut our electricity use through energy efficiency. The challenge is to be sure these solutions are put to use. </li></ul>As you can see in the graph above, as the carbon dioxide levels rise, so does the temperature. Planes, factories and cars are huge producers of Carbon dioxide, which is steadily heating up our Earth, causing a huge amount of damage.
Key statistics <ul><li>Key Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Over 30% of the Earths natural landscape has been destroyed in just under 30 years! </li></ul><ul><li>• In 20 years, the number of international travellers alone will more than double from 700 million to 1.6 billion per year. </li></ul><ul><li>• The industry was growing worldwide over 4% </li></ul><ul><li>per year before the September 11 attacks in </li></ul><ul><li>The United States and is recovering rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>• International travellers and tourists spent some </li></ul><ul><li>$463 billion at their destinations in 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>• Over 200 million men and women worldwide are </li></ul><ul><li>estimated to work in the travel and tourism sector, equivalent to about 8% of global employment. </li></ul><ul><li>• Women make up 70% of the labour force in the tourism sector, and half the workers are age 25 or under. </li></ul><ul><li>Many tourists and tour operators are finding eco friendly alternative ways of travelling. </li></ul><ul><li>• One job in the direct tourism industry induces </li></ul><ul><li>roughly one-and-a-half additional (indirect) </li></ul><ul><li>jobs in the tourism-related economy. </li></ul><ul><li>• Around the world, between 13 and 19 million </li></ul><ul><li>people under 18 years of age work in an occupation </li></ul><ul><li>tied to tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>• It is estimated that two million children in the </li></ul><ul><li>world are victims of commercial sexual </li></ul><ul><li>exploitation. International tourism is the sector </li></ul><ul><li>where this evil can be effectively dealt with. </li></ul><ul><li>• A recent ILO report estimates that some nine </li></ul><ul><li>million workers in the global hotel and tourism </li></ul><ul><li>economy may have lost their jobs in the wake </li></ul><ul><li>of September 11 and the economic downturn in </li></ul><ul><li>2001-2002. </li></ul><ul><li>The logging of trees and Mining of reefs is a huge destruction to our natural habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Beaches are disappearing, FAST, when people leave the beach they collectively carry around 1 tonne of sand per week out of the beach on there feet! </li></ul>
The Alps <ul><li>People go to the alps to ski, snowboard, hike, bike and other activities all year round. In the winter it’s very cold because of the high altitude. Also it can be quite sunny. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism in the Alps is one of the largest industries, accounting for 6.3% of Austria's GDP in 1997. in Switzerland alone tourists bring in $10,000,000,000 a year! However the industry has been in decline for the past five years. </li></ul><ul><li>It is expected that as temperatures rise there will be a shortening of the snow season and a lower amount of precipitation. In many areas by 2020 snow fall will have decreased by 30% and 50% by 2050 if we carry on with the amount or global warming that occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Summer glacier skiing, a popular trend could be a thing of the past, while the winter ski season shrinks along with the snow line. Also melting glaciers can cause problems with rockslides and flooding. </li></ul>There is a lot of snowfall The snow is covering the mountain, not just the peak Only the mountain peak is covered in snow Further down the mountain, there is no snow, this means more people can farm and build houses .
Maldives <ul><li>People visit the Maldives because of the high temperatures, dry climate and beautiful beaches. The colourful corals are one of the main tourist attractions on the Maldives. </li></ul><ul><li>The benefits for tourists are that they get to see different cultures and do different activities they wouldn’t usually do. The mean temperature for the Maldives is 27 degrees Celsius. The Maldives are a tropical paradise but they wont be for long if global warming, mainly caused by tourism, continues. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the Maldives is only one metre above sea level. This means if the ice caps melt, the Maldives will be flooded and they will be gone forever! Do we really want this to happen? </li></ul>Beautiful clear seas One metre above sea level Blue skies and little cloud Flooding caused by increasing temperatures Cloudier skies and more rainfall
<ul><li>Overall I feel that tourism is an excellent idea. Being able to travel all over the world is perhaps one on the greatest successes that we’ve ever had. Today, we can experience different cultures and ways of life, that we wouldn’t otherwise be able to see. We can travel to countries with different climates and temperatures, from the hot, wet rainforests, the hot, dry Maldives to the cold Alps, compared to the weather in England. We can see world famous attractions like the Grand Canyon and the Eiffel Towel and we can generally just go on holiday for a good time with our families without the worries of home life. </li></ul><ul><li>However there are a few bad points about tourism. In LEDC's workers aren’t being paid enough. Local businesses are being cheated out of their profits just so MEDC’s can get some extra cash. They are risking the lives of people just for some money. If we carry on with the way we use transport and tourism, our world isn’t going to be a nice place to live. Poverty will increase and people could struggle to get jobs and feed their families. </li></ul><ul><li>The main point is Global warming. Over the last 50 or so years, the temperature of the world has risen dramatically. Because of this, the ice caps are melting and this causes flooding. Soon the Maldives will have been destroyed as they are only one metre above sea level. Planes are one of the main carbon dioxide producers. Every time a plane flies to America it uses the same amount of carbon dioxide as an African family uses in 2 years. If we could invent a much more economically friendly form of flying ,we would be able to reduce the risk of global warming and travel the world without having to feel guilty about the damage we are causing to the environment. </li></ul>Conclusion Is Tourism Good or Bad?