GCSE Geog OCR-B Theme 1 Coasts review

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A PPT I have created for the review of Theme 1 - Coasts section of the OCR-B Geog GCSE syllabus.

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GCSE Geog OCR-B Theme 1 Coasts review

  1. 1. A Qwizdom PPT by S.Rackley (FEHS 2011) for OCR-B Geog GCSE
  2. 2. Q1: Which of these types of land use do you NOT usually find on coastlines? <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Residential </li></ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Nature reservation </li></ul><ul><li>Actually, you can find all of them on the coast! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Q2: What is the definition of the word “geology”? <ul><li>The study of the different types of waves </li></ul><ul><li>The study of different types of rock and how they make up a landscape </li></ul><ul><li>The study of how humans use the coastline </li></ul><ul><li>The study of how the coastline is changing </li></ul>
  4. 4. Q3: What is meant by a ‘more resistant’ rock? <ul><li>Humans cannot have any impact on it. </li></ul><ul><li>It won’t move. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s is hard and not easily weathered or eroded. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very loud and involves a lot of shouting! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Q4: Which of these areas of the UK has a soft or “less-resistant” coastline? <ul><li>Scotland (mostly metamorphic and igneous rocks) </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland (mostly sedimentary rocks such as limestone) </li></ul><ul><li>East Anglia (mostly sedimentary rocks such as chalks and clays) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Q5: Which of these is not a type of weathering? <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Physical/Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Attritional </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul>
  7. 7. Q6: Put these statements in order to describe freeze-thaw weathering. <ul><li>The fragments may then be deposited as scree at the foot of a slope. </li></ul><ul><li>If the air temperature drops below freezing, the water will freeze and expand putting pressure on the rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Water, eg from rainfall or melting snow and ice becomes trapped in a crack or joint in the rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time the rock will weaken and eventually shatter into angular fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>When the temperature rises above freezing the ice will melt. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Q7: Where are you likely to find exfoliation or onion-skin weathering? <ul><li>The Arctic (consistently low temperatures) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate areas like the UK (neither too hot or too cold) </li></ul><ul><li>Hot deserts (very hot day temperatures and cold night temperatures) </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical areas (consistently high temperatures) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Q8: Rainwater is a weak carbonic acid, and is also called ‘acid rain’. <ul><li>TRUE or </li></ul><ul><li>FALSE </li></ul>
  10. 10. Q9: Match the type of erosion to the correct definition. <ul><li>Attrition Hydraulic Action Abrasion Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks and sediment hit each other and wear down </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals in the water dissolve the cliff </li></ul><ul><li>Waves force air into cracks in the cliff and opens them up </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks are thrown at the cliff by the waves </li></ul>
  11. 11. Q9: Match the type of erosion to the correct definition. <ul><li>Attrition Hydraulic Action Abrasion Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks and sediment hit each other and wear down </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals in the water dissolve the cliff </li></ul><ul><li>Waves force air into cracks in the cliff and opens them up </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks are thrown at the cliff by the waves </li></ul>
  12. 12. Q9: Match the type of erosion to the correct definition. <ul><li>Attrition Hydraulic Action Abrasion Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks and sediment hit each other and wear down </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals in the water dissolve the cliff </li></ul><ul><li>Waves force air into cracks in the cliff and opens them up </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks are thrown at the cliff by the waves </li></ul>
  13. 13. Q9: Match the type of erosion to the correct definition. <ul><li>Attrition Hydraulic Action Abrasion Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks and sediment hit each other and wear down </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals in the water dissolve the cliff </li></ul><ul><li>Waves force air into cracks in the cliff and opens them up </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks are thrown at the cliff by the waves </li></ul>
  14. 14. Q10: Select the correct option in each sentence and add up their numbers to give you the ingredients for strong waves. <ul><li>The stronger(1)/weaker(2) the wind; </li></ul><ul><li>The longer(3)/shorter(4) it blows for; </li></ul><ul><li>The longer(5)/shorter(6) the fetch... </li></ul><ul><li>...then the stronger the waves will be! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Q11: Which wind will give you the weakest waves?
  16. 16. Q12: Use the words below to complete the annotations that give the characteristics of a constructive wave. <ul><li>1. low 2. high 3. steep 4. strong 5. weak 6. wide </li></ul>1st 2nd 3rd 4th
  17. 17. Q13: What is the name of this process which occurs on soft cliffs? <ul><li>Slumping </li></ul><ul><li>Slouching </li></ul><ul><li>Slipping </li></ul><ul><li>Sinking </li></ul>
  18. 18. Q14: What are the correct names for the cliff features indicated? <ul><li>1 = Wave-cut divot, 2 = Wave-cut boulder </li></ul><ul><li>1 = Wave-cut notch, 2 = Wave-cut boulder </li></ul><ul><li>1 = Wave-cut notch, 2 = Wave-cut platform </li></ul><ul><li>1 = Wave-cut divot, 2 = Wave-cut platform </li></ul>
  19. 19. Q15: Give the four-figure grid reference of Durdle door. 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 82 81 80
  20. 20. Q16: What hardness of rock is Portland stone? A) Hard or B) Soft 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 82 81 80
  21. 21. Q17: What is the name given to these chalk stacks in Dorset? <ul><li>Old Charlie Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Old Henry Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Old Harry Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Old Kenny Rocks </li></ul>
  22. 22. Q18: Which picture has the correct labels of headland formations? Stump Cave Headland Beach Stack Arch Headland Bay A B
  23. 23. Q19: Fill in the missing gaps that will give you a possible 6 mark answer to the question below. <ul><li>Using an example, describe and explain the coastal formations found on a headland. [6] </li></ul><ul><li>The Foreland, a chalk headland on the _____Coast has all of the features of an eroded headland (caves, arches, stacks and stumps). Old Harry, is a particularly famous example of a _____ and Old Harry's Wife is an example of a stump. These features are formed when a headland is eroded by the waves - by _______________ and solution, particularly along lines of weakness in the rock. The erosion of a headland begins as erosion exploits a weakness in a rock forming a ____. If the weakness runs through the headland, two caves may form back to back, eventually forming an ____, an opening which passes right through the headland. Wave attack continues at the base of the arch, whilst weathering processes such as _________ attack the roof of the arch until it eventually collapses leaving a stack (an isolated column of rock). Again this is attacked by weathering and erosion processes until it collapses leaving the base, which forms a ______. </li></ul><ul><li>1. arch 2. cave 3. Dorset 4. freeze-thaw 5. hydraulic action 6. Norfolk 7. stump 8. stack </li></ul>
  24. 24. Q20: On this picture, which direction is long-shore drift? <ul><li>Top to bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom to top </li></ul>
  25. 25. Q21: Name these depositional features. <ul><li>1=bar, 2=beach, 3=tombolo, 4=spit </li></ul><ul><li>1=tombolo, 2=bar 3=beach, 4=spit </li></ul><ul><li>1=spit, 2=bar, 3=beach, 4=tombolo </li></ul><ul><li>1=beach, 2=bar 3= spit, 4=tombolo </li></ul>1 2 3 4
  26. 26. Q22: Put these statements about the formation of a spit in the correct order. 1 2 3 FIRST 4 5 LAST
  27. 27. Q23: What type of material is Blakeney spit made of? <ul><li>Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Shingle </li></ul><ul><li>Sand and Shingle </li></ul><ul><li>Mud </li></ul>
  28. 28. Q24: Approximately how far westwards does Blakeney spit extend (in kilometres)? <ul><li>Type in the number </li></ul>
  29. 29. Q25: What is formed behind the spit, which contains a unique habitat that drowns at high tide? <ul><li>Mudflats </li></ul><ul><li>Saltmarsh </li></ul><ul><li>Breakwaters </li></ul><ul><li>Freshmarsh </li></ul>
  30. 30. Q26: Give the six-figure grid reference of the car park at Cley Eye.
  31. 31. Q27: How many of these coastal defences are a type of soft engineering? <ul><li>Beach replenishment </li></ul><ul><li>Gabions </li></ul><ul><li>Groynes </li></ul><ul><li>Managed retreat </li></ul><ul><li>Revetments </li></ul><ul><li>Rock armour </li></ul><ul><li>Sea Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul>
  32. 32. Q28: What type of hard engineering defence is this? <ul><li>Revetments </li></ul><ul><li>Groynes </li></ul><ul><li>Rock armour </li></ul><ul><li>Gabions </li></ul>
  33. 33. Q29: Work out the total cost of these proposed coastal defences. <ul><li>1000 metres of sea wall at £5000 a metre </li></ul><ul><li>10 groynes at £100,000 each </li></ul><ul><li>50000 m-sq of beach replenishment at £10 per m-sq </li></ul><ul><li>Type in the answer in millions, </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. 1 and a half million pounds (£1,500,000), type in “1.5” </li></ul>
  34. 34. Q30: Building groynes can actually cause just as much erosion as it prevents. <ul><li>TRUE or </li></ul><ul><li>FALSE? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Q31: What does “SMP” stand for? <ul><li>Sea and Marine Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Shore Maintenance Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Shoreline Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Sea Mitigation Plan </li></ul>
  36. 36. Q32: Who has responsibility for the coastal management of Cromer and Sheringham on the N.Norfolk coast? <ul><li>Cromer and Sheringham Town Councils </li></ul><ul><li>North Norfolk District Council </li></ul><ul><li>Norfolk County Council </li></ul><ul><li>The Environment Agency (branch of national govt) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Q33: The four different policies of SMPs are given the following categories: <ul><li>Hold the line </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced the line </li></ul><ul><li>Managed realignment </li></ul><ul><li>Managed retreat (leave to the sea) </li></ul><ul><li>TRUE or FALSE? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Q33: Complete the table below regarding what the SMP policy is at each location. <ul><li>All are HTL (Hold The Line) </li></ul><ul><li>All are managed retreat </li></ul><ul><li>1 = HTL, 2 = HTL, 3 = Realignment, 4 = Realignment </li></ul><ul><li>1 = HTL, 2 = Retreat, 3 = HTL, 4 = Realignment </li></ul>Location Short-term Medium-term Long-term Main defences present Cromer HTL HTL ??? (1) Happisburgh ??? (2) Retreat Retreat Mundesley HTL ??? (3) Realignment Sea Palling HTL HTL ??? (4)
  39. 39. Q34: Complete the table below regarding the types of defences present. <ul><li>1 = Sea wall, 2 = Revements, 3 = Sea wall; 4 = Off shore reefs </li></ul><ul><li>1 = Off shore reefs, 2 = Sea wall, 3 = Sea wall, 4 = Revetments </li></ul><ul><li>1 = Revements, 2 = Sea wall, 3 = Off shore reefs, 4 = Sea wall </li></ul><ul><li>1 = Sea wall, 2 = Sea wall, 3 = Revements, 4 = Off shore reefs </li></ul>Location Short-term Medium-term Long-term Main defences present Cromer HTL HTL HTL ??? (1) Happisburgh Retreat Retreat Retreat ??? (2) Mundesley HTL HTL Realignment ??? (3) Sea Palling HTL HTL Realignment ??? (4)
  40. 40. Q35: Why are there plans to move some people out of Mundesley? <ul><li>Mundesley is suffering severe erosion at the moment, and it is too expensive to build coastal defences. </li></ul><ul><li>If Mundesley is protected into the long-term, it will hinder natural processes and cause severe erosion elsewhere, so they will eventually realign the defences. </li></ul><ul><li>Mundesley is a run-down place which is of little economic value. </li></ul><ul><li>There are plans to build coastal defences elsewhere on the coast, which will have a severe impact on Mundesley. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Q36: The SMPs for North Norfolk are generally sustainable environmentally and economically, but not so much socially. <ul><li>TRUE or FALSE </li></ul>

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