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Timmins-Schiffman P2010

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  • 1. Pacific Oyster Physiological Response to Disease under Variable Environmental Regimes Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Elene Dorfmeier, Paul McElhany, Shallin Busch, Steven Roberts & Carolyn Friedman University of Washington PCSGA 2010
  • 2. Objective   How do environmental stressors, such as ocean acidification (OA) and elevated temperature, affect oyster larvae survival and physiology when challenged by disease?
  • 3. Experimental Plan How do environmental changes affect the host-pathogen relationship? High OA Temp. Host Pathogen Vibrio photo: Waldor & RayChaudhuri, 2000, Nature
  • 4. Outline   Ocean acidification   Environmental stress and physiology   Temperature and the C. gigas-V. tubiashii relationship   OA effects on C. gigas   Current work: OA & V. tubiashii Hi OA T
  • 5. Outline   Ocean acidification   Environmental stress and physiology   Temperature and the C. gigas-V. tubiashii relationship   OA effects on C. gigas   Current work: OA & V. tubiashii Hi OA T
  • 6. Ocean Acidification 1000 ppm Increased CO2 in atmosphere 380 ppm Increased oceanic CO2 = lower oceanic pH
  • 7. Environmental Stress Growth Reproduction Normal Environment Immune response General metabolism Environmental Stress Growth Reproduction Immune response General metabolism pH
  • 8. Outline   Ocean acidification   Environmental stress and physiology   Temperature and the C. gigas-V. tubiashii relationship   OA effects on C. gigas   Current work: OA & V. tubiashii Hi OA T
  • 9. Temperature & V. tubiashii   Two temperatures: 12oC & 25oC   V. tubiashii challenge in both temperatures   3 day trial   Immune response genes:   C-jun kinase   NfkB Up-regulate immune defenses: -ROS -inflammatory response
  • 10. Temperature & V. tubiashii = 12oC = 25oC * =12oC + Vt * =25oC + Vt 1 2 3
  • 11. Temperature & V. tubiashii Assay Development n=4 n=4 n=3 n=4 n=2 n=3 n=2 n=2 12oC 25oC 12oC 25oC 12oC 25oC 12oC 25oC
  • 12. Outline   Ocean acidification   Environmental stress and physiology   Temperature and the C. gigas-V. tubiashii relationship   OA effects on C. gigas   Current work: OA & V. tubiashii Hi OA T
  • 13. Effects of OA on Development   Strip-spawned and pooled sperm and eggs   Fertilized eggs in pCO2-equilibrated water   380 ppm   840 ppm   Time to developmental stage at   1 hour (2-cell)   2 hours (>4-cell)   5 hours (hatched)   17 hours   24 hours
  • 14. Effects of OA on Development Timeline of C. gigas Larval Development Fertilization 2-cell 0h Developmental Stage 4-cell 1h hatching 2h 5h Time Post-Fertilization veliger 17h 24h
  • 15. Effects of OA on Development =380 ppm =840 ppm Proportion Eggs in Cleavage *
  • 16. Effects of OA on Development =380 ppm =840 ppm Proportion Larvae Hatched *
  • 17. Effects of OA on Development   A smaller proportion of larvae in elevated pCO2 develop at the “normal” rate   Implications for physiological anomalies and calcification SEM Photo: Carla Stehr
  • 18. Effects of OA on Development   General stress response genes   Cytochrome P450 oxidase (CytP450)   Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6)   Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) 1.0 0.8 Proportion Hatched 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 5 5 17 17 24 24 Time Post Fertilization (Hours)
  • 19. Outline   Ocean acidification   Environmental stress and physiology   Temperature and the C. gigas-V. tubiashii relationship   OA effects on C. gigas   Current work: OA & V. tubiashii Hi OA T
  • 20. OA & V. tubiashii   Study in progress in collaboration with NWFSC (P. McElhany et al.)   Planned 3 weeks: spawning through settlement   4 pCO2 treatments   280, 380, 750, 2000 ppm   24-hour V. tubiashii exposure   Data collection:   Mortality   Physiology (gene expression)   Morphology & calcification   Genotype-linked survival
  • 21. = calcified OA & V. tubiashii = partially calcified   Calcification at 48 hours post-fertilization = uncalcified
  • 22. Conclusions   Ocean acidification has significant effects on C. gigas larval development.   OA may inhibit and depress larval response to other environmental stressors, including disease.   Elevated temperatures, such as 25oC, have effects on the host-pathogen interaction.
  • 23. Acknowledgements   Funding: Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant (NOAA), NOAA Aquaculture Program student support   University of Washington   Moose O’Donnell   Sam White   Taylor Shellfish Joth Davis Ed Jones Vicki Jones   NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center   Jason Miller   Mike Maher   Sarah Norberg

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