Pacific Oysters and
Ecosystem Health
           Mackenzie Gavery
        University of Washington
 School of Aquatic and F...
Pacific oysters as indicators of
  Puget Sound health:
•  Common, widely distributed
•  Immobile with high site
 fidelity
...
Pacific oysters as indicators of
Puget Sound health:

• Important to the region
   • economically
   • culturally
   • soc...
Outline
  Overview of PROPS

  Methods

  Data

  Next steps
PROPS: Physiological Response
of Oysters in Puget Sound
  Objectives
    Implement use of biomarkers to assess Puget Sou...
Methods: Site Selection
                Level of concern:
                    High
                    Mid
               ...
Juvenile oyster siblings
                             40

                             35
                                ...
Methods: Sampling

  Adults (n=20)
    size
    gill tissue
    hemolymph
Methods: Water Quality Data
     WA State Department of Health

     Department of Ecology

     University of Washingt...
Methods: Integrated Approach

  Gene expression

  Indirect biological effects – response to a
  secondary stressor

  ...
Methods: Integrated Approach
  Gene expression

  Indirect biological effects – response to a
  secondary stressor

  E...
Indirect biological effects
  Are current environmental conditions impairing the
  ability of an organism to respond succ...
Noradrenaline: results
                                                                   25
                             ...
Methods: Integrated Approach
  Gene expression

  Indirect biological effects – response to a
  secondary stressor

  E...
Epigenetics
  Heritable changes in trait or phenotype, caused by a
  mechanism other than mutation to the DNA sequence


...
Epigenetics
   Compounds that impact normal epigenetic functions:
     Endocrine disruptors
        estrogen
        B...
Epigenetics:
DNA methylation analysis
                           extract DNA
  Whole genome DNA
  methylation
  quanitifi...
Epigenetics: Data
                                  8
                                       P = 0.03
   estimated % DNA m...
Summary
  Noradrenaline concentration following stress may be a
  good candidate to evaluate indirect biological effects....
Acknowledgements
  Dr. Steven Roberts – UW, SAFS

  Samuel White – UW, SAFS

  Joth Davis - Taylor Shellfish Farms

  ...
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Mac Gavery PCSGA_2009

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Transcript of "Mac Gavery PCSGA_2009"

  1. 1. Pacific Oysters and Ecosystem Health Mackenzie Gavery University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences
  2. 2. Pacific oysters as indicators of Puget Sound health: •  Common, widely distributed •  Immobile with high site fidelity •  Reasonably resistant to contaminants •  Bioaccumulate at levels relative to their environment
  3. 3. Pacific oysters as indicators of Puget Sound health: • Important to the region • economically • culturally • socially
  4. 4. Outline   Overview of PROPS   Methods   Data   Next steps
  5. 5. PROPS: Physiological Response of Oysters in Puget Sound   Objectives   Implement use of biomarkers to assess Puget Sound ecosystem health   Determine indirect biological effects of local stressors   Characterize epigenetic impacts on shellfish
  6. 6. Methods: Site Selection Level of concern: High Mid Low Pacific oyster populations: natural set commercially farmed (outplanted juveniles)
  7. 7. Juvenile oyster siblings 40 35 A * B 30 shell length (mm) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Low Mid High T=0 Willapa Bay Samish North Bay June August Bay
  8. 8. Methods: Sampling   Adults (n=20)  size  gill tissue  hemolymph
  9. 9. Methods: Water Quality Data   WA State Department of Health   Department of Ecology   University of Washington Site A: Drayton Harbor (WA DOH) 40 1000 Fecal Coliform (FC/100mL) 900 Temp (ºC) / Salinity (ppt) 35 Salinity 800 30 700 25 600 20 500 15 400 Temp 300 10 200 5 100 Fecal Coliform 0 0 Mar-07 Mar-11 Jun-07 Jun-11 Sep-07 Sep-11 Dec-07 Dec-11 Mar-08 Mar-12 Jun-08 Jun-12 Sep-08 Sep-12 Dec-08 Dec-12 Mar-09 Mar-13
  10. 10. Methods: Integrated Approach   Gene expression   Indirect biological effects – response to a secondary stressor   Epigenetic characterization
  11. 11. Methods: Integrated Approach   Gene expression   Indirect biological effects – response to a secondary stressor   Epigenetic characterization
  12. 12. Indirect biological effects   Are current environmental conditions impairing the ability of an organism to respond successfully to a future stress?   Applying a stress in the field and evaluating response:   stress (mechanical) response (noradrenaline)   a “normal” response is an increase in noradrenaline after applying mechanical stress.
  13. 13. Noradrenaline: results 25 Low noradrenaline (pg/mL) 20 15 10 5 0 1.4 pre- post-stress 1.2 noradrenaline (pg/mL) Mid 1 High 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 pre- post-stress pre- post-stress
  14. 14. Methods: Integrated Approach   Gene expression   Indirect biological effects – response to a secondary stressor   Epigenetic characterization
  15. 15. Epigenetics   Heritable changes in trait or phenotype, caused by a mechanism other than mutation to the DNA sequence   Most common epigenetic mechanism is DNA methylation: A G T C Me
  16. 16. Epigenetics   Compounds that impact normal epigenetic functions:   Endocrine disruptors   estrogen   BPA   pesticides   Effects of epigenetic disruptions:   tumor promotion   alteration of development   inhibition of reproduction
  17. 17. Epigenetics: DNA methylation analysis extract DNA   Whole genome DNA methylation quanitification bind DNA to plate   ELISA based   Result is % add antibody to methylated DNA 5-me-cytosine add secondary enzyme
  18. 18. Epigenetics: Data 8 P = 0.03 estimated % DNA methylation 7.5 7 6.5 6 5.5 5 Site C Low Site A High
  19. 19. Summary   Noradrenaline concentration following stress may be a good candidate to evaluate indirect biological effects.   Preliminary data show epigenetic variability between oyster populations in Puget Sound.   These methods have the potential to provide valuable information on ecosystem health.
  20. 20. Acknowledgements   Dr. Steven Roberts – UW, SAFS   Samuel White – UW, SAFS   Joth Davis - Taylor Shellfish Farms   All the Volunteers

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