GCSE Football Coursework Development of Sport in The Nineteenth Century
You must be aware of:• What people did for leisure in early 19th C. Britain.• What early football was like.• What changed sport during the Victorian age.
Cockfighting Cockfighting was popular with gamblers because it was difficult to ‘fix’ the fights by doping.It was banned in England in 1835
Bear-baiting Bear- baiting with dogs was banned in 1835.
Bull-baiting Bull-baiting was also banned in the 1835 Cruelty to Animals Act. It still went on - the most barbarous act I ever saw. It was young bull and had very little notion of tossing the dogs, which tore his ears and the skin off his face in shreds,’ -James Gryce, Shrops, 1878
Horse RacingA day at the races was After 1815 racing great entertainment. grew in popularity. Most people went for The Grand Nationalthe sideshows such as at Aintree was firstfighting rings, markets held in 1839. Races and of course the were made fairer for gamblers by Booze ! handicapping.
Public Executions Every Monday up to 10,000 peoplewould watch the hangings at Tyburn in London.
Cricket Cricket was already a nationwide game by 1815. It was often rough and violent! Lords cricket ground opened in 1827. Thenew style of over-arm bowling began in 1830 but took 50 years to catch on! Cricket’s popularity was spread by touring teams such as the professional All-England side. Many formed clubs after tour visits.
Theatre and the Opera This was the preserve of the middle and upper classes. Cheap “the taste for refined performances music has not were set up, but reached the manualthe working class classes… preferred music- …but when the circus halls with rude comes the beer-housesongs and lots of keepers complain” drink!
The biggest entertainment was… DRINK!The 1700s had seen huge drinkproblems, mainly because ofcheap and available gin. The 1830Beer Act allowed more ale housesto be opened. Tax on beer wasreduced to get people off gin.
Beer-houses – a haven.Beer-houses, which only sold beerand cider, were the only placeswhere working-men could go forcomfort. They were heated andwarmer than their squalid homes.The women stayed at home!
Medieval footballFootball of course dates back to theMiddle Ages. It was a violent ‘game’played between rival villages on ShroveTuesdays. It was frowned upon by theauthorities. They wanted people to learnarchery – to be ready for wars.“a devilish pastime – more a bloodymurdering practice than a sport”
Football – the Public SchoolsFootball wasplayed in thePublic Schools.Each school hadtheir own rules.This is ‘prince’Harry playing Strange!Eton football.
Modern Football Football was taken to the masses by ex-public school boys, as they went off to own and manage factories and mines. These ‘gentlemen’ wanted the game kept amateur– but this meant working men could not play as they couldn’t afford to miss work.
The World’s First Football ClubThe oldest club in the world is Sheffield FC.This was followed by Notts. County FC.In 1862 a group of Nottingham business men andcricketers met in the Lion Hotel, Nottingham, to formthe Notts. County Football Club.. All the players wereamateurs, reasonably well-off, and usually added up to11 or 12 players with nine forwards and two backs, orbehinds. Hacking of shins, tripping and elbowing wereallowed and the goalkeeper could be charged out ofthe way of a shot even if he was nowhere near the ball.
The Football Association - 1863The F.A. was founded to draft a common setof rules for ‘Association Football’ (‘soccer’)Eleven players on each side became football law in 1870and a year later the F.A. Cup was introduced.In 1875 crossbars were introduced instead of tape1878 saw the first floodlit match at Sheffield and a refereeswhistle sounded for the first time in a match betweenNottingham Forest and Sheffield.
Football’s rise in popularity“The attendances atthe associationgames showed thatthe English workingclass had at lastfound a cheap andamusing way ofspending a Saturdayafternoon” – L.Woodward‘Age of Reform’
Reasons for football’s growth• the growth of the railways from the1840s allowed people to travel aroundEngland• football was cheap – it required verylittle equipment, could be played almostanywhere and in almost any weather
As football spread…Inter-county and inter-city competitionsbecame popular. The FA Cup was firstplayed for in 1871, and the FootballLeague founded in 1888.The Original FA Cup.This was stolen andnever found in 1895!
The Original Twelve League Clubs• Accrington Stanley • Everton• Aston Villa • Notts. County• Blackburn Rovers • Preston North End• Bolton Wanderers • Stoke City• Burnley • West Bromwich• Derby County Albion • Wolverhampton Wanderers
An Industrial GameThe original twelveleague clubs.
A different world…. When Blackburn supporters visited London for the FA Cup Final in 1883, the Pall Mall Gazette reported “a northern horde of uncouth garb and strange oaths – like a tribe of Sudanese Arabs let loose.”Uncouth – scruffyGarb - clothes
For an Industrial PeopleAs acts were passed limiting the length of theworking week, the factories and mines shut atmid-day on Saturdays. This allowed workersto go and play, and watch the 3pm matches.Not for them the luxury of the middle classesto play and watch cricket and golf – whichlast a lot longer than 90 minutes!
The Growth of ProfessionalismAs crowds grew, special stadiums needed tobe built. The owners charged admissionfees, and tried to attract the best players.“Broken-time” payments were made toplayers to compensate their loss of wages.Many ‘gentlemen’ were horrified at thiserosion of the ‘amateur spirit’.
Amateur vs. ProfessionalOne ‘gentlemen’s’ club, The Corinthianscompletely refused to play for money, refused toplay in cup competitions and even refused to takepenalty kicks when awarded them – because theydidn’t believe that any person would commit afoul!Football was already mainly a working class sportand payments were common. This prevented thesplit which divided Rugby Union and League in1895.
Growing participationIn the 1930s municipal (council) playing fieldsand parks increased. A new generation offootballers was being given ground to bloom.The Thirties was the boom decade for sport inEngland. Crowds of 60,000 were the norm formany clubs. The electric telegraph and radioallowed results to be spread quickly. Sportspapers were sold on Saturday evenings with thesame day’s results in them.
Football takes on the WorldEnglish sailors took football with them to theports of Italy, Spain, Brazil and Argentina.Friendly games with the locals were played, andfootball fever spread. Juventus, Bologna,Fiorentina and many other clubs were set up byEnglish exiles.The World Cup was first played in 1930, but itwasn’t until cheap flights that world competitionstook off, in the 1950s and 1960s.
Football meets new rivalsFootball’s place as the national sport wasnever in doubt. But other ways to spendleisure time were hitting attendances.• television – on the rise since 1953• betting shops – legalised in the 1960s• shopping – a culture shift in the late 1960smeant more men spent family time!
The Money Men move in.Commercial interest in the game picked up inthe 1960s. England’s World Cup win in 1966had captured the nation’s imagination. All it needed was for the first soccer SUPERSTAR. Enter……………
Sponsorship and advertising Umbro was the first shirt-maker to put its logo on display, in 1974 on Liverpool’s kit. In 1979 it was also Liverpool who had the first shirt sponsorship in England.
Competition SponsorshipIn 1981 the Football League Cup wassponsored by the Milk Marketing Board. Itwas renamed the ‘Milk Cup’ as part of thedeal. It has since been known as theRumbelows Cup, Littlewoods Cup, Coca-Cola Cup and presently the WorthingtonCup. The FA Cup is regarded as too special a name to be changed in this way.
Player SponsorshipsThe professionalfootballer has come along way since JimmyHill founded the playersunion – the PFA – todemand an end to themaximum wage.