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  • dodai is “the base upon which a structure is built.” It was the simplest Kanji I could find for “foundation”. This might be the basis of a logo, or it could be something totally temporary.
  • [Before each answer]: what answer would you expect?
    You can tell it’s just matching on “where is X?”
  • Employee will let Cyc read the page and will help it figure out meaning.
  • This gets filled in at a different place and time.
    Florence served in Viet Nam and was injured in an explosion.
  • Now when Florence goes to the site, there is a special link just for her.
  • This is a detailed itinerary page.
  • Nothing about the Red Cross museum appeared in the itinerary page.
  • Notice that this does not require incredibly deep reasoning.
  • Cyc transcends the traditional tradeoff that other languages must make between efficiency and expressiveness. It’s use of two cooperating languages allows it to be almost as expressive as English while operating as efficiently as a C++ program.
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  • The OpenCyc website has said for years that an independent organization would be formed. That is finally happening.
  • Many of you have probably seen this curve that describes how knowledge gets into Cyc. It was hand-entered for years, but now there is enough knowledge there to augment the effort with other methods. NL and discovery. For quite some time, the NL method will need human help, but it no longer depends exclusively on highly trained logicians.
  • There’s an entrance exam. Can you find yourself on this list? Yes? You’re hired. You can help.
  • Cf intro

    1. 1. April 13, 2006 1 Introducing: The Cyc Foundation April 13, 2006
    2. 2. April 13, 2006 2 Motivations Wikimedia Foundation: “Imagine a world in which every single person is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That's what we're doing.” Cyc Foundation: “Imagine a world in which every single person is given free access to programs that reason with the sum of all human knowledge. That's what we're doing.”
    3. 3. April 13, 2006 3 Topic Map – Top Level
    4. 4. Cyc Cyc Ontology & Knowledge Base Reasoning Modules Interface to External Data Sources Interface to External Data Sources CycAPICycAPI Knowledge EntryTools Knowledge EntryTools User Interface (with Natural Language Dialog) User Interface (with Natural Language Dialog) Data Bases Web Pages Text Sources Other KBs Other Applications Knowledge Authors Knowledge Users External Data Sources Cyc Reasoning SystemCyc Reasoning System
    5. 5. April 13, 2006 5 Query: “Someone happy” Caption: “A man watching his daughter take her first step” Help Find Information byHelp Find Information by Inference (+KB)Inference (+KB)
    6. 6. April 13, 2006 6 Query: “Someone happy” Caption: “A man watching his daughter take her first step” Help Find Information byHelp Find Information by Inference (+KB)Inference (+KB) (∃x) (feelsEmotion x Happiness Positive) (∃x,y) (and (father x y) (gender x Female) (sees x y) (walking LogicalInference (deduction)
    7. 7. April 13, 2006 7 Help Find Information byHelp Find Information by Inference (+KB)Inference (+KB) (∃x) (feelsEmotion x Happiness Positive) (∃x,y) (and (father x y) (gender x Female) (sees x y) (walking LogicalInference (deduction) (implies (and (isa ?BIG-EVENT HumanLifecycleMilestone) (doneBy ?BIG-EVENT ?CHILD) (sees ?PARENT ?BIG-EVENT) (children ?PARENT ?CHILD)) (holdsIn ?BIG-EVENT (feelsEmotionTypeAtLevel ?PARENT (PositiveAmountFn Pride)))) . . .. . . . . .. . .
    8. 8. ALICE • JUDGE11[9:26:0]I WILL ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS • PROGRAM[9:26:0]Do you think your plan will succeed? • JUDGE11[9:26:16]WHAT IS THE COLOR OF A BLUE CAR • PROGRAM[9:26:16]WHAT COLOR IS a blue car • JUDGE11[9:26:35]WHERE IS SUE’S NOSE WHEN SUE IS IN HER HOUSE • PROGRAM[9:26:35]Where it belongs. Try searching the World Wide Web. • JUDGE11[9:26:49]WHAT HAPPENS TO AN ICE CUBE IN A HOT DRINK • PROGRAM[9:26:49]Try it. • JUDGE11[9:27:25]HOW IS THE FATHER OF ANDY S MOTHER RELATED TO ANDY • PROGRAM[9:27:25]Fine as far as I know.
    9. 9. Natural Language Understanding requires having lots of knowledge 1.The pen is in the box. The box is in the pen. 2. The police watched the demonstrators… …because they feared violence. …because they advocated violence.
    10. 10. April 13, 2006 10 System: Ready for input. User: what do you know about anthrax? System: By “anthrax” do you mean (1) the heavy metal band or (2) bacteria? User: 2 System: Here is what I know about it: Anthrax is a species of organism. All anthrax is a bacterium. All anthrax can lethally infect mammals. Anthrax is extremely toxic for people to inhale. Iraq has biological weapons that deliver anthrax. Anthrax is opaque, tangible, microscopic, . Anthrax can be dried into spores stored indefinitely
    11. 11. April 13, 2006 11 System: Ready for input. User: what do you know about TR1? System: I know nothing about it. What sort of thing is TR1? User: bacteria System: TR1 lethally infects_________? User: People System: By “People”, I assume you mean human beings, not People Magazine. System: Does it infect some broader category of animals (e.g., air-breathing vertebrates, chordates, placental mammals, primates, eucaryotes, etc.)? User: mammals
    12. 12. April 13, 2006 12 System: Is TR1 similar to anthrax? User: yes System: Which of the following are true of TR1: . . . User: Al Qaida possesses some TR1. System: Ready for input. User: Does Osama Bin Laden control anything that can be the basis of weapons of mass destruction? System: Yes, some TR1. User: please explain System: Osama Bin Laden controls Al Qaida. Al Qaida posseses some TR1. TR1 is a bacteria that lethally infects people.
    13. 13. April 13, 2006 13
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    22. 22. April 13, 2006 22 Efficiency Expressiveness Efficiency vs. ExpressivenessEfficiency vs. Expressiveness C++ PASCAL LISP English, German First-order logic nth -order logic HL (heuristic level language) EL (epistemological level language) Use two cooperating languages (EL and HL) to escape the limitations of an age-old tradeoff. Continuing improvements in inference performance won’t negatively effect expressiveness.
    23. 23. April 13, 2006 23 NOW: CyN in Doom3 (2005)
    24. 24. April 13, 2006 24 BURC: Bootstrapping Using ResearchCyc • Goal: To extend Cyc’s knowledge base using “relationships implied to be possible, normal or commonplace in the world” • Prior work with Cyc knowledge entry has been manually oriented • How will we collect common sense without a body and manual labor…? • Read, Parse, Mine! • Proposal: Read text, Parse into a database, Extract relations between words, Propose hypothetical relations between concepts
    25. 25. April 13, 2006 25 BURC: Basic Analogy • The Shotgun approach to the Human Genome • Extract millions of fragments • Knit them back together by finding commonalities • Will it work for the Human Memome? • James Burke: ‘Mr. Connections’ Lenat’s Bootstrap Hypothesis: once Cyc reaches a certain level/scale it can help in its own development and start using NLP to augment its knowledge base
    26. 26. April 13, 2006 26 Mining Adjective Knowledge Example • “white blouse” as factoid fragment • Hypothesis: (plausibleValueOfType Blouse mainColorOfObject WhiteColor)
    27. 27. April 13, 2006 27 Flow of Processing BNC DataBNC Data FragFrag FileFile MergedMerged Frag FileFrag File Cyc/RcycCyc/Rcyc Hypothesis File ExtractorExtractor / DBDB ManagerManager Parser 1 Parser 2 Parser 3 Parser 4 Parser 5 FragFrag FileFile FragFrag FileFile FragFrag FileFile FragFrag FileFile LinkLink Fragments DBFragments DB Facts (Database) Facts (Database) Upper Ontology Core Theories Domain-Specific Theories
    28. 28. April 13, 2006 28 (Very) Brief History of Cyc • c. 1967 – AI is used on toy problems. • c. 1977 – Expert systems reason in narrow domains. • c. 1983 – Lenat, Minsky, Feigenbaum, Kay, and others recognize need for a substrate of shared world knowledge; and realize it would take hundreds of person-years to “prime the pump”. • 1984 – Admiral Bob Inman convinces Lenat to leave Stanford and pursue this high-risk, high-payoff project (Cyc) within MCC. • 1994 – Cycorp is formed.
    29. 29. April 13, 2006 29
    30. 30. April 13, 2006 30 “The driver of the power of intelligent systems is the knowledge the systems have about their universe of discourse, not the sophistication of the reasoning process the systems employ. Cyc has not only the world’s largest knowledge base, but the best represented from a technical point of view.” Ed Feigenbaum inventor of the first expert system editor of the AI Handbook
    31. 31. April 13, 2006 31 “People have silly reasons why computers don’t really think. The answer is we haven’t programmed them right; they just don’t have much common sense. There’s been only one large project to do something about that, that’s the famous Cyc project…”. -- Marvin Minsky
    32. 32. April 13, 2006 32 How has Cycorp done? • 20 years • 3 million facts and rules (hand-entered) • Compelling demos • Some applications (constrained by business model) • The basis for much greater growth • “If the right way to build an A.I. involves giving Cyc away for free, that is what we will do.” – Doug Lenat (repeatedly) – Note: Jury is out on what the “right way” is
    33. 33. April 13, 2006 33 Cycorp: True to its Promise • OpenCyc – The entire Cyc structural ontology: FREE – 300,000 concept terms, ~2M facts and rules • ResearchCyc – Equal to Full Cyc (w/ Research-only license) – Source code for inference engine not released – API with 18,000 functions and macros! – Ability to compile in your own additions • Q: Will more be released? A: It depends. – Cycorp must financially support its own R&D. – Existing releases must result in major project benefits. And it doesn’t really matter.
    34. 34. April 13, 2006 34 Time for the Next Phase • Cycorp has gotten us to where we are – Representational ability – Inference ability – …and will continue (R&D leader, commercialization • The rest of the world will help get us where we are going – Breadth of content – Broad real-world diffusion The thinking that got us to where we are today is insufficient to solve the problems that exist today. To solve today's problems requires a new level of thinking. -- Einstein
    35. 35. April 13, 2006 35 Building Cyc qua Engineering Task amount known rateoflearning learning by discovery learning via natural language CYC 750 person-years 21 realtime years $75 million Frontier of human knowledge 1984 2004 2006codify & enter each piece of knowledge, by hand
    36. 36. April 13, 2006 36 Building Cyc qua Engineering Task amount known rateoflearning CYC 750 person-years 21 realtime years $75 million 1984 2004 2006codify & enter each piece of knowledge, by hand 1000 years 10 years
    37. 37. April 13, 2006 37 How will we get the knowledge? Games That Matter!
    38. 38. April 13, 2006 38 Foundation as Continuation • Are we trying to make an A.I.? – No. • Are we trying to make computers behave much more intelligently? – Yes!
    39. 39. April 13, 2006 39 Mission (DRAFT) The Cyc Foundation has been formed as an independent not-for-profit organization to hasten the arrival of intelligent tools that will help humanity.
    40. 40. April 13, 2006 40 Assumptions • (Currently) 9 ideas that shape strategy, objectives and policy • These may need to be validated, modified or augmented • In some cases, assumptions are followed by related policy
    41. 41. April 13, 2006 41 Assumption #1 Long before computers are as smart as people, they will be (in some cases already have been) put to use to cure disease, address hunger problems, make important new scientific discoveries and help people work together. Smarter computers will do a better job of this.
    42. 42. April 13, 2006 42 Assumption #2 Cycorp has developed and cared for what we believe is an important piece of the AI puzzle. They have always wanted to release it to the public, but it had to be when people could realistically develop it further on their own without in some way endangering the project. One fear was “forking”, or creating incompatible variants of the knowledge base. Cycorp and The Foundation will cooperate on 1 KB.
    43. 43. April 13, 2006 43 Flow of Cyc Data Cycorp Cyc Foundation RCyc User Gamer / Wikipedia user Team: - Subject-matter expert - Ontologist
    44. 44. April 13, 2006 44 Assumption #3 The knowledge that will give computers human-like intelligence ultimately needs to be free. That's our best hope of having it put to best use. Portions of knowledge will always be held proprietary. The more shared a piece of knowledge, the greater will be the force pulling all of its representations toward freedom (to avoid the burden of maintaining a non-standard representation).
    45. 45. April 13, 2006 45 Assumption #4 Proposed Semantic Web standards (such as those related to OWL) are an important step in the right direction, because they provide a foundation for working with meaning on the Web. The Cyc ontology will be a valuable addition, because it can act as a semantic hub, allowing us to have shared meaning. There is some concern that a top-down central ontology will dictate use of terms that may not meet a project’s needs. We will be able to show that use of the Cyc ontology can satisfy both needs and will be a useful complement to the great work that has already been done toward the Semantic Web.
    46. 46. April 13, 2006 46 Assumption #5 We all have something to learn. We all have something to teach. The Foundation mission will benefit from a very broad base of support, rather than the traditional rule by the technical elite.
    47. 47. April 13, 2006 47 Assumption #6 For this effort, focused work by many will be more valuable than genius work by a few. To be most helpful, people should work together, and on tasks where they are capable of contributing successfully. (Example: don’t go off and try to “solve the A.I. problem” by yourself.)
    48. 48. April 13, 2006 48 Assumption #7 Regular humans can be turned off by overly technical talk that is out of place – and rightly so. We need to be inclusive in our language and in our activities in order to ensure the broadest base of support and participation. This is especially true in the Cyclify initiative.
    49. 49. April 13, 2006 49 Assumption #8 There is no “us” and “them” • The Foundation is managed by its volunteer board and run by its volunteer members • The Foundation will start with no employees • The will be no BDFL – Benevolent Dictator for Life
    50. 50. April 13, 2006 50 Assumption #9 Fun is mandatory! • By comparison, contributing to SETI is like cleaning your oven while you sleep. • This work will be hands-on, compelling and (hopefully) addictive. • If you’re not having fun, find out why and fix it.
    51. 51. April 13, 2006 51 Foundation Goals • Convert human knowledge to a form that computers can reason with – Grow the Cyc Ontology and KB Exponentially • Establish a standard vocabulary and language for representing concepts & knowledge • Support the creation of intelligent tools • Promote free and efficient knowledge transfer Cyclify
    52. 52. April 13, 2006 52 Cyclify Knowledge Collection Activities • Web Games – Validate acquired knowledge – Multiple-choice fact entry – More? • Wikipedia Linking • KR Dating Service – Wiki-based knowledge entry – A SME paired with an ontologist • WordNet Linking
    53. 53. April 13, 2006 53 Playflow Within Cyclify Wikipedia user Team: - Subject-matter expert - Ontologist Game Server Wiki Knowledge Server Wikipedia Data RCyc User Cycorp K. Acquisiton Data Gamer RCycRCyc
    54. 54. April 13, 2006 54 I’m thinking of a sentence… Because I read about it on the web. Status: I have 2 answers TrueTrue Fibromyalgia is caused by ticks. FalseFalse Don’t KnowDon’t Know Doesn’t make senseDoesn’t make sense Score: 24
    55. 55. April 13, 2006 55 Status: I think this sentence is probably not right Submitting... Thank you! Answers: 2 You agreed with: 100% I now have a better understanding of: Fibromyalgia is caused by ticks. Score: +2NextNext Score: 26
    56. 56. April 13, 2006 56 Cyc Image DMZ Boundary computer (inside) computer (outside) KAGs GAFs web gathered hypothesized asserted … Forward rules SubL form, running KAG-collecting query scp XML file Populator (java) Applet XML file PostGRES database Question Server (java) Applet Current Architecture Applet
    57. 57. April 13, 2006 57 Cyc Foundation Projects • Nonprofit Formation (planning/budgeting/filing) • Foundation Website • Cyclify • Fundraising • Membership management • Events • ResearchCyc – Recommend Cyc features / functions / design – Help with ResearchCyc testing, documentation
    58. 58. April 13, 2006 58 Budgeting • Must develop budget related to Year 1 plan • Possible areas of spending – Legal filings – Server hosting – W3C membership – Conference attendance – Fundraising
    59. 59. April 13, 2006 59 Foundation Website • Requirements – Content management features – Collaboration features – Out-of-the-box ease of use – Free • Currently evaluating Joomla (Mambo) • Desired launch: May 15
    60. 60. April 13, 2006 60 Cyclify Projects • First Web Game – Develop game – Viral marketing – Add wiki linking activity • Wiki Knowledge Collection – Set up – Add frame for ontologizing – Feed wikip links to Web game • Back End – Design and implement PlayFlow – Submit collected knowledge to Cycorp
    61. 61. April 13, 2006 61 Fundraising • Individual Memberships – Free membership for first 6 months for Cyclify members and ResearchCyc users? – How much? – What do you get? • Corporate Donations – Need to prepare story – Seems feasible to get donations
    62. 62. April 13, 2006 62 What does nonprofit mean? • Cannot have investors or disburse earnings • Can have earnings, though • Revenues must come from services that are within mission • 501(c)(3)? (like Wikimedia Foundation) • Or 501(c)(6)? (like Eclipse Foundation)
    63. 63. April 13, 2006 63 The Foundation Board of Directors John De Oliveira Founder and President Strategy, Corp. Fundraising Mark Baltzegar Co-Founder and Vice President Strategy, Game Devel., IT OPEN Secretary, Treasurer Secretary, Treasurer David James Board Member Organizational Dynamics OPEN Board Member Standards OPEN Board Member Events, Operations Delegator OPEN Board Member Architecture, Playflow Design TBD Sept. 2006 Board Member Oversight Name Position Role
    64. 64. April 13, 2006 64 The Foundation: Membership Project Leader, Cyclify Stu Baurman Keith Wright Project Leader, ResearchCyc Kino Coursey Pierluigi Miraglia High Scorer (current month) Douglas Miles Gavin Matthews High Scorer (all time) Arturo Hernandez Joe Simone David Whitten Guyren Howe ~100 ResearchCyc Users Brad Bouldin John Cabral YOU! Larry Lefkowitz Ben Rode Bill Jarrold Jason Azbahr
    65. 65. April 13, 2006 65 ResearchCyc Users Xerox PARC Daxtron Labs Lockheed Martin ATLD Government Government-related Commercial Houston VA Medical Center Air Force Rome Labs Institute for the Study Of Accelerating Change U of Maryland Language Computer Corporation NTT Communications Science Laboratories (Japan) Northwestern U Stanford NLP Dept. ANSER, Inc. LBJ School of Public Affairs Fraunhofer Institute U of Illinois Urbana-Champaign New Mexico Highlands Univ. Harvard U Linkoping U (Sweden) Radboud U (Netherlands) Tokyo Inst. of Technology Terra Incognita University Microfabrica, Inc. U of Stuttgart NPOs MIT Media Lab Witan International U of Pennsylvania SRI 21st Century Technologies U of Minnesota Stone’s Throw Technologies ISI Trimtab Consulting U of Hawaii Rensselaer AI and Reasoning Lab TNO-DMV (Netherlands) Sapio Systems (Denmark) U of Toronto Knowledge Media Institute, Open University Austin Info Systems
    66. 66. April 13, 2006 66 How can I help? • Humans (a.k.a. common sense experts) • Programmers – Web programmers – Cyc programmers • Ontologists • Subject-matter experts • Bloggers
    67. 67. April 13, 2006 67 Human Cyclists* • Play the Web Game • Come up with new game ideas • Link Wikipedia to Cyc • Learn more about Cyc • Befriend an ontologist • Tell a friend about Cyclify • Write to a blog about Cyclify • Help with viral marketing • Design a logo • T-Shirts: Buy one, or Create and sell them * From now on, we’re all “Cyclists” – people who interact with Cyc in one way or another.
    68. 68. April 13, 2006 68 Programmers • Help design and build a web services interface • Learn the architecture of Web Game #1 • Design an add-on for the Web game • Learn how to use the question server • Propose a new game • Help develop/support technical infrastructure • Help organize documentation • Help write the Cyc books – to be published by O'Reilly
    69. 69. April 13, 2006 69 Ontologists • Identify gaps in the knowledge base • Befriend a Subject Matter Expert – Work together on a domain • Befriend a Human Cyclist – Teach one who wants to learn basic ontology skills • Help organize documentation • Help write the Cyc books
    70. 70. April 13, 2006 70 Bloggers • Blog about Cyclify • Link to each other’s blogs
    71. 71. April 13, 2006 71 Timeline (Milestones) • May 15 – Launch Foundation Website • Build membership up until July 15 • June 15 – File Articles of Formation w/ Sec. Of State – First Web game in beta • July 15 – Launch Game • October – First OpenCyc build containing game data