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MS SQL SERVER: Introduction To Database Concepts
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MS SQL SERVER: Introduction To Database Concepts

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MS SQL SERVER: Introduction To Database Concepts

MS SQL SERVER: Introduction To Database Concepts

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MS SQL SERVER: Introduction To Database Concepts MS SQL SERVER: Introduction To Database Concepts Presentation Transcript

  • 1
    SQL SERVER: AN INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE CONCEPTS
  • What is Data?
    Data is any fact or statistic which can be operated on to
    derive meaningful information. It is a raw fact.
    Simply put:
    Data is any raw fact
    Eg: Size = 12 is data
    Name = ‘Dennis’ is another data
    We cannot derive conclusions directly from the data without processing them
    Example of a Data
  • Why is Data important?
    • Data is important because every decision that happens in the world is based on some data
    • For example, if Jenny wants to buy a laptop, she needs the right data to make appropriate decision on the model. Like its cost, market value, etc.
    • Hence, every decision depends on the data
    corresponding to it
    WHICH SHALL I BUY?
    Cost = $360
    Cost = $450
  • Data in real-world
    • In the real world, data has become ubiquitous, i.e, data is every-where
    • All aspects of the modern business and domestic life-styles feed of huge amounts of data
    • The Amount of data is increasing exponentially and we needed a flexible, reliable and secure way to organize this data.
    • That is where Databases came to our rescue! 
  • What is a Database
    • A Database is a collection of interrelated data
    • For example:
    • A Database on students may contain the names, rollnumbers and GPAs of students in a university
    • A Zoo database may contain the names, RFID tag numbers, weights and ages of animals in a zoo
    • The List goes on
    • What is so special about a database?
    Why can’t we just use files? (like text files and word documents). The Next slide answers this Qn.
  • Problems with files
    Inconsistency
    In a system, a user may use different applications and these may use different formats of data. Hence, interoperability between their data is difficult
    For Example: Willy, Tim and Rose have been asked to write an essay on MJ, and they use different platforms, they’d have difficulty combining the Data into a single-final document: Incompatibilty
    X
    Willy
    Uses MicrosoftWord
    Tim
    Uses WordStar
    Rose
    Uses Mellel, a Word processor for Macintosh systems
  • Problems with files
    Data Redundancy
    When handling large amount of data, there might be recurrences of data in case of files. This wastes memory space.
    Integrity
    The data is susceptible to corruption due to system failures
    Concurrent Access anomalies
    When many people try to write a piece of data concurrently – we’ll have problems in case of files
    Security problem
    Ill minded people may get access to our files if they are not secured properly.
  • Applications of DBMS in real life
    The DBMS stands for: Database Management System
    DBMS is a collection of related data (a database) and programs which allow users to work on that data (the management system)
    DBMS eliminates the various problems that are associated with file storages
    In real-life, DBMS have a wide spectrum of applications:
    • In Movie theatres for holding ticket reservation details
    • In Prisons for managing info about the prisoners
    • In Banks, to manage customer and account info
  • Database Features
    A Database consists mainly of Tables
    A Table is a set of values that is organized using a model of vertical columns (which are identified by their name) and horizontal rows.
    A Table has a specified number of columns, but can have any number of rows.
    Each row is identified by the values appearing in a particular column subset which has been identified as a candidate key.
    Let’s take an example
  • Database Features
    Example
    Consider a database for the dreams that ‘George’ had this week. It has a table called ‘History’ where he stores the date and time at which he dreamt. This table will look as follows:
    An ‘ATTRIBUTE’ which can uniquely identify a record in a table is called a ‘KEY’.
    Eg: Dream Number
    The ‘TYPE’ of data is called as ‘ATTRIBUTE’ or ‘FIELD’. Eg: Date, Time,etc
    The ‘VALUES’ of a set of attributes, which define a unique object is a ‘RECORD’
  • Summary
    Database Concepts
    • Data is a fact
    • Data is important
    • Database is a collection of related data
    • DBMS is used to manage database
    • Usage: Anyplace where data are concerned
    • A Database consists mainly of Tables
    • A Table consists of:
    Records (Rows in a table)
    Attributes (Columns in a table)
    Keys (Used to uniquely identify a record in a table)
    End
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