Objectives of curriculum


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Objectives of curriculum

  1. 1. Objectives of Curriculum Qulb e Abbas
  2. 2. Taxonomy of educational objectives • In which three domains are identified: • (i) the cognitive; • (ii) the affective and • (iii) the psychomotor. • Those categories within each domain which frequently appear in the framework of curriculum development will be mentioned here.
  3. 3. The cognitive domain • The six major categories of the taxonomy are frequently clustered into two groups: lower mental functions and higher mental functions • Knowledge: the recall of information. A specific fact of a generalization may constitute the information recalled. It should be emphasized that knowledge means recall only, and not application of the information in a particular situation. • Comprehension: understanding of the message of a communication and the ability to explain or summarize it. • Application: the ability to use a principle rule or method in a concerted situation. • Analysis: the ability to break down a communication into its constituent elements and ability to clarify its content. • Synthesis: the ability to combine elements so as to form a whole. This category contains the notion of creativity, which has in recent years been strongly emphasized as worthwhile educational objectives. • Evaluation: Judging the value of material and methods for given purpose.
  4. 4. The affective domain • Affective objective emphasizes feelings, emotions and the degree of acceptance or rejection of given phenomenon. These objectives occupy limited space in the more traditional sets of curricular objectives, but their importance is now becoming more widely recognized. Attitudes, values and interests are types of affective behaviors Only the first three categories of this domain are mentioned here, because only they appear frequently in the formally stated lists of curricular objective. • Receiving (attending): This category is concerned with being aware of the existence of certain phenomena and revealing willingness to tolerate a stimulus. Thus, for example, being aware of the existence of classical music and being able to differentiate it from music of other types of constitutes an example of receiving. • Responding: This is more than merely being aware of a phenomenon. It means active participation, such as going to a concert of classical music or purposefully listening to a classical record. • Valuing: Behavior categorized at this level is stable and consistent. Thus a sustained interest in classical music, repeated visits to concerts, etc constitute signs of valuing classical music.
  5. 5. The psychomotor domain • Several objectives related to the acquisition of practical skills and habits appear in a number of curriculum areas, for example, practical and laboratory work in science subject; work experience as a part of extended general education; handicrafts; psychomotor components of reading and writing, etc. A classification scheme of psychomotor skills has been developed by Dave (1969). The scheme is based on the concept of co- ordination between psychic and muscular actions and between different muscular actions performed by various parts of the body. The five categories of the scheme are listed below: • Imitation: Activities which do not require muscular co-ordination. • Manipulation: Following directions, acting according to instructions. • Precision: The ability to increase speed of action, and to introduce modifications according to specific needs of a particular situation. • Articulation: Co-ordination of series of acts by establishing appropriate sequence, developing efficiency to perform a number of related acts simultaneously and sequentially. • Naturalization: Reutilizing the act to such an extent that it results in automatic and spontaneous response.
  6. 6. Thank you