IT ServicesMicrosoft Excel 2007™Hints & Tips (Level 3)       Contents               Introduction ............................
1. Open the Start menu, choose All Programs then Microsoft Office and Microsoft Office Excel 2007Note: Launching Excel via...
1. In cell A1 press <Ctrl ;> to insert todays date – press <Enter> or <down_arrow>   2. In cell A2 press <Ctrl Shift ;> to...
1. Move to a new sheet and, in cell A1, type 1 then press the <right arrow> key to move to cell B1Tip: Its easier to use t...
Tip: If you need to enter data into certain specific cells on a spreadsheet based on a form template, then youshould unpro...
Moving/Copying Data and Filling a SeriesThe mouse is particularly useful when moving or copying cells and when dealing wit...
Other Useful Mouse TipsHere are some other useful mouse tips:      Instead of typing in cell references in formulae, clic...
12. On the View tab click on [Freeze Panes] and choose Freeze Top Row - a line appears under the row   13. Using <down arr...
Cell ReferencingWhen you enter a cell reference in a formula in Excel, it is not fixed by default. This means that the ref...
Printing TipsExcel provides various additional printing features (compared to other Microsoft Office applications), whichy...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Excel tips2007 (1)

432 views
342 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
432
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Excel tips2007 (1)

  1. 1. IT ServicesMicrosoft Excel 2007™Hints & Tips (Level 3) Contents Introduction ..............................................................................................................1 Starting Excel and Customising the Screen ...................................................1 Further Key Combinations ...................................................................................2 Further Function Keys & Key Combinations ........................................... 3 Data Entry and Cell Formatting ..........................................................................3 Moving Around and Selecting Cells ..................................................................5 Making Good Use of the Mouse .........................................................................5 Moving/Copying Data and Filling a Series ............................................... 6 Other Useful Mouse Tips .............................................................................. 7 Screen Layout ............................................................................................................7 Using Colours and Adding Comments .................................................... 8 Cell Referencing .......................................................................................................9 Charts ........................................................................................................................9 Printing Tips ............................................................................................................ 10 Other Tips ................................................................................................................ 10IntroductionThe aim of this document is to show you how to make the best use of some of the facilities inMicrosoft Excel and, in particular, to save you time when using it.Note that this document doesn’t include tips applicable throughout the Microsoft Office suite –see the document Microsoft Office 2007 – Hints & Tips for details of these. The Office tips includestarting a program and opening files, customising the Quick Access Toolbar, issuing commandsfrom the keyboard, AutoText, quick methods to select text, and when to use the mouse buttonrather than the keyboard.Be aware that we have several other documents on using Excel, including An Essential Guide, AnIntermediate Guide, plus a host of Advanced Topics.Starting Excel and Customising the ScreenBegin by launching Excel, as usual:
  2. 2. 1. Open the Start menu, choose All Programs then Microsoft Office and Microsoft Office Excel 2007Note: Launching Excel via the Start menu isnt the most efficient way of doing things; its much easier to do sofrom an icon on the Desktop or Taskbar, as described in the Microsoft Office 2007 – Hints & Tips notes.Immediately above the [Start] button is the Status Bar. In Excel 2007, you are now shown a wider range ofstatistics when you select a range of cells. To customise the settings: 2. Right click on the Status Bar – the Customize Status Bar pop-up menu appears 3. Turn on/off the elements requiredThroughout Office 2007, the tabs on the Ribbon cannot be customised or hidden. If you want to have yourown buttons to run particular commands (or macros) then you have to place them on the Quick AccessToolbar. How you do this is covered in the Microsoft Office 2007 Hints & Tips notes.The Ribbon is context-sensitive such that if you insert a chart, for example, extra tabs are shown. On the PCs inthe public facilities, a Get Started tab is present. This is a useful facility for those used to using Excel 2003. Toadd it to your own PC: 4. Click on the [Microsoft Office Excel Help] button (or, more simply, just press <F1>) 5. Type get started into the Search box – press <Enter> 6. Select Download ‘get started’ training for Office 2007 7. Scroll down and select Excel 2007 Get Started tab and follow the instructionsAnother tab, the Developer tab, is hidden by default. This is a useful addition if you create macros. To displaythis tab: 8. Click on the [Office Button] then on [Excel Options] at the foot 9. On the Popular tab, turn on Show Developer tab in the Ribbon 10. Note the options available under the When creating new workbooks heading– press <Enter> for [OK]There are lots of other options you might like to set, some of which (eg AutoCorrect) are covered in theMicrosoft Office 2007 Hints & Tips notes. It’s worth looking through the options when you have time, in casethere is anything you would like to change (eg the default file format and save location).Another screen customisation you might like to set is the Zoom level. Individual spreadsheets can have theirown Zoom setting, which are retained when the workbook is saved. To change the zoom level: 11. Click on the [Zoom level] button (currently showing as 100%) in the bottom right of the screen 12. The Zoom dialog box appears, in which you can set the zoom level required - press <Enter> for [OK]To the left of the [Zoom level] button are the different View layouts. Some people like working in [PageLayout] view, which has been introduced in Excel 2007.Further Key CombinationsHaving to issue commands using the mouse and icons on the Ribbon (or via the right mouse button) can bevery inefficient. This is especially true in Office 2007, where you may need to switch tabs on the Ribbon beforeyou can access a command. Make good use of key combinations to issue commands instead. The commonercommands are covered in the document Microsoft Office 2007 Hints & Tips; here are some Excel-specific ones: <Ctrl ;> - Insert Todays Date <Ctrl :> - Insert Current Time <Ctrl a> - Display palette when entering function <Ctrl d> - Fill down <Ctrl r> - Fill right <Shift spacebar> - Select row <Ctrl spacebar> - Select column <Ctrl 9 or 0> - Hide rows or columns <Ctrl Shift 9 or 0> - Unhide rows or columns <Ctrl 1> - Display Format Cells dialog box <Ctrl Shift f or p> - Displays Format Cells Font tab <Ctrl [ or ]> - Direct precedents or dependents <Ctrl Shift [ or ]> - All precedents or dependents <Ctrl +> - Show Insert dialog box <Ctrl -> - Show Delete dialog box <Alt => - Apply SUM function <Ctrl `> - Show/hide formulas 2
  3. 3. 1. In cell A1 press <Ctrl ;> to insert todays date – press <Enter> or <down_arrow> 2. In cell A2 press <Ctrl Shift ;> to insert the current time – press <Enter> or <down_arrow> 3. Press <Ctrl spacebar> to select column A then <Ctrl d> to fill the whole column with today’s date 4. Press <Ctrl z> to [Undo] the last command then <Ctrl 0> to hide column A 5. Press <Ctrl Shift 0> to unhide the column then repeat step 2 to get the new current time 6. In cell A4 press <Alt => to sum up the two times (needless to say you wouldn’t normally sum times!) 7. Now press <Ctrl `> (the key in the top left corner) to show exactly what’s stored in the cellsYou may or may now know that dates and times are stored as numbers in Excel. The date is the number ofwhole days since 1st January 1900; the time is the fractional part of a day (ie 12 noon is stored as 0.5) 8. Repeat step 7 to return to normal then press <down_arrow> to move to A5 and release the selectionFurther Function Keys & Key CombinationsThe simple use of function keys to issue commands is also covered in the document Microsoft Office 2007Hints & Tips; here are a few more, Excel-specific ones: <F2> - Edit mode <Shift F2> - Edit comment <Shift F11> - Insert new worksheet <Shift F3> - Insert function <F4> - Repeat last command or Create absolute reference <F8> - Turn extend mode on/off <Alt F8> - Select non-adjacent cell or range using arrow keys <F11> - Create chart on new Chart sheet <Alt F1> - Create chart on current sheetThe most important key combinations here are <F2> and <F4>. These were covered in the Microsoft ExcelEssential and Intermediate notes, but if you don’t know about them: 1. Press <up_arrow> to move to cell A4 then <F2> to enter Edit Mode (formula =SUM(A2:A3)) 2. Press <left_arrow> to move the typing position before the closing bracket 3. Now press <F4> once to create an absolute reference ($A$3) then press <Ctrl Enter> to stay in A4 4. Press <Ctrl c> to [Copy] the SUM formula then <down_arrow> to move to A5 5. Finally, press <Enter> to paste the SUM formula into A5 – remember to use <Enter> for [Paste]Note the new formula on the Formula Bar (=SUM(A3:$A$3)). By pressing <F4> you created an AbsoluteReference ($A$3), which doesn’t change, whereas the original A2 has changed to A3. Note that if you aren’t inEdit Mode (editing or entering a formula) and use <F4>, then it repeats the previous command.Data Entry and Cell FormattingThere are a few tricks to follow when entering data or formulae into cells. Excel automatically applies a datatype and format as you type in information. You should be aware that:  Using a slash or hyphen (minus sign) between numbers gives a date format  Using a colon between numbers gives a time format  Preceding a number with a currency symbol (£, $ or €) gives a currency format  Including a comma in a number (eg 1,500) gives a comma format  Having a percentage sign (%) at the end of a number gives a percent format  For a fraction format, precede the fraction with 0 (or number) then a space and the fraction (eg 0 1/3)  Preceding a number with a single quote () forces it to be stored as textNote also that data stored as text appears left-justified in a cell (by default); data stored as a number appearsright-justified; a Boolean (TRUE or FALSE) appears centred. Dates and times are in fact stored as numbers (thenumber of days since the start of the last century - ie 12 noon on 3 Jan 1900 is stored as the number 3.5) butan appropriate display format converts this into the date/time. 3
  4. 4. 1. Move to a new sheet and, in cell A1, type 1 then press the <right arrow> key to move to cell B1Tip: Its easier to use the arrow keys rather than <Enter> or <Tab> when typing in data or formulae thoughsometimes, as you’ll see in a minute, you have to use <Enter> or <Tab>. 2. In cell B1 type 2 then press <down arrow> to move to cell B2 - this number is stored as text 3. Now press <left arrow> to move to cell A2Having to press more than one key to move to the next required cell can be annoying. To get over thisproblem, Excel lets you pre-select the area for data entry. Try the following: 4. Select the cell range A2 to B4 then, in the Name Box above column A, type data and press <Enter> 5. Type 3 then press <Enter> 6. Repeat step 5 typing 4 then 5 into cells A3 and A4The current cell should now be B2 - Excel automatically moves directly to the second column. 7. Repeat step 6 typing 6 then 7 and 8 into cells B2, B3 and B4You should now find the current cell is again A2 - Excel automatically scrolls around the selected cells untilthe selection is released. If you want to fill in a selected area across the rows rather than down the columns,use the <Tab> key to move between the selected cells - try this next: 8. Press <Tab> and the current cell moves to B2 (with the selection intact) - type 4 9. Press <Tab> again (to move to A3) then press <down arrow> (the selection is released) 10. Move down to A5 and select both it and B5 11. Now press <Alt => (or click on the [Sum] button) and note that the value in B5 excludes the number 2 in B1 (even though the formula reads =SUM(B1:B4)) as it’s stored as textNote that you can easily select the named range by clicking on the Name Box arrow and choosing data.Cell formatting can be applied using the following key combinations: < Ctrl ~> - Apply General Number format < Ctrl !> - Apply Number format with 2 dec places <Ctrl ^> - Apply Exponential Number format <Ctrl #> - Apply Date format <Ctrl @> - Apply Time format < Ctrl $> - Apply Currency format <Ctrl %> - Apply Percentage format 12. With A5 and B5 still selected, press <Ctrl $> (ie <Ctrl Shift 4>) to apply a currency format 13. Now press <Ctrl #> - the numbers turn to dates 14. Finally, press <Ctrl ~> (ie <Ctrl Shift #>) to reapply the general number formatSometimes, it’s useful to be able to clear a format when things go wrong!You can also enter data using a Data Form. Sadly, this facility has been hidden in Excel 2007 but it still works ifyou know how to activate it. A form relies on column headings being present and is particularly useful whereyou have data values supplying formulae in other columns: 1. Press <Ctrl a> to select all the filled cells then <Delete> the contents - press <Ctrl Home> 2. In cell A1 type x then press <right arrow> and in cell B1 type y - press <down arrow> 3. In cell B2 type = then press <left arrow>; type * then press <left arrow> again - press <Enter> (note: selecting cells using the arrow keys is a quick way to pick up cell references in a formula) 4. Next, press <Alt d> followed by <o> (you could also add a [Form] button to the Quick Access Toolbar) 5. Type 1 then press <Enter> for another new record 6. Repeat step 5 a further nine times - ie up to and including the value 10 7. Press <Esc> to [Close] the data entry formYou will have noted that the calculation in column y is carried out automatically. Data forms are also usefulwhere data has to be entered into a large number of columns (more than fit on a single screen). 4
  5. 5. Tip: If you need to enter data into certain specific cells on a spreadsheet based on a form template, then youshould unprotect the cells for data entry and then protect the worksheet. As you press <Tab> you jump fromone data entry cell to the next automatically. You unlock cells using the [Allow Users to Edit Ranges] buttonon the Review tab then [Protect Sheet] to stop data entry (except in the unlocked cells).Moving Around and Selecting CellsIts much quicker to use the keyboard rather than the mouse to move around your cells (and select them).Only through practice will you learn which method is the best for you (and in which circumstances). Thefollowing were covered in the Essential and Intermediate notes and are repeated here for convenience:  Use <Tab> and <Shift Tab> to jump across/back cells in a row  Use <Enter> and <Shift Enter> to move down/up a column  Use <Ctrl Enter> to preserve the position of the current cell  Use <Ctrl Home>/<Ctrl End> to move to the start/end of the data  Use <Ctrl left/right arrow> (or <End> then <l/r arrow>) to move to the start/end of a block  Use <Ctrl up/down arrow> (or <End> then <u/d arrow>) to move to the top/bottom of a block  Use <Home> to move to column A  Use <PageUp> and <PageDown> instead of the scroll bar to move up and down worksheets  Use <Alt PageDown> and <Alt PageUp> to move a screen width across/back the worksheet  Use <Ctrl PageDown> and <Ctrl PageUp> to move to the next/previous worksheetYou can pick up cells from the current or a different sheet using the keyboard when entering a formula: 1. Press <Ctrl PageDown> to move to cell A1 on Sheet3 2. Type = then press <Ctrl PageUp> to move back to Sheet2 3. Use the <arrow keys> to move to cell A2 then press <Enter> to complete the formula (=Sheet2!A2) 4. Finally, press <Ctrl PageUp> to move back to Sheet2Using the arrow keys to pick up cell references is really useful if the cell required is close to the current cell.The one snag is that you can’t then press an arrow key to end the formula (and move in the direction youwant) – instead you have to use <Enter> or <Tab> (or <Shift Enter> or < Shift Tab>)Using key combinations to select data is even more important – it’s easy to lose control of the selection withthe mouse. Again, the following were covered in the Intermediate notes. If you don’t already know them, trythem out here:  Make use of the <Shift> key to select cells; use <Shift> and arrow keys to extend/reduce a selection  Use <Ctrl Shift> and <left/right arrow> to extend a selection to the end/start of a line  Use <Ctrl Shift> and <up/down arrow> to extend a selection to the top/bottom of a column  Use <Ctrl Shift End or Home> to extend a selection to the end or start of the sheet  <Ctrl a> or <Ctrl *> selects the current region (delimited by an empty column and row)  Avoid clicking on row/column headings (to select whole rows/columns) or dragging through the headings (to select several rows/columns) unless this is specifically requiredMaking Good Use of the MouseSometimes it’s the mouse that offers the quick and easy way to do something, as is demonstrated in the nextset of exercises. 5
  6. 6. Moving/Copying Data and Filling a SeriesThe mouse is particularly useful when moving or copying cells and when dealing with data series.  Hold down the mouse on the cell/range border to drag it/them to another location  Holding down <Ctrl> when dragging copies the data (instead of just moving it)  Dragging with the right mouse button gives further options when moving/copying  Drag using the cell/range handle to copy a value, fill a series or copy formulae  Dragging with the right mouse button on a handle gives further options when copying/filling  Double click on a cell/range handle to fill down a column (with a formula, value or series)Try out the following: 1. Select cells A12 and B12 then press <Alt => to [Sum] the values above 2. Click on B12 then position the mouse cursor on the cell border (an arrow with a four-headed cross appears), hold down the mouse button and drag and drop the contents in cell K12 3. Press <Home> to move to cell A12 and repeat step 2 but this time hold down <Ctrl> as well (a + sign is added to the cursor arrow) and drop the contents in cell J12Note how the value remains in A12 but that J12 appears as 0 - thats because its SUM(J2:J11), as shown on theFormula Bar. Remember that holding down <Ctrl> copies the formula/value. If you move a formula/valueusing the right mouse button you get the option to move or copy (with a formula you can copy the value): 4. Repeat step 3 using just the right mouse button, dropping the contents in cell I12 5. From the pop-up menu which appears, select Copy Here as Values Only – I12 appears as 55 6. Press <Home> then <up arrow> to move to cell A11 7. This time, position the mouse cursor on the black corner handle of cell A11 (it becomes a plain black cross) then hold down the mouse button and drag down to cell A21When you release the mouse button, youll find that the number 10 is copied down the cells. This is thedefault action when a single value is copied. However, Excel gives you other fill options: 8. Click on the [Auto Fill Options] button (showing over cell B22) and choose Fill SeriesYou should now have numbers up to 20. You can also invoke the fill options by using the right mouse buttonwhen you drag out a value (or formula). Once you have a set of values in one column, its easy to completethe other columns on your spreadsheet 9. Press <right arrow> to move to cell B11 10. Position the mouse cursor over the cell handle and double click on the mouse buttonThe formula calculating the squares of the numbers is automatically copied down the whole column.You should be aware of the series that are built into Excel:  The days of the week - in full (eg Monday) or abbreviated (eg Mon)  The months of the year - in full (eg January) or abbreviated (eg Jan)Try the following: 11. Press <Ctrl up arrow> then <right arrow> to move to cell C1 12. Type Day then press <Enter> and type Monday 13. Double click on the cell handle to copy the series down the column 14. Move to cell D2 (press <right arrow>) then press <Ctrl ;> to enter today’s date 15. Double click on the cell handle then, from the [Auto Fill Options], choose Fill Months 16. Try out some of the other auto fill options to see what they offerNote: You can create your own series (Tools ... Options... then go to the Custom Lists tab). With these seriesyou only have to type one value to generate the others. You can also sort data based on a series. 6
  7. 7. Other Useful Mouse TipsHere are some other useful mouse tips:  Instead of typing in cell references in formulae, click on the cells (or drag through a range)  Hold down <Shift> and click to select a region (starting from the current cell)  Hold down <Ctrl> and click or drag to select non-adjacent cells or ranges  Right click on a cell to display a shortcut menu  Double click inside a cell to edit it directly (instead of on the Formula Bar or using <F2>)  Double click on a cell border to move left/right/up/down (same as <Ctrl arrow>)  Click the mouse wheel then use the mouse to scroll left/right and up/down (click to turn off)  Hold down <Ctrl> and rotate the mouse wheel to zoom in/outTry out the above if you dont already know them and think they might be useful.Screen LayoutThere are various things you can do to the screen layout, which can make it easier to use Excel:  Data can be justified vertically as well as horizontally in a cell  The [Wrap Text] button allows text to wrap around on several lines within a cell  Double click on a column (or row) heading border to fit the column to the data  Drag on the column (or row) heading border to show the actual width (height)  Avoid empty rows or columns (unless you are creating different data regions)  To separate row/column headings from data, simply increase row height or column width  Use [Freeze Panes], on the View tab, to permanently display row and/or column headings  Use [Split], on the View tab, to see different sections of a worksheet at the same time  [Zoom] to a higher / lower magnification if you want to see less / more cells.The following exercise demonstrates some of these tips: 1. Press <Ctrl Home> to move to cell A1 and make it [Bold] and [Centred] 2. Click on the [Middle Align] button (above [Center]) then on [Wrap Text] in the top right of the group 3. Click on the [Format Painter] button (in the Clipboard group) and then on the row indicator number (ie 1) - all the cells in row 1 are now bold and centred (horizontally and vertically) 4. Move to cell C1 then press <F2> (or double click on C1) and change Day to Days of the Week 5. Press <Ctrl Enter> to complete data entry - note how the text wraps onto three lines 6. Double click on the border in the column headings between columns C and D - the column widens slightly to fit Wednesday and the heading in C1 now fits onto two lines 7. Double click on the border in the row headings between rows 1 and 2 - the row shrinks slightly 8. Drag down the row border between rows 2 and 3 to separate the headings from the data 9. In cell C1, press <F2> then <up arrow> and move the insertion point to the space between of and the 10. Hold down <Alt> and press <Enter> to force the line break at this point ()Note: You can use <Alt Enter> to force a new line when entering data into a cell at any time - you do notneed to turn on the Wrap Text option (in fact Excel automatically turns it on as you press <Alt Enter>). 11. Press <Tab> to move to D1 and type an appropriate heading (eg Monthly Dates)When your spreadsheet no longer fits on a single screen, its very annoying working out what data is stored inwhich column. Excel allows you to freeze the column (and/or row) headings so that they are always displayed. 7
  8. 8. 12. On the View tab click on [Freeze Panes] and choose Freeze Top Row - a line appears under the row 13. Using <down arrow>, scroll down the rows (to row 30) and watch what happens 14. End by pressing <Ctrl Home> to move to the top of your data (now defined as cell A2)Using Colours and Adding CommentsOne of the easiest ways to improve the look of a spreadsheet is to make full use of colour - both for text andcell backgrounds. Sometimes colour is used just for cosmetic reasons but it can also be used to give a visualwarning if something goes wrong.  Colour code cells which contain certain types of data or which need further investigation  Use conditional formatting to apply certain formats automatically (eg the colour fill)  Add comments to cells to explain what is being calculated or what needs to be done  If you want to hide some text on a sheet, change the font colour to white  When using multiple sheets, name each sheet suitably (and also colour code it)  Be aware that you can hide rows/columns/sheets - eg to hide background calculationsTry out the following: 1. Select cells I12 to K12 by dragging though them then right click on the selection 2. Click on the list arrow attached to [Font Color] and choose White from the paletteThis is a very easy way to hide information (the data is still present in the cells). Another tip is to move yourcalculations onto a separate sheet (which could be hidden) and just display the results on the main sheet. 3. Next, select cells A1 to D1 by dragging though them then right click on the selection 4. Click on the list arrow attached to [Fill Color] and choose a colour from the palette 5. Press <Ctrl a> to select all the data then click on [Conditional Formatting] on the Home tab 6. Choose Highlight Cell Rules and choose Equal To… 7. Type Monday and change the with setting, if you like 8. Repeat steps 5 to 7 and set a different conditional format for SundayYou should find that some of your cells have been coloured. This isnt a particularly useful example, but itdoes demonstrate what conditional formatting is. This takes precedence over all other formatting: 9. Click then right click on cell C2 then, using the [Font Color] list arrow, choose White - it stays red 10. Right click inside the cell and, from the pop-up menu, choose Pick From Drop-down List... 11. Choose Friday - the cell now picks up the white font colour setting (press <Ctrl z> for [Undo])Tip: Once cells have been coloured, they can be sorted or filtered by colour. You can also use conditionalformatting to add colour scales, data bars or icon sets to your cells.Another feature for indicating problems or explaining things on a spreadsheet is a comment: 1. Right click on cell C2 and choose Insert CommentA box appears with a comment heading giving the User Name. This can be useful in an office, where severalpeople may be using the same spreadsheet file and may need to indicate to each other what changes theyhave made. You can set the User Name in the [Excel Options] 2. Use <Backspace> to delete the User Name (if you dont like it) then type your own comment 3. Press <Esc> twice (or click away from the cell) to return to normal workingComments can be permanently displayed or hidden (a red triangle in the top right corner indicates that a cellhas a comment) and can also be printed out if required. 4. Move the mouse over cell C2 and the comment temporarily reappears 5. Right click on cell C2 and choose Show/Hide Comments to show the comment (or hide it again) 8
  9. 9. Cell ReferencingWhen you enter a cell reference in a formula in Excel, it is not fixed by default. This means that the referencecan change if the formula is copied and pasted to another cell (or if it is dragged out across a range of cells).Sometimes, you need to fix a cell reference so that it doesnt change. This can be done by naming the cell (orrange of cells) or adding a $ before the column letter and/or row number to create an absolute reference.  A colon between two cell references indicates a range (ie all cells between the two references)  To reference a whole row/column, repeat the row number or column letter - eg A:A or 3:3  Several rows/columns can similarly be referenced - eg 1:50 or C:E  A comma can be used to separate cell references in a formula - eg SUM(A2,A5:A8,A10)  To reference cells on another sheet, separate the sheet name from the cells with an exclamation mark  To fix any part of the cell reference, use the $ notation - eg $A$5 or $A5 or A$5  Use <F4> when entering a formula to add the required $ notation to a cell reference  To create named ranges from column/row headings, press <Ctrl Shift F3>  In a macro, its usually best to use relative references, not absolute referencesIn this next exercise you are going to name the cells and then divide the numbers in column A by a fixed cell,B11. This isnt a particularly useful calculation but if you use B11 (ie 100), it will be easy to check the answers. 1. Press <Ctrl a> to select your data then <Ctrl Shift F3> 2. In the dialog box which appears, select Create names from values in the: Top row 3. Move to cell E2 then type =x/B11 then double click on the black cell handle to fill down the columnIf you examine the results carefully, youll see they are wrong (apart from the answer in D2). This is becausethe cell reference B11 was not fixed - it has become B12 in cell D3 and B13 in D4. At the end of the columnthere are error messages because you are dividing by empty cells. To fix the cell reference in the formula: 4. Press <F2> to enter edit mode then press <F4> onceThis should have changed the formula to =x/$B$11, which fixes both the B and the 11. 5. Finally, press <Ctrl Enter> which copies the new formula down the whole columnThe alternative to using the $ notation is to give the cell you want to fix a name. To do this: 1. Using the mouse, click on cell B11 2. Next click in the Name Box (where it currently reads B11 to the left of the Formula Bar) 3. Type a name for the cell, eg type xxx, then press <Enter> 4. In cell F2 type =x/xxx then double click on the cell handle to fill down the columnYou should find you have the same values as in column E.ChartsThere isnt time to cover Excel charts in detail in this course. Heres just a few tips, which should be of interest:  Its a good idea to create them on separate Chart sheets (unless you need to see the data too)  To move a chart to a different or new sheet use [Move Chart] from the Chart Tools Design tab  Use an X-Y graph if you want the data plotted along the horizontal axis (as well as vertical)  Charts can have two vertical y-axes - double click on a data series and go to the Axis tab  To create a chart quickly, select the data then press <F11> or <Alt F1>  You can Copy data and Paste it directly to a chart - Paste Special gives further options  You can create your own customised chart types (like a template) 9
  10. 10. Printing TipsExcel provides various additional printing features (compared to other Microsoft Office applications), whichyou should be aware of:  You can define the area to be printed using [Print Area] on the Page Layout tab  You can zoom the print area in or out using [Scale] on the Page Layout tab  The [Width] and [Height] buttons let you fit your data onto an exact number of pages  Via the [Margins] button you can centre the output horizontally and/or vertically  The [Print Titles] button lets you set column (or row) headings at the top (or left) of each page  If you use [Page Break Preview] (on the View tab) you can adjust where page breaks occur by dragging them with the mouse - this also resets the Print Area  Hide (right click) any rows/columns in the print area which you do not wish printed outOther TipsFinally, here are a few more useful tips:  Use [Arrange All] on the View tab to see two open worksheets side by side (these could either be from different files or the same one)  To add text to a formula, type it in double quotes and separate it from the calculation by &  Use [Merge and Center] on the Home tab to centre a title over several columns  Using the [Orientation] button, text in a cell can be rotated to any angle between +90° and -90°  If you have more than one data value in a cell, the [Text to Columns] button on the Data tab can be used to separate the values into several columns  Be aware of the numerous functions that are available. For example: o SUM - gives the total value of data held in several cells o IF - allows you to set more than one value depending on a condition o SUMIF/COUNTIF - sums the values or counts the cells if a condition holds true o COUNT/COUNTA - counts the cells containing numeric/any data o VLOOKUP/HLOOKUP - searches for a value in the leftmost column (or top row) of a range and returns the value in the specified column (or row)End the session by closing down Excel: 1. If you want to save the changes to this file, press <Ctrl s> for [Save] 2. Now press <Alt F4> (or <Ctrl F4> if you want to close this file and leave Excel running)If you have completely finished using the computer, a quick way to log off is to: 3. Press the <Windows> key (between <Ctrl> and <Alt>) 4. Type the letter <L> (for Log Off) 5. Press <Enter> again (for [Log Off]) to confirm this™ Trademark owned by Microsoft Corporation.© Screen shot(s) reprinted by permission from Microsoft Corporation.Copyright © 2009: The University of ReadingLast Revised: December 2010 10

×