FAMILY PLANNING“Minister of Health, John Junor, is urging Jamaicans to practicefamily planning to reduce poverty, child and maternal mortalityand the spread of HIV/AIDS.”Source: Jamaicans Urged to Practice Family Planning. March 14,2006http://www.jis.gov.jm/health/html/20060313t140000-0500_8297_jis_jam
What is Family Planning?• Family planning allows individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births.• It is achieved through use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of involuntary infertility.• A woman’s ability to space and limit her pregnancies has a direct impact on her health and well-being as well as on the outcome of each pregnancy.
ABSTINENCE• Abstinence is not having sex.• If two people dont have sex, then sperm cant fertilize an egg and theres no possibility of a pregnancy.• You dont have to be a virgin to practice abstinence. Sometimes people who have been having sex decide not to continue having sex.• Abstinence is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy
RHTHYM• Also known as "fertility awareness," is a method of birth control that uses the menstrual cycle to predict your most fertile time of the month• Fertility awareness birth control methods are based on the fact that: sperm may live in the female reproductive tract for up to 7 days the female egg lives for only a day fertilization may occur even days after intercourse "safe days" occur 2 days after ovulation and continue until your next period
CONDOMS• A condom blocks sperm from coming in contact with the inside of the vagina, where it could reach an egg. (If sperm reaches an egg, pregnancy can result.)• The male condom is a barrier contraceptive made of latex or polyurethane. The condom must be fitted over the erect penis.• A condom also prevents disease-causing substances from spreading from one person to another.
• Like the male condom, is made of latex or polyurethane. The condom has a ring on each end. The ring that is placed inside the vagina fits over the cervix, while the other ring, which is open, rests outside of the vagina and covers the vulva.
BIRTH CONTROL TABLETS• The pill suppresses ovulation so that an egg is not released from the ovaries, and changes the cervical mucus, causing it to become thicker and making it more difficult for sperm to swim into the womb.• The pill also does not allow the lining of the womb to develop enough to receive and nurture a fertilized egg.• This method of birth control offers no protection against sexually-transmitted diseases.
• The lower levels of estrogen in birth control pills supress FSH and LH "fooling" the pituitary gland into thinking a woman is pregnant. Ovulation will then not occur which prevents pregnancy.• The progesterone in birth control pills creates a thick cervical mucus making it difficult for sperm to reach the uterus. It also impedes an egg from attaching itself to the uterine lining (endometrium) because of changes in the cellular structure of the lining.
DIAPHRAGM• A diaphragm is a flexible rubber cup that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix prior to intercourse.• The device is left in place several hours after intercourse.• The diaphragm is a prescribed device fitted by a health care professional and is more expensive than other barrier methods such as condoms.
I.U.D• The intrauterine device shown uses copper as the active contraceptive, others use progesterone in a plastic device.• Some IUDs release small amounts of progestin. IUDs may be left in place for 5 - 10 years, depending on the device used.• IUDs are very effective at preventing pregnancy (less than 2% chance per year for the progesterone IUD, less than 1% chance per year for the copper IUD).• IUDs come with increased risk of ectopic pregnancy and perforation of the uterus and do not protect against sexually transmitted disease. IUDs are prescribed and placed by health care providers.
VASECTOMY• Vasectomy is a simple procedure that is very effective in preventing pregnancy.• Men usually have no side effects from vasectomy, and no change in sexual performance or function. Some men will feel sore for a few days, but pain can be relieved by analgesics and an ice pack.
TUBAL LIGATION• Tubal ligation is surgery to tie the tubes (fallopian tubes) of a woman which causes permanent sterility by preventing transport of the egg (ovum) to the uterus,Tubal ligation is not recommended as a temporary or reversible procedure.• Tubal ligation is done in the hospital while the patient is deep asleep and pain-free (using general anesthesia). A small incision is made in the abdomen and a small telescope (laparoscope) is inserted. The tubes (fallopian tubes) are tied off and cut apart. The skin incision is stitched closed. The patient is able to return home within a few hours after the procedure.• Tubal ligation can be performed immediately after childbirth.
Unreliable Methods• Coitus interruptus/withdrawal is the withdrawal of the penis from the vagina before ejaculation. Some semen frequently escapes before full withdrawal and before ejaculation, which is enough to cause a pregnancy.• Douching shortly after sex is ineffective because sperm can make their way past the cervix within 90 seconds after ejaculation.• Breastfeeding. Despite the myths, women who are breastfeeding can become pregnant.
EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVE• Emergency contraception is not a substitute for regular contraceptive methods and it is not the same as the abortion pill.
ABORTION• Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetus or embryo from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death