Roadmap for technology and product development of airship by ml sidana et al[1]

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Paper by NAL on Lighter than Air development in India

Paper by NAL on Lighter than Air development in India

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  • 1. High Altitude Airships - Aero India International Seminar 2011 Roadmap for Technology and Product Development of High Altitude Airship in India Dr A.R. Upadhya1, Mr. ML Sidana2 and Jitendra Singh3 Council of Scientific & Industrial Research National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore-560017 Ph: + 91 80 2527 0584 Fax: +91 - 080 - 2526 0862 ABSTRACTThe main objective of the paper is to explore the scope for Development and Application of HighAltitudes Airship (HAA) in India. Therefore, this paper aims to look critically at the benefits derivedfrom such a system, and the challenges involved in upgrading the Technology Readiness level andOperationalization of High Altitude Airship in India.Eventually, it should be able to answer few important questions in this respect such as: • Does India need an HAA? • Is it available to India? • Does India need to/and can develop an HAA system with or without international collaboration? • What is the current technology status to develop such a system? • What are the most critical technologies that need to be developed for this programme? • What is required for System-level program development in terms of: Technologies, Organization structure, Time & Cost?Fundamentally HAA is a culmination of Lighter-than-Air (LTA) technologies which essentially meansthat it uses aerostatic lift to remain airborne instead of aerodynamic lift. They are usually filled with aninert gas such as Helium which expands as it rises through the air. Hence the principle of buoyancy comesinto play. That is the key difference between Heavier-than-Air systems that uses aerodynamic liftgenerated by pressure difference created by the lifting surface.History records that the LTA technologies has originated about 200 years ago and was the first way to flypeople. Over time Airship attempts provided with an opportunity to pioneer new applications andushering new technologies. This technology is also referred to as near-space technology due to its vicinityand potential applications. This system is targeted to operate in stratosphere to provide platforms forpersistent surveillance, weather measurement, both civil and military communication. Besides, it can beused for Military and Homeland security applications. For each role, multiple candidate missions can beaccomplished. Depending upon the payloads, an HAA can be used as a multi-mission platform i.e. it canbe used for remote sensing, surveillance communication and missile defence as the same time.1 The Director, National Aerospace Laboratories, director@nal.res.in2 Former Director, ADRDE, Agra, CSIR Technical Consultant, manosidana@nal.res.in3 Scientist Fellow & Program Manager, National Civil Aircraft Development, jitendra@nal.res.inCSIR National Aerospace Laboratories 1
  • 2. High Altitude Airships - Aero India International Seminar 2011 APPLICATIONSThe airship can have several applications and based on that multiple candidate missions can be plannedunder each category of Civil, Military, and Homeland Security. Some of the most promising missionscould be envisaged as given below under Military / Paramilitary and Civil roles are briefly shown inblock diagram below. Military / Paramilitary Roles Military Roles Para -Military Roles Communications and Border Ballistic/Cruise Surveillance Tactical Networks and Missile Defense Electronic Intelligence Fishery Protection Surveillance and 3 C I MissionsTracking of Land / Counter Naval Forces Insurrection Long Range Sovereignty Anti Submarine Airlift Enforcement Warfare AEW Roles Civil Roles Weather Measurement Communication and Forecasting (Mobile and Broadband) Transportation Resource Mapping Customs and Search and Rescue Immigration Disaster Management and Scientific and Tsunami Monitoring Experimental Research Police customs and ImmigrationCSIR National Aerospace Laboratories 2
  • 3. High Altitude Airships - Aero India International Seminar 2011 AIRSHIP vs. SATELLITESNow the question arises what key differences it has vis a vis satellite. In other words what advantages canbe expected over the satellites. HAA will essentially work like a low altitude geostationary satelliteoffering following merits: persistent 24/7 capability low cost, rapid reconstitution of capabilities low inherent detectability, observability Satellites are quite expensive (over 10 times) due to cost involved with Rocket Launch, Special Equipments (expensive Radios / High-Tech Cameras for same resolution image) multi-mission, exchangeable/repairable/upgradeable payloads Limited environmental impactsWith the foregoing discussions, several organizations in our country have expressed interest in promotingthis technology eventually leading to a fully fledged platform. Key stakeholders are Integrated DefenceServices, NTRO, National Remote Sensing, NTRO, IMD, Geological Survey of India, HomelandSecurity, Communication, Survey of India etc.Having a stratospheric grid between Air grid (below stratosphere) and Space grid (comprising satellites)can enhance the effectiveness of Multilayer network relay in Military communication scenario.In our country, there have been DST initiatives and other organizations too are actively involved in theR&D activities of LTA systems. Some of the prominent ones are ADRDE, NAL, ISRO, PADD - IITBombay, and TIFR - National Balloon Facility.Following is a pictorial representation of how HAA could find its application in variety of areas whichwith a particular mention of Sovereignty enforcement, fleet protection, Surveillance of Border and Highvalue assets.A constellation of 20 Airships positioned at about 21 kms altitude can cover the entire country and offergreat advantage both in terms of cost & benefits. HAA GLOBAL STATUSThere are several nations involved in development of High Altitude/Stratospheric Airships. A briefsummary is given below to provide a global status on overall scenario. In recent years, several R&Dprojects of solar powered stratospheric platform have been aggressively promoted in different countries ofthe world, for example: • European Space Agency, Europe • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japan • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NI-AIST), Japan • Korean Aerospace Research Institute, Korea (KARI) • Advanced Technology Group, United Kingdom • Sky Station International, United States of America • Lockheed Martin, USA • CAPNINA, University of York, UK • NASA’s High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE)CSIR National Aerospace Laboratories 3
  • 4. High Altitude Airships - Aero India International Seminar 2011Apart from these agencies, there are other countries which have attempted or have been active in thedevelopment of HAA or its part thereof. Such as, China, Germany, Canada, Israel, Russia & Switzerland.The range of activities included from Technology familiarization to the development of scaled prototypeplatforms. Several of these programs have also been halted due to lack of funding and/or inadequatelymatured technologies. This has even led to some of the companies having been closed. The only activedevelopment is reported to be happening in the USA (DARPA) and some other lesser known DODSponsored as well as some Private Company Funded Projects. DARPA (Defence Advanced ResearchProjects Agency) funded project on Integrated Sensors Is Structure (ISIS) is being jointly developedbetween Lockheed Martin, Akron and Raytheon, taking responsibility for Platform and Payloadsrespectively. Boeing Company also seems to have initiated a company funded project on this technology.The Technology Demonstrator under the DARPA Programme is planned to be flown in 2014 and anOperational System is likely to be planned for flying in 2018, if the Technology Demonstrator issuccessful. Fig 1 below is a succinct explanation of all-pervasive potential usage of an HAA, and itscomparison with other platforms in terms of their ceiling and Range. The Government to Government Collaborations needs to be explored with the Governments of Japan, Korea, USA, Germany, UK, Switzerland and Russia to reduce uncertainties and the development life cycle time & cost.Fig 1. DARPA HAA concept (Source: DARPA - used by permission) HAA/Lighter then Air (LTA) STATUS IN INDIAIn India, we have not yet developed any stratospheric airship so far; however there are other platformswhich have demonstrated LTA technology such as tethered aerostats by ADRDE, blimps by NAL,Scientific Balloons at NBF TIFR and similar developments at ISRO & IIT Bombay. The experience withLighter-than Air System have so far been limited to the operation of two imported Aerostat Systems anddevelopment of 250 cubic meters and 2000 cubic meters Aerostats at ADRDE Agra, which are yet to beoperationalized. Also, development of a prototype Blimp of 300 cubic meters is under progress jointlybetween NAL Bangalore and ADRDE Agra. Small prototypes of unmanned airships have also been flownby IIT Mumbai and ISRO as experimental vehicles. The NBF at Hyderabad has been playing a pioneeringrole in Scientific Ballooning for over 50 yrs. The Center has flown more than 400 missions and isrecognized as an International Centre for fabrication and launching of balloons and for carrying outScientific Experiments up to altitudes of 50 km.CSIR National Aerospace Laboratories 4
  • 5. High Altitude Airships - Aero India International Seminar 2011 POTENTIAL STAKEHOLDERSDepartment of Science & Technology (DST) have been taking initiatives for exploring the scope fordevelopment and application of this technology. Other potential stakeholders (as Users or developmentpartners) who have been encouraging the development of HAA are listed below: A. Users 1. Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) 2. Defence Services and Para-military Forces 3. National Technical Research Organization (NTRO) 4. Indian Meteorological Department (MOES) 5. Geological Survey Of India (GSI) 6. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) 7. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) 8. Airport Authority Of India (AAI) 9. Advanced Research Centre (ARC) 10. Communication Industry 11. Scientific Research Community 12. Oil Extraction and Process Industry B. Development partners 1. Department Of Science And Technology (DST) 2. Ministry Of Defence (DRDO) 3. Council Of Scientific And Industrial Research (CSIR) 4. Department Of Space (ISRO) 5. Department Of Atomic Energy (TIFR), NBF 6. Indian Meteorological Department (MOES) 7. Academic Institutions like IITs / IISc / Universities 8. International partners 9. Public-Private Partnership The workshop held at NAL in February 2010 established the need of having an HAA for various applications for both Civil and Military / Paramilitary applications. On the other hand it was recognized that Technology Readiness Level (TRLs) needs to be upgraded significantly to make this platform available for use. Fig 2 is just a rough illustration that about of 20 airship positioned at 21 kms altitude can address the surveillance needs of entire nation. Fig2.An illustration of 20 Airships providing coverage on entire Indian subcontinentCSIR National Aerospace Laboratories 5
  • 6. High Altitude Airships - Aero India International Seminar 2011In terms of sizing, for an operating altitude of 20km, some estimates based on the payload are givenbelow: Organization Length Max Dia Payload Volume Lockheed Martin HAA 150 m 46m 1800 kg 162000 m3 Lockheed Martin 73 m 21 m 20 kg 14150 m3 HALE StratSat HAA 200 m 48 m 1000 kg 269000 m3 Berkut ET (0-30 la) 150 m 50 m 1200 kg 192000 m3 Berkut ML (30-45 lat) 200 m 50 m 1200 kg 256000 m3 Berkut HL (45-60 lat) 250 m 50 m 1200 kg 320000 m3 JAXA, Japan 245 m 61 m 1000 kg 480000 m3 KARI, Korea 50 m 12.5 m 100 kg 4091 m3 Target HAA (India) 250 60 2000 kg 470000 m3 Table 1: Airship size vs. Payload data on some major global programsTarget HAA for Technology Development is expected to carry the payload of about 50 kg. HAA TECHNOLOGY & DEVELOPMENT ROADMAPFor the development, there are a few critical technologies that need to be matured to realize an IndianHAA. The key technologies are: • Envelope materials and fabrication processes • Solar based Power System • Regenerative Fuel Cells • Aerodynamic configuration and optimization studies for technology demonstrator and full scale development • Control law, Control system algorithm, and System Architecture for geo- stationary positioning of HAA. • Launch and Recovery experimentation to demonstrate the technologies for an HAA configuration • PayloadsIn terms of specific design targets, there is a strong need of developing technologies for EnvelopeMaterial, Power Management (Solar Cells and RFC), and Aerodynamic Configuration along withestablishing the Ground infrastructure for Launch and Recovery. Table 2 below provides a roughoverview of the design targets and the corresponding gaps that needs to be bridged to bring to a sufficientTechnology Readiness Level for Operationalization of airship.CSIR National Aerospace Laboratories 6
  • 7. High Altitude Airships - Aero India International Seminar 2011 Envelope Material Key Parameters Target Specifications Current Jump (for Full Scale status Required Operationalization) (in India) Fabric Mass <100 gm / > 3 times m2 Fabric Strength >1000 N/cm 500 N/cm > 2 times Hydrogen Permeability 0.003L/m2/24 hr 2L/m2/24 hr > 660 times Strength retention after >85%@ 5yrs ~50 % @ 1 TBD exposure to UV light yr and atomic oxygen (max 1.4 kW/m2 and AO flux 10**17 atoms/(cm2.s)) Solar Cells Cell efficiency at end-of- 15% 12-14 % ~20 % life (%) Power density of 2 kW/kg 0.5 kW/kg > 4 times complete array (kW/kg) Power / surface area 2 kW/m2 ~ 0.5 kW/m2 > 4 times (W/m2) Table 2: Specific Design targets and technology jump required for a full scale HAAThe foregoing discussions provide a good indication of what kind of technology roadmap would benecessary to achieve HAA mission. Specific details on each of these technologies are still being workedout and expected to be completed toward later part of this year.Envelope Material & Fabrication process: Material development suitable for high altitude airshipapplication, presents many a challenges to the material designer. The strength-to-weight ratio significantlyaffects HAA system size and altitude. The challenge is to develop a very lightweight as well as strongmaterial that is capable of containing lifting gas and is resistant to the environment. The stratosphereextends from approximately 17 km to 50 km above the Earth’s surface. The stratosphere is also called the“ozone layer” because 90% of the earths ozone is concentrated in this region. At this altitude, the nominaltemperature is -70ºF which can cause the material to become brittle with a resultant loss of flexibility. Thehigh ozone concentration and intense UV radiation can also deteriorate LTA material, resulting in a lossof strength and permeability. The high strength-to-weight ratio, low creep, low moisture regain, andimproved hydrolysis resistance makes polyester fiber a good choice for lighter than air (LTA)applications.CSIR National Aerospace Laboratories 7
  • 8. High Altitude Airships - Aero India International Seminar 2011Power Management: Development of a-Si based thin film solar cells on ultra thin metal and plasticsubstrates. Further R&D efforts on Efficiency improvement and to develop the CIGS and CdTe basedthin film solar cells on ultra thin metal and plastic substrates. Significant R&D efforts on RegenerativeFuel Cells (RFCs) to be undertaken.Aerodynamic Configuration and Sizing: Development of the CFD tools needed for the analysis ofexternal flow past the HAA at stratospheric conditions (High fidelity viscous flow solvers). Developmentof simulation and modeling capability for the thermal management of the internal flow. Leverage existingcapabilities of IIT Bombay to further improve their capability of aerodynamic shape optimization andsizing including controllability of the HAA. Wind Tunnel Testing of stratospheric flow past the HAA forCFD code validation. Exploring research collaboration with Labs like LEC in ETH Zurich, which hasdeveloped rich expertise on Aerodynamics and Thermal Management specific to Airship technologies.Ground Handling and Launch Preparation: A hangar large enough to hold the complete, inflatedenvelope during vehicle assembly, and large enough to attach all the essential hardware. From theperspective of launch and recovery procedures, all operations can be housed at a single facility and thenecessary infrastructure should be built. Siting-survey should begin immediately, and setting up shouldbegin at the completion of Project Definition Phase. Few experiments on Launch and Recovery can beplanned at National Balloon Facility of TIFR.Other Technologies (CLAW, Payloads, Propulsion etc): The development of other supportingtechnologies would heavily depend upon the sizing and shape optimization, fabric material, powermanagement system and availability of Ground Handling / Launch capabilities. That will be the pointwhen we should able to define target specifications for other systems such as propulsion, controls,navigation etc. However, conceptual studies on these technologies can/shall continue on parallel path.Based on the technology gaps and current level of technologies available in India and worldwide, theauthors recommends following roadmap to achieve a full scale operational HAA. Of course, collaborationwith international agencies, which have already been involved in the development efforts of HA, wouldbe key to success.The overall development is recommended to come about in 2 major phases: a. Phase 1 = Technology Demonstrator (7 years). Brief breakdown of the major deliverables in Phase 1 are given below: i. Critical Technologies Development. Concurrently Project Definition phase needs to initiated. ii. Infrastructure development iii. Technology Demonstrator At the end of 6 years (i.e. a year before we embark on Phase 2), a detailed critical review shall be done to evaluate the progress and the corresponding gaps to achieve planned objectives. b. Phase 2 = Productionization and Operationalization of Full Scale AirshipCSIR National Aerospace Laboratories 8
  • 9. High Altitude Airships - Aero India International Seminar 2011 At the end of 7 years, a detailed critical review should be carried out regarding overall cost, schedule and deployment benefits for Productionization and Operationalization of Full Scale HAA. Fig 3: Proposed HAA Development Roadmap CONCLUSIONSHigh Altitude Airship (HAA) HAA is of highly Strategic and Societal relevance to India. It can findvariety of applications such as Communication (broadband), Surveillance, Disaster Management,Resource Mapping, Weather forecasting, Research in Atmospheric Sciences, & Astrophysics. Therefore,it is strongly recommended to be pursued. The critical technologies required to be developed in India areenvelope materials and fabrication, solar based power system, fuel cells, aerodynamic configuration andoptimization, control system, launch and recovery including HAA configuration and payloads. ResearchProposals from National and International agencies can be immediately initiated in these areas • Material Development • Solar Power Management & RFCs • Aerodynamic Configuration & Optimization • Flight Controls • Launch and Recovery Experimentation • Reference WeatherInternational collaboration is equally important for the success of the Programme. Cross-Fertilization ofTechnologies could result to benefits in other areas such as UAVs, Aviation and Societal Mission. TheProgramme should be pursued in phased manner. Phase-I of the project should be taken up in missionmode to focus on the technology development & demonstration and attending the civil societyapplications like weather forecasting, resource mapping on large scale and disaster management etc. Asan immediate step, the authors are in the process of identifying, research agencies/partners for developingvarious components of the technology, their financial requirement, galvanizing specific deliverables andthe corresponding schedulesCSIR National Aerospace Laboratories 9
  • 10. High Altitude Airships - Aero India International Seminar 2011 KEY REFERENCES 1. Dr. Rajkumar S. Pant, Mr. Kaviresh M. Bhandari, “Sizing and Optimization of High Altitude Platforms”, IIT-Bombay, August 2009.Submitted to NAL Bangalore 2. Dr. Mangala Joshi, Mr. Raj Kamal Prasad, “Sizing and Optimization of High Altitude Airship – Materials and Processes” , IIT-Delhi, April 2010”. Submitted to NAL Bangalore 3. Prof. R. K. Manchanda, Mr.S. S. Srinivasan,Mr. J. V. Subbarao and Mr. B Suneel Kumar Ground handling, Launch and recovery operations of High Altitude Airships. Submitted to NAL Bangalore 4. Prof P Guhathakurtha “Conditions of Indian atmosphere around 20km above mean sea level”, India Meteorological Department, Pune. Submitted to NAL Bangalore 5. Dr. J.S. Mathur, “Aerodynamics of High Altitude Airships” NAL Bangalore 6. Lewis Jamison, Geoffrey S. Sommer, Issac R. Porche “High-Altitude Airships for the future force army” (RAND Report) 7. Naval Research Advisory Committee Report. NRAC 06-01“Lighter-Than-Air Systems for Future Naval Missions” 8. Anthony Colozza and James L. Dolce “High-Altitude, Long-Endurance Airships for Coastal Surveillance”; NASA/TM—2005-213427 9. Anthony Colozza “Initial Feasibility Assessment of a High Altitude Long Endurance Airship” NASA/CR—2003-212724 10. C. Barbiera, B. Delauréb, A. Laviec “Strategic research agenda for high-altitude aircraft and airship remote sensing applications” 11. Persistent High Altitude Aerial Platforms & Payloads Private Industry & Defense Applications Forecast 2009, Homeland Security Research Corporation (HSRC). 12. Dr. A.R Upadhya, ML Sidana, Jitendra Singh “Lighter than Air Systems: High Altitude Airship and its Potential applications” National Convention of Aerospace Engineers, Institutions of Engineer(India), Jaipur, November 2010 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • Department of Science & Technology (DST) for having funded the project “Detailed Project Report: High Altitude Airship”. • Participating Institutions for their valuable inputs: Integrated Defence Services (IDS), NTRO, NAL, DRDO, ADRDE, NRSC, IMD, ISRO, TIFR, IIT Delhi, IIT Bombay, IISc, NMRL, Survey of India, and Geological Survey of India. • Organizations from abroad: Sky spectrum, Geo Eye, ITT, Lockheed Martin • Apart from NAL Scientists, special mention of following Scientists for their interactions in respective areas of expertise. • Prof. Rajkumar Pant, IIT Bombay • Prof. R.K.Manchanda, TIFR - National Balloon Facility • Dr. Mangala Joshi, IIT Delhi • Dr. P.S. Nair, ISRO • Dr. P.S. Goel, RACCSIR National Aerospace Laboratories 10