Wine is an alcoholic beverage often made of fermented grapes juice.
without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients. .
Wine is produced by using various types of yeast which convert them into alcohol.
T he history of wine
Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest production of wine, made by fermenting grapes, took place in sites in Georgia and Iran, from as early as 6000 BC.
These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis Vinitera
Wine press 16 th Century
Varities of grapes used
Wine is usually made from one or more varities of the European species vitis vinifero, such as Pinot Noir, chardonnay, Caberniet Sauvigenon and Meriot.
When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%), the result is a Vorietal, as opposed to a blended , wine.
Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines; some of the world's most expensive wines, from regions likeBordeaux and the Rhone Valley, are blended from different grape varieties of the same Vintage.
H ow is T asting D one
Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine
Wines are made up of chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices.
The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine.
White wine, Red wine, Rose wine
The tasting of wine
The most typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those that are imparted by aging in oak casks; chocolate, vanilla, or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself.
Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air.
Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature.
For red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais, many people prefer them chilled.
Uses of wine
Wine is a popular and important beverage in European and Mediterranean style cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex.
Red, white and sparkling wines are the most popular
How is packaging done
Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using Corks.
An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as Screw caps or synthetic plastics "corks".
Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes, and are called box wines, or cask wine. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box.
Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines.
How is wine stored
Wine cellars, or wine rooms if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine.
In an active wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system.
Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and so must be carefully located.
All types of wine, including red, white, sparkling, and fortified, can spoil. When properly stored, wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they age.
Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C).
Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles.
Mulled wine , variations of which are popular around the world, is wine , usually red, combined with spices and typically served warm.
In the old times, wine often went bad. By adding spices and honey, it could be made drinkable again.
Nowadays, it is a traditional drink during winter, especially around Christmas.