Principal Parts<br />The vocabulary list will present you with three principal parts for each verb.<br />amo, amare, amavi<br />1st person, singular,<br />Present tense<br />1st person, singular, perfect tense<br />Infinitive<br />(second principal part)<br />
Translation of the Infinitive<br />In regular Latin verbs, the infinitive will end in an –re. Whenever you see an infinitive, translate it with the English word “to.”<br />Examples: amare= to love<br />monere= to carry<br />
The Infinitive<br />The infinitive of a verb helps you in two very important ways.<br />It tells you what conjugation a verb is in.<br />It gives you the present stem of a verb.<br />
Conjugation<br />In order to tell what conjugation a verb is in, look at the vowel before the –re in the infinitive.<br /> a= first conjugation<br /> long e, (ē)= second conjugation<br /> short e (e)= third conjugation<br />i= fourth conjugation<br />
The Present Stem<br />The second piece of information that the infinitive gives you is the present stem.<br />In order to find the present stem of a verb, go to the infinitive and take off the <br /> –re.<br />
Forming the present tense<br />In order to form the present tense, add personal endings to the present stem<br />The personal ending –t, is the ending for third person, singular. It is translated as he, she, or it.<br />Examples:<br />amat= he, she, or it loves<br />monet= he, she, or it warns<br />
Forming the Present Tense (con’t)<br />The personal ending –nt, is the ending for third person, plural. It is translated as they.<br />Examples:<br />amant= they love<br />monent= they warn<br />
The verb “to be.”<br />Even the irregular verb “to be” follows this same pattern for third person endings.<br />Est= he, she, it, is<br />Sunt= they are<br />
Subject/Verb Agreement<br />Always remember that the subject and the verb in a sentence MUST agree in number.<br />In other words, if your subject is singular, the verb MUST also have a singular ending. If the subject is plural, the verb MUST also be plural.<br />
Subject/Verb Agreement (con’t)<br />Patercanemamat. Father loves the dog.<br />“Father” (Pater) is a singular subject, so “loves” (amat) also has a singular ending.<br />Pater et mater canemamant. The father and mother love the dog.<br />Because “father and mother” are a plural subject, amant also has a plural ending.<br />
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