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Situational Limitation comprises Using the Web on a mobile phone when your eyes are busy (such as driving) in bright sunlight in a dark room when your hands are busy in a noisy environment (where you cant hear well) in an emergency (when you may not be thinking clearly)
How disabled people use interfaces? Using assistive technologies, which are software and hardware that people with disabilities use to improve interaction with products
Examples Screen readers that read aloud whats on the computer screen for people who cannot see or read text Voice-input software and switches for people who cannot use a keyboard or mouse
Examples Alternative Keyboards, are programmable keyboard with a variety of overlays designed for individuals with limited fine motor control. Mouse Alternatives like trackball are pointer alternatives that replace the mouse on a Macintosh or PC. Some individuals with fine-motor-control limitations and/or range-of-motion limitations find a track ball or track pad easier to use than a standard mouse.
What is User Centered Design? Also called UCD is an approach to interactive system development that focuses specifically on making systems usable. It is a multidisciplinary activity
The Analysis Phase Vision, goals, objectives User analysis Task analysis Information architecture analysis Workflow analysis
The Design Phase Conceptual/mental model, metaphors, design concepts Navigation design Storyboards, wireframes Detailed design Paper or other low-fidelity prototypes Medium-fidelity prototypes, for example, online mockups Functional, high-fidelity prototypes
The Evaluation Phase Design walkthroughs, cognitive walkthroughs Heuristic evaluations Guidelines reviews Usability testing: low fidelity through high fidelity; informal through formal
Incorporating Accessibility in UCD UCD is a process for designing usable products Accessibility can be approached as a subset of usability
How does accessibility fits into UCD? Business and usability goals include meeting accessibility requirements Understanding user characteristics includes users with various disabilities Environmental aspects for a mobile device include hands-free operation Workflow scenarios include use of an assistive technology Usability testing includes participants with disabilities
Benefits Increased Usability Increased Market Share and Audience Reach Improved Efficiency High ROI (Return on Investment) Demonstrate Social Responsibility
Accessibility + Analysis Phase = How? Including Accessibility Considerations for User Group Profiles Including Accessibility Considerations in Personas Including Accessibility Considerations in Scenarios
What are User Group Profiles ? User group profiles describe the characteristics of product users, that is, the people who use a product. Demographics Job responsibilities and tasks Frequency of use (for example, daily, a couple times per week, once per month, once per year) Hardware (for example, laptop or desktop, processor speed, monitor resolution) Environment (for example, shared office, private office, shared public terminal, home) Software (for example, operating system, browser version) Computer experience Task knowledge (i.e., how well do they understand the task that they are doing, as opposed to understanding the application itself)
Including Accessibility Considerationsfor User Group Profiles Demographics: statistics on age-related disabilities Frequency of use: information about loss of short-term memory, which would impact the memory load required by the design Hardware: information about fine motor control issues that can make using a mouse difficult, and make pressing small buttons difficult Software: information on visual impairments and that some may have large fonts set in their operating system or software (for example web browser), and may use screen magnification software or screen readers.
What are Personas? Personas are hypothetical archetypes of actual users. A persona includes specific characteristics, demographics, and experience levels from a user profile, for example, a specific hardware and software configuration. Additional information in personas are personal details such as behaviors, attitudes, motivations, and goals.
Including Accessibility Considerationsin Personas Personas that include accessibility considerations includes a description of the limiting condition (disability or situational limitation) and the adaptive strategies for using the product, such as: Nature of limitation (for example, blind, unable to use mouse, operating in noisy environment) Special tools or assistive technology used (for example, uses a magnifying glass to read text smaller than 16 point, uses screen reader software, stops machinery to hear mobile phone) Experience and skills with the relevant tools or assistive technologies Frequency of use of relevant tools or assistive technologies
What are Scenarios? Scenarios are individual, fictional accounts of workflow data A scenario is a description of a persona using a product to achieve a goal Scenarios are usually narratives that tell a story describing one or more tasks in a specific environmental situation
Including Accessibility Considerationsin Scenarios Scenarios that include accessibility provide details on how a persona in limiting conditions interacts with the product using an assistive technology
Accessibility + Design Phase = How? When developing the conceptual/mental model, metaphors, design concepts, and navigation design, ensure that the range of functional limitations is considered Integrate accessibility in your high fidelity prototypes as per standards and guidelines such as WCAG, American Disability Acts, etc
Accessibility + Evaluation Phase =How? Consider accessibility for heuristic evaluation Incorporate accessibility into design walkthroughs Conduct usability testing with participants with disabilities
What is Heuristic Evaluation? In a heuristic evaluation, specialists judge whether each design element conforms to established usability principles
Consider accessibility for heuristicevaluation To conduct a heuristic evaluation for accessibility, accessibility specialists judge whether design elements conform to accessibility principles Guidance on heuristic evaluation for accessibility is mentioned in below standards Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act, Subpart C: Requirements for Accessibility and Usability Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act Subpart C -- Functional Performance Criteria
Design Walkthroughs? The purpose of a design walkthrough is to find potential usability problems by envisioning the users route through an early concept or prototype
Incorporate accessibility into designwalkthroughs Focus on specific accessibility issues during regular walkthroughs Conduct walkthroughs specifically for accessibility
Usability Testing? Usability testing provides quantitative and qualitative data from real users performing real tasks with a product
Conduct usability testing withparticipants with disabilities Usability professionals can evaluate some aspects of accessibility by using standard usability testing protocols, with a few modifications for including participants with disabilities